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^' An Ghaedhilig ins an naomhadh aois deug. (The Irish Language in the Nineteenth Century). By 

Tohn Fleming ... ... ... ... ... ... i 

y Failte a Albainn. (A Welcome from Scotland.) {Scolíisù Cailic.) By Ian ban og ... ... 12 

y Staid na Gaedliilge agus teangthadh eile ins na Staidibh Aontuighthe (agus i g-Canada.) (The State of 

the Irish and other Tongues in the United States and in Canada.) By T. O'Neill Russell 21, 105, 170 

Beatha Shcaghain MhicHeil, Airdeaspoig Thuama. (Life of John MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam.) 

By Very Rev. U. J. Canon Bourke, P.P., M.R.I.A. ... 24, 43, 120, 137, 209, 2S9, 305 

Na Cn-anmanna in Gaedhilig. (The word ai as used in Iri-h Xames.) By Thomas Flannery, 41, 78, 116, 143, 174 
Comhraidlv.e deighbheusacha : (Moral Discourses.) Translated from the English of Rev. P. O'Keeflfe, C.C. 

By Tuhn Fleming ... ... .. 49, 88, yS, 147, 243. 273 

> Irislenbhar na Gaedhilge : Rabhadh leis an bh-Feav-ea gair ... ... ... 169 

Sgeul an fhir do chuaidh amach le foghluim criothnuighthe le faitchios : air n-a chur in Gaedhilig ó 

Icabliar Giirimm ("San Gearmanach), le Clann Concobhair ... ... 206, 241, 2S2 

.Seaiichus air anmannaibh Gaedhilge áiteadh. agus air a m-l unadhas : leis an Oll.amh Seoiihach. [The 
Origin and History of Irish Names and Places, by P. W. Joyce, LL.D.] Jic-Z'ieiu of Fifth Edition. 
By John Fleming ... ... ... ... ... 249 

\' -^ Ca h-iit .1 labhairlhear an Ghaedhilig is feárr? (Where is the best Gaelic spoken?) By Thomas 

O'Neill Riissell ... ... ... ... ... ... 255 

Donnchadh Ruailh M.acnamara : a bheatha agus a imtheachta ; mar aon le trácht air a dhántaibh. (Life, 

&c., of Donnchadh Ruadh Macnamara.) By Jnhn Fleming ... ... ... 314 

Tegasc Flatha. (Tfxi) ... ... ... ... ... 352 

LONGES JIac .n-U.sxig : or the Exile of the Sons of Uisncach. (Three Texts) :— 

I. O'Curry's Te.\t, from the Yellow Book of ... ... ... 378-391 

II. 0'Flanagan"s Text, agreeing with Egerton MS., 17S2, British Museum ... ... 3/8-391 

III. Windischs Text, from the Book of Leinster ... ... ... ... 378-391 

X Tegasc Righ : uo Tecasc Fl.ìtha : or " Cormac's Instructions.'' The Original Irish as given by 

O'Donov.m ... ... ... ... ... ... 392 

X OlDllE CilLOlNNE UlSNEACH : or, the F.ite of the ChUdrcn of Uisncach. (O'Flanagan's Text of the 

later and longer version of the latter portion of the Story of Deirdri) ... ... 395 


y Amharca Dealbhchluthacha (no Cleasacha.) (Dramatic Scenes.) With Translations. By Rev. John 

James O Carroll, S.J. ... ... ... ... ... ... 5,33,65,151,233 

y Aond-ichtnaGaedhlge. (The Gaelic Union.) By An Chraoibhin Aoibhinn ... ... 6 

y Go mairidh na Gaedhil. (Long live the Gaels.) By I.ealh Chuinn ... ... .. 11 

.V Elegy on Archbishop MacHale. By An Chraoibhin Aoibhinn ... ... ... 23 

y Failte go Corcaigh d' Irisleabhar na Gaedlulge. (A Welcome to ZmVíoí Úi^ Gaelic J oumal.) By 

Cûrcaigheach ... ... .. ... 52 

y Caoine air ^heagha.i Mac Heil, Airdeaspog Thuama. (Lament for John MacHale. Archbishop 

By Daniel Lynch ... . ... ... 52 


Failte d'lii^leabhar na Gaedliilge go Portlair-e. (A Welcome for the G.u:'L jfounia/ to Wnleihcd.) 

By Seamrog .. ... ... ... ... ... 122 

An Dibirleach ó Eiriiiii ; air n-a chur in Gaedliiiig ó abhrán Sacsbheurla Tliomais Caimbéil, Alban- 

naigh, le ."-eaghan Ua Coileáii ... ... ... ... .. 201 

Gúgán lìarra: airn-achurin Gaedhilig óabhián Sacsbheuria J. J: Ui Challanáin, le Domhiial Ua Loingsigli 219 

Air Oscuilt Taisbeánta i g-Corcaigli. (On the Opening of the E.xliibition in Cork.) By Patrick Stanton 255 

Aisling : duine gan aium cct. (A vision : Anonymous) ... ... ... 317 


The Ossianic Poems. By Rev. J.J. O'CarroU, S.J. .. ... 7, 39, 69, 109. 1Ó2, 178, 202 

y The Teaching of Irish ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 

V The Editor's Address, &c. ... ... ... ... ... 17 

The Sounds and Letters of the Irish Language. By Clanii Concobhair ... 46, 74, 114. 216, 2S0 

•^ T:\ii Gaelic Journal, &LZ. By the Editor ... ... 52,90,123 

- ' Some Puzzles in Irish Local Nomenclature. By P. W. Joyce, LL. IX, T.C.D., M.R.I. A. ... Si 

-/ Our Position. By T. Flannery ... ... ... ... ... 95 

y. Translations of Windisch's Gr.immar of Ancient Irish (AVz'/iTt/) ... ... ... 165 

y Folk-Lore. (Introductory.) By Clanu Chonchobhair ... ... ... 205 

V On the Division of the Year amongst the Ancient Irish. (From Introduction to the Book of Rights.) 

By the late John O'Donovan, LL.D. ... ... ... ... 221 

The Ossianic Tales. By Rev. John James O'CarroU, S.J. ... ... 251,277,311 

^ Vj 5' An Casán go Flaitheamhnas," and " St. Patrick's Prayer-book." (Rmcza) ... ... 318 

v/ Introductory Article on Gaelic Texts and Translations for the Royal University Programme .. 337 

/ The Gaelic Society of Dublin and its first Pamphlet ... ... ... ... 339 

y Introduction to MacBrody's " Tegasc Flatha " ... ... ... ... 344 

y The -System of Orthography adopted in " Tegasc Flatha " ... ... ... 362 

-. The Tradit.onal Precepts of MacBrudy and the "Tegasc Flatha " of Cormac MacAirt. By Rev. J. J. 

O'Carruli, S.J. ... ... ... ... ... ... 364, 36^ 

A Brief Introductory Notice to the " Loingeas Mac nUisnigh. By Rev. John James O'CarroU, S.J. ... 375 


^ " Resurgam." By Mi^s Katlierine Tynan ... ... ... •■■ '6 

■' The Advent of the Milesians : the Gift of the Gaelic 'I'ongue. By James Murphy ... ... li 

The Burial of Scota. By James Murphy ... ... ... .• I73 


V' Dramatic Scenes ... ... ... ... ... 6.36,67.157,237 

v' Welcome to Cork ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

The Irish Language in the Nineteenth Century ... ... ... — H 

Latin and English Translations of the Glosses in Professor Windi^ch's " Compendium o/ Irish Grammar" 
(with the Ancient Irish Texts and References.) By Rev. James P. MacSwiney, S.J., Tr-uislator of 

the Grammar .;. ... ... ... ... ... 284 

Donnchadh Ruadh Macnamara : a Biographical Sketch of, with Notices of some of liis Poetical 

Compositions ... ... ... ... ... — 3'^ 

Institulio Principis. (laiimvrsiou) ... ... ... ... — 354 

c/ü /5« «A 


O'Donovan's Specimens of King Cormac's " Tegasc Flatlia : " — 

I. The Rulei's Duties ... ... ••• - ■■ 37' 

II. The Court Life of a Model King ... ■■■ - 372 

III. General Observations appUcable even to Private I'ei son, ... ... •-. 373 


X Palaeographical Minuti.-e ... ... •■ ■•• ■ '*^'> "5 

V y The Use of the Article before Names of Countries in Irish ... .■ ••■ 224 

>C A Sudden Change ... ... ... — ■■• — ^57 

X Five Misrepresentations ... ... ... ■•• ••■ ^57 

X Notes on Ancient Glosses. By Rev. James P. MacSwiiiey, S.J. ... — ••• 3^1 

_)^ O'Flanagan's Engliẃ Notes ... ... ••■ — — 35^ 

y Table of Characteristics, &c. ... .- ... •■• j"^' 

y O'Donovan's Notes ... ... ... ■ ■•• 374 


^ Tile 7ÌOT« on the Gaelic Movement. By John Fleming ... 25, 185 

V The Irish Alphabet, &c. ... ... ... - •■ '°3 

X Leiter from John Murdoch; the Irish Alphabet, &c. .. ... — ■■ '24 

^^ The Irish Alphabet : Modern z-. Ancient. By Thomas Flannery, T. O. Russell, &c. ... 1S8 

X "Puzzles from the Book of Armagh." Letters from Rev. Edmond Hogan, S.J., and Rev. Sylvestei 

Malone, M.R.LA. ... ... ... ■• •■■ 238 

X "Recent Books on Irish Grammar.'' Two Letters from John Fleming ... ...260,321 

LX-S" X Answers to Correspondents ... .. ... - ••■265,325 

V Gaelic Letter. By T. O'Neill Russell ••• • ■ 292 

i. ^ Two letters by John Fleming ... ... ... ... ■• 293 


y Welsh Article on " The Caelic Union Report " .. -•• ••• •• " 

y French Translation of " The Exile of Erin " 

y Opinions of the Press ... 

V Reports of Proceedings of Council, &c. 


y Miscellaneous Extracts 

y The Irish Language in the National Schools : 

Movement at the Teachers' Congress ... ... •■• ■■• ^ 

y Address to the Teachers on the Irish Language. By John Fleming ... _ .•• ••• '°° 

The Gaelic Prayer-book : An Casdn «0 Fùii/deamhnas. Letter from Marshal MacMahon ••• 122 

General .-annual Report (1SS2) 

y Compulsory Education : 7'/«/.i on the Irish Language 
y Gaelic Union Publica'.ions : Head-line Copy Book— No. I ... •• •• '^■*' ^°^ 

^ Memorandum (No. l) on the Irish MSS. in the "Ashburnham" Collection ••• •■• '95 

'■' Memorial on the same (7>jr/) ... ... . ... — "97 

y Memorandum' (No. 2) on a State of Things acknowledged to be a Grievance ... — ^-^ 

^ Memorandum (No. 3) on the Scientific Training of Celtic Scholars ... ••• ■■■ ^^9 

-,• Excursion to Monasterboice (Irish Speeches, &c.) ... ... — ■•■ ^7' 






















of Pro 



in conne. 


vith the Gaelic 




v' Gaelic Prayer Books ... 

y Irish MSS. in Cork Exhibition 

y The Press on the Irish L.inguage iVIovemenl 

y Bilingual Prayer Book 

'^'Mr. Ilealy's Speech in Parliament on the Irish Language 

y Statement presented to the Chief Secretary. (Full Text) 

^ Notes of Books 

y Ta^ Gaelic Journal ... 

•^ Lists of Council, Officers and Members of the Gaelic Union, and of Donors and Subscribers t 

Journal. A— Full List of Officers and Council. B— List of Donors and Subscril 










the Gaelic 


Translations, Explanations and No 

iuistec\biMi nv\ jueuitge. 




-Vol. I.] 


[Price Sixpexce. 

<\n ^s^^e•ó\U^ ins v\ii iu\oiiK\t) aois ■oeiig. 

If Aot)- lonjAncii]- .Ml AOi)- yo : acáid uaUai je A5 <.\ T)-rA]iiuiiii5 ŵ]; boicpit, Ajuf 
CAlAiii Aj A r]\eA'bA-ò, le b^ijib ceme ẃJU)' my^e ; aju^' ẃ]\ muii\ acáiü lomjeA)' 5*11 yiu 
All c-]-eoiL A5 iiiiteAcc " 1 ii-ajaiu iiACUite 'jm j-comne iia CAoit)e," Ajuf 1 j-coinne ha 
jAoice iiiA]\ All g-céATDiiA. 1]' peiui]! ceAccAi]ieAcc 1 I'jiubiiin •oo cu]i cinicioll iiA c]\uinne 
<''1"Y *^^5^'r ^V^Y ■" 5-ceAc|u\niA iiAine ah cloi^ : ajii]- i]- yei-oip le beipc CAiiic 130 •òéAnŵ-ò 
le céile Ajii]' teiceAT) bAiLe iiiói]\ eAüoiijiA. "OéAiiCA]! loitiAi je -oo ■òeAÌbA'ó be jAecib 
11A 5)iéine a pneme i'úb, aju]' ]"oibt]'i jceAji bAilce iiióha be -pobu]" ebecc]ieAc : AgujMiiA]! 
]-in •00 céAt) ni'-ó eibe ; ACÁit) pAX) aj a tvoeAiiAt) i mot) •oo nieAf pAi-óe a beic 'iia -tiiiAoi jgacc 
CAiiiAbl o f-oin. ^^^Y iii b-é AiiiÁm 50 b-ymb eAlA-óiiA iiua-òa aj a j-cuiiia-ó, aju]- neice 
iniA-ÒA A5 A b-iTÁJAib All! AC jAc lÁ, Acc yóy ACÁ All p')\iiine Aj A iioccA-o 1 •0-CAoib iieiceA-ó 
A]i A jiAib -OAOine in Aiiibpop 'jiiAiii ]ioiiiie ]-o. "Oo j'AoileA-ó ']\iaiìi 511]' ah aoi]- ]-o 50 m-bu-ó 

CeAllgCA COlil JAOlb All e-AbnAl]' AJjU]- All j^^CTJlllJ, ACC !]• Cob 'OO JAC ]:eAH bcijlll AllOl]' 
5tt)\ Ab 5A0I 1 b-|.-AT) AtllAC ACÁ ACA be célle. Ij- y\Oy, lllAJl ah 5-céA'OllA, -00 JAC 

ivouiiie eoljAC 511]! Ab I'ojit)' é jAob A)! •o-ceAiijAii-tie ■oo'ii Laidioii, ■Do'11 Sl'^'bT' 'oo'n 
OeAjibA, ■DO reAiigCAib iia geAiniiÁine, luv 'PpAince, iia S]3Áinrc, iia 1i-1ütJÁibc a^uj' i1v\ 
li-lii-oiA Soi]i. 1]' -(.-oigi-c, yôy, uo'ii JAC-oibij ah tJucActiAi)- Agii)- ceAiijA iiA biieArAiime 
bi^e 'y.\ b-VpAinc : aju)- ij- 110 bcAj iiAC 1 ah caiiic coauiia a ta A5A11111 vein aju)- A5 
iiiumnii ciiAi)-ci|ir A.\lbAnii. An pw ■oo bi ei]ieAniiAije iiiAii yo a n-Ainbyio]' 1 •o-CAOib a 
■o-ceAiijAii, -00 ]-5]iiubA-OA]i iiió|iÁii wyye x>o C115 ciii]- iiiaja ^iìca -oo luct) léijm, acc ó 
].-iiA]\A-ù AiiiAC 50 cinnce po]' a coiiigAoil -oo iia ccAiijcAib eibe úv vo liiéA-ouij iiieA]- iia 
b-|"io]i-eoÍ5AC iii|i]ie a]i tiió^ó 50 b-]:uib iiió|iÁii ■010b aiioi)- 1 ■o-cio)iCAib coi5C]\ice aj a 
fó jb'jitii. 1]- iiiTJ lonjAncAc ■OA)! ii-'ooi j olbAiiiAin 11A PjiAince, nA J'í*]"'^»-^"''^ aju]- iia 
b-1ot)Áile — nA •OAOtiie i|' 1110 eobu]" 'y^sn j-cpuinne — a beic aj yójbuini iia ceAnjAn a]i a 
b--(.-uib nicA]- coiii beAj a^ aii •Djtoinj xi'ah Ab ccaiija -oi'lii' 1. II1 ]:iiiiiii' An ccAnjA ]-o nA 
h-Gi)\eAnn ■o'ýó jlumi, 50 Ii-ai)!! jce ■oo'ii iiuiinci]i nÁ']\ cuAbAit) yocAb •01 a]iiaiìi ó beub 
•oniiie. -c\cÁ yio 

•(."o jlutiiA be yÁJAib Aj iiuiinci]\ iia 5-C]n'oc ún a ■oúbpA'ó 'iia 

yéni, cpcAt) |.\\, mine j-ni, a Vi-j.-uil )■■ 

ice Alii A n-Aiiii]-ine be ceAn- 

jAiii coijcjiice ! ^y iiiaji jeAll a]i ah iiiLÌ|\-ioniiuii]- a cá 1 -o-ceAnjAin ajhj' 1 b-]:Ó5buiiii 
iiA li-d]\eAnn aüá i'iau aj jIaca-ó ah -ouai j ]-o 0]1|ia yé\n. -Aca iiica]' coiii .iiió]i i-in 
Aj; bucc All 1Í1ÓH- eolui]- a]i iia 1i-ioiitiui]-Aib lÁiiii-]'C|\iübcA a cá AjAiiine, 50 ti-cij iiió|iÁn 
loiob 50 li-éipnn aj pjlunn 5Ae-óib5e nuAi|i jeibi-o y\AX) yAill ai|i a n-Áic üul a]! 


long cAiueAm-Aniii'iiie, no ^óy, flÁmce, tiu\]i ah cuiu eile •oe'n c-]'aojaI. -ArÁ le )>Áice 
■omne uajwL on b-ypAinc, jAn yocA'L OéA)>LA in a beu'L, jac tÁ 'fẃn ^îjroi'joi'L -nioJAiinnt 
5>\eT)eAlAc A iii-bAile -ácA-cliAC. Hi UiAtce Ii-oj-jaIca]! nA uoiiii'e 1 nieÁ-óon-lAe -oo'n 
coircionnrAcn inÁ 'bionn ye 'y^n reAC ajxij, Ajn]' ó'n rpAc ^-m 50 n-uunrAH "a ■ooi]\i-e 
iinii ri\ÁciionA ni rem yjic Aip acc aj lei joat) ajii]- aj i-5]iiobAt) ^Ae-oilge coiii 
•oiccioIIac aju)" TiA m-beiweAt) a AnAni ai]\. 

i\rÁ Ajn')' iiA 1i-Á]\T)-oLlAiiiAin yo a 5-c)\iocAib imciAnA aj cuy in eAjAp ajiii' 
Aj cjiAob-j'jAoibeA'o LeAbA]! 5*s'ò'^56, ^-^Si')' r"'"''6 Aj A b-yuit iiAtAige ■oe nA leAb]\Aib 
]-o Ag -onoJAu, jAn ■oume AjAinn a]\ éijin -oa)! Ab eol u\t) vo leijeA-ó AiiiÁni. ' 
A liunnnp nA h-éijieẃnn, An b-ynib ]'o cjieiueAmnAC 'ouinn ? Hac •o-ciub)\ATnA0i'0 lÁtti 
cunjAncA 'oóib yo acá ŵj ia]\)\ai-ó An ■onoiciiieA]- -j-o ■do l'5l>io]- ahiac. 11 ac ■o-cuib)iAiTiAoit) 
bÁn'i 'oo'n "onoinj aj iajihaiu ceAnjA huy n-mticce tio conneAt) beo, aju]" í "oo 
liutn AW tio bu)> n-A0]'-Ó5 lonno]" 50 ni-b eoi "oóib m a utAiu ]'o An obAi]\ uv vo •óéAnA'ò a cá 
Anot]- Aj A •oéAnA'ò -ouiiin aj nA -OAomib a 5-C]iiocAib eile. A5 yo An -oÁ jnó-ò 50 ]ió 
Áijiijre yÁ'y cinjieAt) a]\ bini An c-1ni]- ]-o nA gAé-óilje. 

Léijp-ò i'ib 'yAn i]ii]- )-o A n-t)ni achá-ò ].woa yó cAbACüAc a)' An inq'-niiA-OAc-OA 
1)' inó C0111ACCA Ajii)' ij' yoii\beicne -00 ieijceAn 'o'á b-yuib A]\t)]uiini CAÌiiiAn — iia b--i.\ini]-e- 
AjiA (T/ie Times). A-oeìy i'5)\ibneoi)i An Áilc ]-o: " -tVrAmAoit) mle, SAjj-AnAij ajuj- 
Ceilrtj A]\ Aoin-innnn le <\onT)Acr nA g^-^^'ó'lse fA" mw l"o : — b«-ó ihaic bmn lule 50 
n-T)éAti].-Ai-óe ceAnjA nA li-éi]\eAnn •oo beoiJúJAt). 1]' iK\i)-le Agu]- 1)- luActiiAme ceAtigA 
t)iircii)-AC inÁ Aon iA]\|'mA eile -oe'n c-)-eAn-Aiiii)-i]i." Ay a j-on ^-ni, At)Ci)\ yé, ^y 
■DifcéiLle A rÁ a)\ An nnnnci)i a cÁ aj CAilbeAiimni a n-Aiiii]'ine A511]" a ]\\ocaih aj lAHHAn!) 
An ceAngA i'o •00 coniieAn beó ói)\ ni' conneÁTjyAm iiniinci]i beó üóib i'. 1n áic a beic Ag 
■oéAnAt) A n--oiccilb iiia]\ yo 50 •010111 Aoin, biná céilli-óe Aii niü ■oo'n <\on-OAcc aii j^-^^'ú'bij 
t)0 cii|\ 111 i'ocAib Ajii]' í -00 leojA-ò A]TeAc A ■o-nj i-eAii-neiceATÍ) éijm. AzÁ yeox)- 
coiiiAnrAit)e ÁilLe AjAinn a ti-ri j;cib longAnni]' ■oo'n c-i-Aiiniil yo — i-eou-coniAjicAibe ói)! 
Ajn]" Aiiigiü A511]' yionnunuinje, A511]' iiió]\-ci.iit) tiiob ; A5111' i)' uóij lei]' An oÌLaiìi ]"o 50 
■o-cÁinic All c-Ani ciiiii reAiijA nA li-éi]\eAnn "oo cu)i in a b-yocAi)\ yim. Acr: aüá AjAinn 
iiAlAije X)e iiA leAbpAib lÁiiii-]-5|\íobcA i'co aji a ■o-chjaiü Uicc iia |.-Ó5liiiiiA loiiiinn)- 
ẃgni' iv\it)b)\eAi-. 11ío]i ciiineAt) 111 oajah yóy acc yíoji-beAjÁn -oiob yo ; acá aii cuiü 
eile -ói'ob A5 n]ióJA-ó ')" jaii i-eii'eA]i 111 éi|\inn eoÌAC aji lAt) uo léijeA-ó AiiiÁin. C|\eAt) 
■oéAnpAiiiAOiT) bei]' iia beAbjiAib i"o l 11í rAbA)i]:A'ò nA •OAOine ìy mó eoUi]" i]' nA c)n'ocAib 
t'it) ■oo UiAiweA-o linii ceAnA ojiIac ■óiob a|i óji 'OÁ in-bifó beo iat). -An Tii-btronnyAinAoi-o 
o]\\\A lAü, Ajii]- A ]\<sx) leo obc no 111AIC A ueAnAiii "òiob ? CneAt) •oeiji fibpe, a liniinctn 
riA b-éi)\eAnn ? Ciinimijit) 50 111-b' yeA]!]! mile iiAi)! uvo -oo b]\onnAt) a)! aoii •01101115 ].-Aorii 
ngpém 'OO •ôéAn]:At) lAü •oo cuAobj-jAOileAt) inÁ uvo ■oo -òpoJA-ò Anti|'o: aju)- 111 b-|.-nil 
won ^loJA eile AjAinn, acc Á]i leAb]iA ^•■^s'òilge ■oo biionnA'ó, a leijion ■oóib ■o)iója'ù, no 
ceAiijA 5>-^G'óeAlAc ■oo lin'inA^ó ■o'ao]- 05 nA b-eineAim, 50 b-Ái]ii jce iii)" nA 1i-Áicib 111 a 
b-]:uil ]'i 'nA ni-beiil yo]- aj 05 a']- ao]-ca. UiijAm nró eile yA'oeAjiA yóy: acá cmt) -oe 11 a 
l-eAn-leAb]UMb ]-o iiac n-^oéAn]:A]\ a ctnjfiii ha ■oo cii]i in cajaji coi'óce le 1i-Aon neAC 
ACC le ■oiiiiie éijin •oo IŵbAin g^f^'òibij o n-A óije. 

AcÁ An xiiiine iia]"aI úo ó'n b-j-'iiAinc •oo IuaitjOvW fiiA)" aj ai]-0)iiú ja^o <\nnÁlA 
Tli'oJAccA éi]ieAnn [<\iinÁlA ha 5-Ceitiie IIIaijiiti]!] j;o ■p]\Ainci']\ 1" liÁice Aiini-ijie, ó 
CAinic yc j^o 1i-éi]Mnn, •oo emu T® ^^ j-cló-ó a b-pAijii)' cum iniiieAi"OA ■oe leAbAp ■oe iia 
1i-i\niiÁlAib i"o. A liniinri]! ha li-éi]icAiiii, yeiicAi-ò ah fo : bii]i leAb|\A ycm Ajti]- yoy 

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mó]iŵn ẃjAib iiAC ye^x]- t)óib isn 130 beic Ann no <\]; -o'Á n-AifojuuJA-o ó j^-^e-óilij 50 
■pi\<Mncí]- Ajuf •o'Á g-cló-óiiJA-ó Ann mnjcéin, 'y jAn acc po]\ beAjÁH AjAibfe lonnAiriuil, 
cnni lAt) ■OAii-oimiJA-o 50 béAplA. 

•Acc cionnA]' -oo iiunn]:eA|\ -d'aoi- 05 nA li-éi]\eAnn nA i'eAn-leAbnA yo vo léijeA-ó 
Ajii]' TOO cuijpn lonnni' 50 iii-bei-oíi' eoLjAc a]\ a 5-ciin a n-eAjA]! aju]- a ■o-c]\eẃ]-- 
béAnLiiJA-ó 'nA -oiAi-o i'o ? 5° yu]'"!' • ^ 'Óoi]\e CoUnni CiLle ciniciolt 50 ponciAipje acá 
An JAe-óilij in a ni-beiilAib aj úniiión riA n--OAonieAt). -AcÁ, yóy, iiió]\Án -oe nA t)Aomib 
Ó5A Ann)- nA ceAnncAiuvib fo cóiii neiiii-eobjAc pn a]\ 'béAnlAjiiji Ab 'otomAoiTieAi' iat) ■do 
liniiiAt) r|iéi' Ati reAngA ]-ni. "OéAncA)! nA lemb Annf ita li-Áiob ]-o -oo liiúnAt) qie)- An 
ngAeẃibj AH T> cúf <^5"r "*^ •óiAit) pn beiü f iat) lonnAiiiuil cuin jac fojUntn eile "00 
■óéAnA-ó. ■niAi\ fui-óiuJA-ó A)i An nt-ó yo, cwyye^xy yioy a n-Áic eile ']-<''" ^I'T bA]\AriiU\ ajui' 
yK\t)nin]-e nA n-t)Aome i|' bAiiAncAiiibA beó a)i Aon ceiiT) bAineA]- Le CAbAijic I'liAi^nA n-AOi' 
05. \.\t)ein fiAt) yo inLe nAc b-innl acc An r-Aon-r-i'lije AriiÁni ceillroe cum -\oy 05 jAn 
beAjilA -00 liiúnAt) Agiq' if é yni, rye n-A ■o-ceAngA -ouccai]' yém 1 -o-cofAc. "OÁinúinp-óe 
iiiAii yo HA lemb a b-yuit J'-^^'^'^'S «^ca vo -oeAnfAroi'i' Jac cmeuL fojUiniA 50 tiu\ic ; •00 
leijp-oi'i- Ajuf •oo cuijp-oi'i' inle An JAe-ótlig, Ajuf no ueAnfA-o An 'oponj inncleACuAC 
■oiob eóUif ü'fÁJAil iii]\]ie iiia)\ jeibiT) nnnnnn nA 5e<-M'"T»^'"''e, Agu)' yóy nioy ye6.yy inÁ 
1A-0 yo. Ayiy cugAnn nA céA-ocA ve linnnnn nA li-eifeAnn bliAWnA aj yojUnm ceAnjA 
nA gnéije; Ajuf cujAnn nA niilce ójÁnAc aju]' cAiUn ■oiob cum may ne bliAbAin 
no -óó Ag |-05lunii ■pnAmcíj-e, Ajn]- ym mle gAn Aon CAipbe. In beAjÁn Anii]-ine 
CAillreA]! An St'^'ST 5° 1i-ioiiilÁn ; aju]' ni cioc]:a-ò le qviAn nA imlce lit) eile ■00 bionn 
An fAü no le ■p|\AinciY ■oeic b-pocAil CAmce ■00 -oeAnA-o le ■p)\AncAc gẃn é no cu]t aj 
c)iocA-ó A juAlAnn 51-0 tiió]\ A béAfAiiilACC. <\n linnno)! A5 a b-yuil inncleACü Agu]' Aimi'm 
Ajuf Acyuinn cum món-frojUnm vo ■òéAnA'ô, T3éAnAi-oí|- 1 : cfAJAmii- " ciobpuit) An py " 50 
■oij'c. -dec lAt) yo n AC b-fuil aca acc beAjÁn Aim]- ijie le CAbAijic le fjoil, 1]' bAOif ■oÁoib An 
beAjÁn ]-o no CAiceAiii aj jiic a]\ h^syy ^y<\iuciye nA a jwrnlA ■D'yojlmm jAn CAi)\be. -AcÁ 
fulr AT^u]- rAi)\be a iii-beAjÁn yém ve ceAnjA nA h-éipeAnn, aju)' ni beAjÁn ■01 vo 
bemeATJ Ag An re vo cneAnyA-ô An oihoat) Anii]-ine léi Aguf no cpcAnAnn nA milce 110 
JAC bliA-ÓAUi le fo^liinii ■ni'oiiiAoni. Ili'l Aon CAob •o'6i|\inn ni a T)-chiaII].'A)-ò ■ounie 
nAc 5-clunii;i'ó ]-e Ainm liAile no AbAnn, no ]'léibe no tiiAt je a njAe'óilij, aju]' t)Á|\ 
n-uoij 1]' ]-ulcmAi\ An niw ciaII nA b-yocAl yo vo tuijpn. -Aju]- iiia]i yo vo liiónÁn 
neiceA-ó eile, fAJAnn An cé cuijca]- An JAe-óilig fulc lonncA. 

"OÁf n-nóij 1]- nuATJACO ']v\" ^o^' I'o. -^S")' V^^" 5-ceACHAiiiA ■ôeijeAnAC -òi, 1|ii]-- 
leAbAH coifbeAjicA 50 h-uile ajii]- 50 h-iomlÁn vo ciiiiibAC A511]" no beobiiJAn buf 
■o-reAiijAn yéni. 111Á cujAim I'lb-J'e, a liunnri]» ha h-éi]ieAnn, lÁiii ŷonnmA]\ vó^h yo ac á 
Aj cu|i An 1ni]'-leAbAi]\ ]-o m eAjAji ni Ii-cajaI ■oo'n JAebilij bÁ]- -o'yAJAil 'yc^fí aoi]- yo 
nA 'y^n aoi]- yo cúJAmn. 1]- cói)\ -oiob, i:ó]-, a beic cuiji-ionnAC ccAnnfA leo. I]- fCAn- 
ŷocAl CA-OHAib jujiAb CACuije A -òéAnAi' mAijii'nneAc-o, A5.1]' ní f Aib le yA-oA mói'.Án 
CACuije Aji A ■D-ceAnjA yé\\\ vo ]'j]\iobA'ó aj muinctn nA ti-&i]ieAnn. -lAcc acáto ]'iAt) 
Anoij- Aj A yojlmm 50 luAic-léin. AcÁ nocAiiiAl eile ni]- An c-i-lije : ni b-finl Ainm 
^Ae-oilje A]i Aon ni-ó no cuiiiAn, no no fUAjiA'o AmAC le nei jioiiAine, acc nA]i n-nói j 1]" é 
An cÁfcéAnnA! ni-beA|\lA é: ni béAflA celejiiAp, celeJDÓn, jeomecin', nA a i-AiiiAil, aju]' 
ACÁ An JAenilij com li-oineAiiinAc cum a cumA yém no cu]> a)\ b|\iACHAib ia]-acca le IvAon 
ceAnjA ']\\n noiiiAn. 

IllAp ACÁ -donnAcc nA g^^sniljo aj ^Iao-óac 0|iAib-]-e- a n-nui a lilumcin ua 


1i-éiiie«.Min, vo jlẃo-ó CVo-ó bui-óe 111,.\c Cuincin 50 1i-Á]\-o oi\i\<.\, ceAiD 50 leic bliAWAin ó 
]-oin. •c\t>i.ibAi]ic fe : 

" i\ llûifle eifeûtiii Áile, ^\ ciui nd j-céinieAtiii j-conibuiiiie, 
Ci\ei5i-ô blip ■o-ci\om-f-ii<in gin on, Céinii-ô LomUiOk-D bup Leoib<\)\." 

•Oo pinne ]-e cai'aoit) le n-A li-iK\iflib yo m]- iia b)iu\cpAib q\iK\5A yo in Á]\ )i-tiu\i-ó : 

" Z]\om «n ceiẃmi-e cÁpljró -ouoib, 1-oip liinaib ä5ii)- liiACioiiii, 
•ẃp i-éûnoi-ò i-e<ini\AX) blip peom. CútiipÁ-ô i-oUiip blip pinnpeŵp." 

"Oo C115 pii]-eAii bun n-wACCAiiÁin, CẃcaI Oii\biTiinec\c tK\ CoticiibAin, tJéil-Ácŵ-iiẃ- 
5-cÁ]i]i, co]tẃt> A]\ JAilwi ŵn ýilit) ; ŵcc if beAj eile "-o'liAiflib éineAtm Áile" -òo cw\\ 
fuitn Ann. "Do join *" P^^ ^^'*1' *" 5-céAT)nA aj\ nA 5<-^il'U O'B 1'>-^'ó : 

" Aiccim yó\- nj SaiIL Jlin.N, Le b-pnc y-iop gic J:Ó5lul1K^." 

ní yeA]- -OAin C1A ŵCA 5A1II nA li-eijieAnn no 5<\ill SAjfAn td'aicci-o ]-é, acc uo 
yiiAin fe é)]-ceACC o'n OIIaiìi 1on]-on, o eA-ómon tie bújic, ó'ti ÜAOi]-eAC bAleni'i, A511]- ó 
Ìl Annni' ITloou, iiiai\ acá An <\ont)Acc a n-T)ni «xj I-'áJaiI éiixeACCA Agn]- cAbA]\cA ó ■ÓAoinib 
nAC ne pó]\ nA h-GijieAnn. 

üneirii]-e o f-om üo jlAo-óAiiiAn aj; Aji iii-biUMC]iib 1 T)-cuAii-ceA]\ü -AlbAnn, aju)- 
ArÁniAoiTj Anoip Ajiif aj jIaouac ohha. Acá aii ceAngA céA-onA AjAinne Agiif aj; An 
■o-cẃoib eile ve S]\\.ìt nA lllAOile ; acá nA cIcai-a céAtinA ẃjAinn Ajuf nA jeAfiiojAi-o 
ceAunA. CéAt) bliA-ÓAin o fom -oo bi' ■oi)- ■o'Á]i-o--f.-ilit)ib 1 j-coiii-Annfin Ann — 1liobÁ]ro 
'buiw]- mj- nA li-<\]iT)Aib m <_MbAnin, aju]- b]iiAn HIac Jitil-^^^ inei-ó|ie 1 j-ConcAe Ati 
ClÁiii in éi|\inn. "Oo l'Jin'ob aii my yo iDÁnrA cnìicioll nA li-iiAipe céAtìnA — Ati 
c-GineAnnAc, "Cúipc aii iiieÁ-óoin-oi-óce " aju]- Aii c-<\lbAnnAC " Hallow-E'eii." 'SAn 
" j-Ciìiiic " ACÁ n A ]\Ann A i'o : — 

" llíop b'áil boni cooLát) 50 poc<iip Aon ii<iip ■oiob, 
54n bin mo pcoci ve copco.ib y&m' cUiôpúib, 
1p ■oeitiiin n..\'p b'objip bom cpot-ja-ô le cpÁibceicü, 
A'r Sféim ná bLogAm ni fLoijpnn cpi cpícA. 
1 ii-«gj,i-ò «n r-j-pocA 'Do éomôinn nio téitie 
1 -pull cpém' co'oIa-ô be cogdp nio céile. 
1p mime ■00 cuaiT) me Le rsuabAW ó'n pcÁc<j, 
ni "105116 a'p nio ÉpuAiS pÁ'n Uiâic-spiop tj'pÁspjinn. 
■Oo ciiipinn úr\ c-púipc yaoì cúb na jAibbe 
X>o èuipinn An ■pÁn 50 cmin pA'n AWAipc ciigam. 
X)o cuipnin mo coijiL 1 5-cillin nA 1i-áca, 
'S t)0 cuipinn mo ceipcUn 1 xj-cem-Aoil niic llÁjnjill. 
T3o cuipmn An pop Aip copp nA ppÁi-oe, 
'S x>o ciiiiMnn 'pan c-pop ciíJAm cop CAbÁi) co." 

"OéAnAiüi)- A)! lei5ceoi)ii-óe coinieA]- it)i|i nA hahha fiiA]' aju]' iaT) i'o cile ỳioy xjo 
1-5)\íob bu|in|'. ["peuc ŵ|\ ŵn cẃoib eile.] 

CiAnno]' üo cáhIa -oo'n bei]ic yo iia cleAj-A céAünA uo beic ŵca 'tiA n--oÁnrAib aji 
^Acleic ? II1 ỳeACAi-ò Aon x)uine aca jiiAiii xiÁn An t)uine eile. "Oo congbAij nA 5<-^e-òil 
caII A511]' wbii]' A ■D-ceAnjA iiia)\ aoii le ua cleA]-Aib jeA^iiojACA yo aju]' a iió)-a eile 
<\]\ yeA-ù C]» céA-o ■oetig bliAÓAin. "OAii n-üóig ni leigyni) 1-ia-o Anoi]' An ccAnjA yo vo 
cAilleAiiuiin. AcÁ An b]ieArnuif 1 111-beiil nA n-iOAoineAt) t)Á]\Ab ccaiija üucciii]- í aj 


blÁcuJA-ò, ŵjuf A11 iii-bei-ó 5*Gt)il -dtbAiin Ajtif ei)ieAnn jẃn |-ocaI td'a ■o-reAnjAin 
«Aj'Ail? 11Á)\ ceAüuíjceAH An nÁi)\e pn too ceACC a)i ctneAt) Scoic, acc 50 jiAib ]ié riA 
SAtiiriA Ag CAicneAiii o]\]\..\, Ajiif jAoc ]'éin ha SAiiiiiA A5 féiüeA-ó oii|iä, Agiif ia-o le 
jiiAillib A céile A)! yon a -o-ceAnjAii. 

SeÁJAii pléiniion. 

The following are the Stanaas alluded to in the above Article :- 

1. She through the whins, and by the cairn 
And üwre the hill gaed scrievin, 
Whaie three lairds' lands meet at a burn, 
To dip her left sark-sleeve in, 

Was bent that night. 

2. They hoy't out Will, wi' sair advice ; 
They hecht him some fine braw ane ; 

It chanced the stack he faddom't thrice. 
Was timmer-propt for thrawin'; — 

3. She through the yard the nearest taks, 
And to the kiln she goes then. 
And darklins graipit for the bauks. 
And in the blue-clue throws then, 

Right fear't that night. 
And aye she win't, and aye she swat, 
I wat she made nae jaukin', 
Till something held within the pat, 
Guid Lord ! but she was quakin'! 

4. Then up gat fechtin' Jamie Fleck, 
And he swore by his conscience. 
That he could saw hemp-seed a peck, 
For it was a' but nonsense. 

The auld guidman raught down the pock, 
And out a handfu' gied him ; 
Syne bade him slip frae 'mang the folk, 
Sometime when nae ane see'd him, 

And try't that night. 

5. Then straught or crooked, yird or nane, 
They roar and cry a' throu'ther ; 

The very wee things, toddlin', rin, 
Wi' stocks out-owre their shouther ; 
And gi'f the custoc's sweet or sour, 
Wi' joctelegs they taste them, 
Syne cozily, aboon the door, 
Wi' cannie care, they've pl.aced them 
To lie that night. 

&■<• Burns' "Hallowe'en.' 

AliumCd CledS<.\CA: lluii. 1. 

but An llOHOllhe: 
Uoiiii o, tit ■oei-^sMMc. 

^]• mó]\ An ciniiAcr cÁ m 1110 lÁitii Anoi]-, 
1]' nión An clvi Ain ni'Ainini qtiu An ci'n : 
i\cr i)"inó An b]\ón rÁ cnAOfóeA-ó in 1110 c]\on!)e 
'11 Á ciìiiiACC, no 5IÓH HA n--OAonieA-ù. Cm]i 

me ]-io]' 
-dn I'liocc A itAib Á]TO-nénii ai)! éinmn aca 
O AOi^' 50 I1-A01]' 51.1H éiitij mt]-e. ^Vccní 1i-é 
ŵiiÁin gu)! ]'5]\ioiv\i- m]^ An 5-CAc a I'luAJ, — 
ÜÁ pAT3 i:éin Am' leAnAiiiAui ! In]- An Áic ]-o, 
Oy cóiiiAip ÁfTO-bAile iiiói]t nA LocLoniiAc, 
-diji mo lÁnii ■óei]' acá 111 AoilýeAclAinn* fém, 

* "M.\OILSHEACHLAINN. In Iri.h this monarch's 
name is pronounced Mailaughlin, the initial letter of 
sechlainn being mortified. The second monarch of this 
name" (here referred to) " is styled Maoilsheichlainn Mór, 
i.e., the Great, a title he well merited, notwithstanding 
the calumnious aspersions of the Shannachies of Munster. 

-dn I'eAH ó')i cógAf-i-A co]\óin nA li-éipeAnn, 
ÜÁ j-e-j-eAn tJéAnAü cojca Ai]t mo ýon, 
Có r]iennmAH aju]' ai|\ a j-on ].-étn ceAnA 
Ax\ CAn ]io buAi-ó A mó)i-clAOi-óeAtii 05 
\\)]i II15 nŵ LocbonnAC nA mumce óp'ÓA. 

11Í i'éi-oi]! beij' nŵ LoclonnAijib Anoi]' 
SeA^A-ó Ain' AJAi-ò. ŵüÁ mo biiAió cinnce, 
Oei-ù ]-í An-iiióft a']- beit) nó-5ló)miA]\ irpeipn 
Oi|\ c]\oi-opü An nÁiiiAiT) 50 li-ewoóccAi'AC. 

beit) ÁjTO-clt.) Ai|\ An 5-CAC ]-o, cli) nAc 
<.\HiAm Aiji CAc Ain bic 1 •o-ci'n nA 1i-éi]ieAnn — 
•águf Y ^*'' 1i-uil-e j-AoJAlcAib le ceAcc 
If •oil A bei-ó A Ainim a')' a fgeiil: 
<\']- üAoitie yóf nAC m-beiü Áii-o-ceAnjA aca, 

In writing English, some call him Melaghlin, which is 
well enough, but others barbarously translate his name 
iMalachy." — O'Mahony's " Keating." notts. The name is 
formed of the familiar prefix ÄÌaol {vu!<;o Mul), and 
Seachnall, the name of an ancient Irish saint, disciple of 
St. Patrick, from whom Dunshaughlin (Diinsenc/inaiil), in 
Co. Meath, obtained its name. The last let'ers hare 
become transposed by usage. Maoilsheachlainn, there- 
fore, signifies the disciple of (or one devoted to) Seach- 
nall.— .£^. G. 7. 


beròit) CAnAÙ wj")^ beAnmiJAw Iẃe Clu- 

AincA)ib ; 
La b)ieÁj, lÁ •oóccAi]-, lÁ iiA 1i-éi]\cAnn yô^u. 
Lá iiiÓ|\ 'n-A ■o-cuin-ó ]-ío)' aii ci'iiíiacc binJ 

"Oe C]>éACT3Ó]lAlb iiA niAHA 'juj-tiA ■o-ci]!. 

-Acc wy An \i&ì]\ yo f éin, tÁn cúiíiacca, ctiì, 
ní ■b-'|:uil i-íoccÁin in ino ciAoi-òe. TTA cajIa 


-(\n-iiiói\, iiArbÁ]'Ac, iiAc HAib ceA]ir ajaiii, 
Afí iiiéAT) A ^iijneA]- Aip iiio j'on a ■óéAHA'ó. 
"b'ỳémin 511H cionnrAc An lÁiii lÁit)i]\ yo 
1 i\At)A]ic X)é : 'guf M]\ An A-ôbAH ]-ni, 
b'ỳéitìtn 50 ■o-cinrp-ó ]-io]' a ■oioJAlrA]- 
50 r)\oni m uaih nA buAiúe ai]\ 1110 ceAnn. 
1\o CAn 
eom SéAimi)- 11 a CcAi\bAiLl. 


No. I. 

Brian Boroimhe before his L.\st 


By Rev. J. J. O'CarroU, S.J. 


Brian. — Great is the power my liand doth 

wield to-da}' ; 
Great is my glory in our Irish land ; — 
Yet greater is the pain that gnaws my heart 
Than power, or praise of men. I have 

brought low 
The race that held the sceptre over Erin 
From age to age till I arose. Nor did I 
Subdue on battle-fields alone their clans : — 
They are become my followers ! On this 

Before the haughty city of the Danes, 
Stand the Ui-NeiU in array beside me. 
And at my right hand, Malachy himself. 
The man from \\hom I tore the crown of 

Is ready to do battle at my call. 
As bravely as when, leading on the hosts. 
His strong sword won the early victory 
Over the golden-collared Danish king. 
No longer can the Danes withstand my 


My victory is certain now. It will 

Be great. It will be famed and glorious too, 

For with the courage of despair the Danes 

will fight. 
There shall be'glory round this battle-day 
Such as was never known for war in Erin ; 
And in the ages that are yet to come 
Its name and story shall be sweet to hear. 
Till even men that cannot speak our tongue 
Shall sing of and shall bless Clontarf's 

bright day. 
Fair, hopeful day, Erin shall call her own ! 
Most glorious day, when falls for evermore 
The pirate empire over land and seas ! 

Yet in this hour.of honour full and might, 
M\' heart can find no peace. One great 

dread fear 
Pursues me, that I did what was not just 
In raising up my power to this high state. 
Perhaps this strong right hand seems 

stained with guilt 
To the clear eyes of God, and therefore now, 
Perhaps in very hour of victor)-. 
His vengeance will descend upon my head. 

vXOiTO^vcu iu\ 5v\e"óit5e. 

Lei]" An 5-C]\A0ibin AOibnm. 
'Si v\on-OAcr ha jAC-òilje a cmUeA]- An 

t)' v\ont)Acc nA jAe-ùilje 50 i\Aib An onijin, 
•Oo j-Aoncuij 50 lÁi-oii\, Asui-n'oibjuj 50 iiión 
Cum An IcAliAinin biicÁg I'O -oo cui\ ò\ Ájv 


Le conjbÁil beo 
Ha ceAnjAU i]- I'me, 
ÜÁ AU leAbAiin'n ]-o 
Anoi]' Aijv bun : 

ÜÁ 5HÁt), ÜÁ TDÚll 

ÜÁ tJÓccAf bnn-ne, 

riÁ lei5 Aii> 5-cúi 

An 5HÁt) Y ŵn yonn. 
bí AU JAC-ùiLig leAC-cnÁi-órc 'jii)- niúcrA 

1:aoi ceo, 
"Oob' lonnAU a']- iiiAi\b 1, CAillre, leAÚ-beo, 
Acr i:Áilce, '-z^wy yAilre, '511 ]• yÁilre 50 t)eo 


Iloiiii iiA •oAomi'b <\ ]-eo 
iiiAH ýo. 

111)' All 111-beÁnnA 

Le comieÁ-o beo 
-t\n jló!]! 1]- binne, 
Cuiiieẃ-ó 1 5-ctó, 
Á]\ leAbAii\ín : 

A'y lllAH 1)- CÓ)]\, 

CiiniineocAit) i-inti-ne 
go bnÁc Ati 5ló]\ 
inón, mill]', iiiín. 
ÎIÁ bi-ôeAü Aon ]'coilc, no Aon iniiieA)- le 


<\ 50]\cócA-ô Á]\ g-ci'ii)' 110 A linllyeA-ó Áji 

-dec Vo'è™ ^^S'-T Cahcahacc coi-óce iiiaji ỳÁl; 
1]' ]:éiT)i]\ leo üiiiiie no cint)eAcc j'Ál'iÁil, 
AY coinni5 yóy 

Ö -OeAHlllAT) JllÁllA, 

plvii]iín a'i' ]ió)' 
11 A t)-ceAn5An bjieAj : 
IIIÁ cÁiinii-o yéuì 
50 ■oileA]-, -oÁnA, 
ní cioc|:Ait) leiin 
I1i]i]ie no c)iÁü. 

SAtiiAin, 1882. 

By Rev. JOHN James O'Carroll, S.J. 


The works selected by the Intermediate 
Education Commissioners for examination 
in Celtic, in the first year of their Board's 
existence, were all prose tales, and were 
discussed in several articles in the earlier 
numbers of the third and latest series of 
the /?-is/i Ecclesiastical Record. But the 
volumes of the Ossianic Society from which 
those tales were taken contained poems 
too, and the poems seem to have a still 
greater claim upon attention than the tales 
in prose. They are poems of the kind 
which the reader would most naturally 
expect, and which, so far as extrinsic con- 
siderations go, would certainly have the 

greatest attraction for him — poems in which 
Ossian himself appears as the principal 
narrator. The Irish poems of this kind 
must not be supposed to have been un- 
known to James Macpherson. He even 
went so far as to pronounce literary criti- 
cism upon them ; and our neglected Irish 
literature has been so little favoured with 
notice of any kind, that we are only too 
glad to have even Macpherson's unfavour- 
able judgment to lay before the reader, as 
an introduction to the Irish Ossianic poems. 
It is important from the outset to have a 
clear idea of the position which this famous 
man took up. He did not deny the exist- 
ence in Ireland of many Ossianic poems, 
that is (to repeat once more what ought to 
be the definition of this termj poems in 
which Ossian, the son of Fionn, appears as 
the principal narrator. When David Hume, 
in his interesting and amusing letter to Dr. 
Blair proposing a test* to try Macpherson's 
poetry, relates that " Bourke {sic), a very 
ingenious Irish gentleman," " the author of 
a tract on the Sublime and Beautiful," has 
told him how Mr. Bourke's Irish country- 
men, on becoming acquainted with Mr. 
Macpherson's publication of " Ossian," ex- 
claimed that "Ossian" was theirs, and that 
"Ossian" was old, and that they had 
known "Ossian" a long time; poor James 
Macpherson might have fairly answered 
that his " Ossian" was not exactly their old 
acquaintance, but in his opinion a far 
superior person. Neither did Macpherson 
maintain that his " Ossian"was commonly 
known in the Highlands of Scotland, in 
contradistinction to the more vulgar 
"Ossian "of the neighbouring island. When 
Shaw bore the remarkable testimony which 
we find quoted by our Ossianic Society — 

* Hume has a reputation for logic, but lie seems to 
have reasoned curiously about Macpherson. He re- 
presents him as certainly wr.ingheatled, and almost ne.\t- 
door to insane, for not choosing to submit to careful inve.s- 
tigation when his veracity was impeached. And at the 
same time, to put the matter very mildly, Hume seems to 
think it at least quite possible that the impeachment was 
only too well-founded. Surely if that hypothesis was 
really the case, Macpherson would have had to be wrong- 
headed and next-door to insane, indeed, to be billing to 
consent to a careful investigation of his statements. 
To affect passion and indignation would then have been 
to follow the dictates of a cool and calculating temper. 


" Fionn is not known in the Highlands by 
the name of Fingal ; he is universally sup- 
posed to be an Irishman. When I asked 
some of the Highlanders who Fionn was, 
they answered, an Irishman, if a man, for 
they sometimes thought him a giant ; and 
that lie lived in Ireland, and sometimes 
came over to hunt in the Highlands :" — 
Rlacpherson might have said he had fully 
admitted that Irish Ossianic literature was 
current in tlie Scottish Highlands. His real 
point was that the Irish Ossianic litera- 
ture, well known to Irishmen and to High- 
landers, was recent and debased, and that 
he had been so fortunate as to discover 
ancient Scottish poems, similar in subject, 
undebased and wholly beautiful in forni.* 

Those who take an unfavourable view of 
his \-eracity will probably be inclined to say, 
that in the current Irish literature he had 
been charmed by the sentiment, and 
shocked by the pictures of manners and 
Druid ic quaint mythology ; they will re- 
mind us that he closes his preface to 
" Temora" with the following passage: 
" The bards of Ireland have displayed a 
genius worthy of any age or nation. It was 
alone in matters of antiquity that they 
were monstrous in their fables. Their love 
sonnets and their elegies on the death of 
persons worthy or renowned, abound with 
such beautiful simplicity of sentiment and 
wild harmony of numbers, that they become 
more than an atonement for their errors in 
every other species of poetry. But the 
beauty of these pieces depend (.svi-f) so much 
on a certain curiosa felicitas of expression 
in the original, that they must appear much 
to disadvantage in another language." 

It will, in fine, be suggested that Mac- 

* We tliiiik one simple quotation will here throw vivid 
light iipun the state of things in Scotland with regard 
tu Ossianic poetry. In his letter of the 23rd Januarv. 
1764, published by the " Iligliland C ì-mimÌm , c '■■ v.lm'i, 
uas f.inned to examine int.. the autlir;: , , . ■ \: , . I , ,- 
sons ü,,mn, Mr. Neil MacI.eoil, niMii i I a, . 

a= ;;,i:.>w. : -I ex..niinca all tlie .',.., ■ . : 1:, 

tations.,rtlie woik," 

+ At least in Leathley and Wilson's edition, Dame- 
treet, Dublin, 1763. 

pherson conceived and executed the idea of 
eliminating all that displeased his taste in 
the Irish ballads or tales, rejecting mon- 
strous fables, making the marvellous suited 
to the age in which he lived — the age that 
welcomed the Henriade as an epic poem, 
allowing nothing more supernatural than 
such things as noble ghosts : not vulgar, 
hideous apparitions that terrify children, 
but shadowy manes that reveal themselves 
in visions or in dreams ; even in the case of 
his living characters, obliging people to 
speak for ever in the style of those love 
sonnets or elegies in which he so much ad- 
mired the genius which the bards of Ireland 
displayed ; removing all variety from con- 
versation as well as from his landscape ; 
crowding into the poem endlessly renewed 
declarations of generous and tender emo- 
tions after the most brilliant and touching 
Celtic models, with simple councils and 
courtships, very simple battles, and still 
more simple drinking-feasts ; throwing the 
whole into the recognised forms of classic 
poetry, and introducing the disguised love- 
sick Amazon of mediaeval times. Whether 
it be true that Macpherson formed his 
poems in this way, by elimination,* com- 
bination, and imitation, or really found 
them already composed in a manner so 
suited to his taste, is a matter with which 
here we have no close concern. We have 
really only to do with literary not with his- 
torical criticism, and what we are now to 
examine is, whether Macpherson's taste was 
correct or not with regard to Irish Ossianic 
poetry; whether he was right in thinking 
that the variety of life and character 
therein, embracing the vulgar and the mar- 
vellous, is a disorder and a taint ; whether 

* After all, thi^. view dues nut differ so very much 
from that of the Highl.ind Committee, from whu^e book 
we have already quoted. They s.iy, in summing up their 
report with regard to Macpherson : '-Tlie Committee has 
11' I liren able lo obtain anyone poem the same in title 

I i lenor with the poems published by him. It is 
iiiied to believe that lie was in u»e (sic) 10 supply 

:: 1 111., ;ind to give connection bv inserting p.i^sages 
wliiJ, he did not find, and tu add »ii ;i : ■■ . 1 .:,re-ved to 
be dignity and dvlicacy to the -11 ■ u 1 ..1,1 -lli.nby 

the language— m short, by elian;4ÌML; «bat lie C' msidered 
as too simple or too rU'ie fur a luuiLrn ear, and ele- 
vating what in his opinion was below the standard of 
I good poetry." 


the less varied and more continuously sen- ^ 
ti mental form of poetr\' that commended , 
itself to his taste is really an improve- 
ment, \vc do not mean in course of time, 
but simply in comparison. 

We venture to think there are two prin- 
ciples with regard to Macpherson's Ossianic 
poetry that cannot well be contested. The 
first is that much of the sentimentality in 
it is fine. This seems sufficiently proved 
by the welcome given to it in Europe gene- 
rally. The second is that along with this 
fine sentimentality there is too much mono- 
tony. Blair himself, Macpherson's great 
defender, admits the want of variety of 
events and the sameness of character in 
IMacpherson's Ossian. He claims for it 
great excellence only with regard to senti- 
ment. We are following most closely the 
criticism of Dr. Blair in the principles we 
ha\-e laid down. In his critical Dissertation j 
on Ossian, he compares Ossian with Homer, 
but says : " The Greek has in several points 
a manifest superiority : he introduces a 
greater variety of incidents, he possesses a 
larger compass of ideas, has more diver- 
sity in his characters, and a much deeper 
knowledge of human nature." Later on 
he declares, on the other hand, that "with 
regard to dignity of sentiment, the pre- 
eminence must clearly be given to Ossian." 

In the Irish ballads the sentimentality 
that occurs is of the same kind as that 
of Macpherson's Ossian. We have seen 
how Macpherson himself praised the Irish 
bards when they dealt with sentiment in 
odes and elegies. The sentimentality in 
the Ossianic ballads is, as the reader will 
shortly see, of a kind that must be recog- 
nised as akin to what Macpherson brought 
forward in his own Ossian ; and no doubt 
also to what he tells us he admired in the 
short Irish poems. No\\- if what is brought 
in to diversify this is contemptible, as Mac- 
pherson maintains, no doubt it is merely a 
debasement — we do not mean in the histo- 
rical, but in the literary sense. If, on the 
contrary, it is something that possesses 
considerable literary merit, the Irish ballads 
are all the better for containing it. 

We need scarcely say that we, who have 
defended the episode of the hydra against 

Dr. Jo}-ce, are going to defend the varied 
life-pictures of our Ossianic poems against 
Macpherson. And now we rejoice to say 
we shall have Dr. Joyce on our side, or to 
speak properly — we have spoken very im- 
properly indeed, and we ask pardon — we 
shall be contending under the standard that 
has been set up by Dr. Joyce. It is he, no other, 
that has truly brought forward the claims 
of Irish literature to possess not only poetry, 
but compositions that as complete works 
have real literary merit. This is the second 
and crowning step in the vindication of that 
literature. The first step was effectually 
taken — whether we like to acknowledge it 
or not — by Macpherson himself ; he with 
his Ossian — which even according to him 
was only the undebased model of Irish 
poem.s — made the world generally admit 
that there were no doubt snatches of poetry 
to be found in the old lays of Ireland. 

Farther than this, up to the present day, 
people had not advanced. Lord Macaulay 
is a most curious instance of the work 
really done by Macpherson's Ossian. He 
overflowed with contempt for Macpherson ; 
he loved to hold him up to ridicule. But 
when, at the commencement of his history, 
he undertakes to tell of Spenser's views 
with regard to Irish poetry, it really seems 
to be Macpherson's objections that he puts 
forward, though not applied exactly as 
Macpherson would have wished. Spenser 
takes great trouble to explain at length 
the beauty of an Irish poem. He then 
makes his stupid Eudoxus ask the clever 
Irenseus whether the Irish "have any ari 
in their compositions," and makes Irenseus 
answer, " Yea, truly," at once, and then goes 
on to explain, first, that Irish poems 
" savoured of sweet wit and good inven- 
tion ;" secondly, that they "skilled not of 
the goodly ornaments of poetry;" and 
thirdly, that nevertheless they had ''good 
grace and comeliness" for they were " sprin- 
kled with some pretty flowers of their 
natural device, which gave good grace and 
comeliness to them." The goodly orna- 
ments of poetry, as contradistinguished 
from natural device, means, doubtl;ss, the 
artificial style of the Spenserian age in 
England. We cannot seriously maintain 


that Spenser found the poems wild and 
rugged which, without those "goodly orna- 
ments," had yet good grace and comeUness, 
and which savoured of sweet wit and good 
invention. Yet Lord Macaulay simply 
tells us that the Irish ballads, " wild and 
rugged as they were, seemed to the judg- 
ing eye of Spenser to contain a portion of 
the pure gold of poetry." This scarcely 
gives an idea of how Spenser judged. 

Macaulay had drunk in without knowing 
it the debasement theory of the Scotch- 
man he despised, so far as it related to the 
value of any Irish poems, and he could not 
see that Spenser did not hold it. Macaulay 
could not believe his own eyes that an 
ancient witness, like Spenser, had nothing 
about the corruptions and the dross, mixed 
with portions of pure gold, in the works of 
Irish bards. He was thoroughly, though 
unconsciously, imbued with the Macpher- 
son theory of Irish curiosa felicitas. 

Mr. Matthew Arnold, too, in his studies 
of Celtic literature, seems after all to find 
not much more than this curiosa felicitas. 
M. Rénan, indeed, appears more favour- 
able. He tells us that Irish imagination 
has grouped round the legend of a monk a 
whole cycle of physical and maritime 
myths, and that the poem of the Voyage 
of St. Brendan is one of the most astonish- 
ing creations of the human mind. But 
who really attends to M. Rénan's views on 

We shall find what people generally 
think, in a plain but carefullj'-written paper 
on "The Celt of Wales and the Celt of Ire- 
land," that appeared four or five }'ears ago 
in the Coriiliill Magazine. The author has 
had good experience of both countries, and 
evidently studied the inhabitants from 
many points of view. He appears quite 
free from every kind of prejudice against 
them. He bears freely testimony to the 
good qualities of Irishmen. In regard of 
pure morality, he tells us " the peasantry 
of Ireland are at the very summit of the 
scale of the whole world." He tells us 
that one can perceive "the different pace 
of Celtic minds " from that of Anglo- 
Teutons, "by a comparison of the really 
delightful intelligence of a school of Irish 

children, with the heaviness and slowness 
of a similar and much better fed and 
clothed class, in any part of England, even 
in the great towns." He adds : — 

I have often tested the ability of young Irish boys and 
girls either to understand a piece of humour or to appre- 
ciate an act of heroism, or. generally, to take in any 
idea quite new to them ; and never yet failed of success. 
But the very same joke or story or new idea presented 
to very "sharp" English town boys, has been utterly 

But when this clearly painstaking and 
unprejudiced observer comes to speak of 
Celtic Literature, we find ourselves simply 
face to face once more with the ctiriosa 
felicitas of Macpherson. 

Immediately after the paragraph quoted 
above, we read the following : — 

Imagination is a quality which I suppose will on all 
hands be conceded pre-eminently to the Celtic race ; 
and yet perhaps it would be more proper to credit it 
with the pottical tenipei-avicnt. than with tlie actual power 

of imagination in its higher walks One 

point at all events is patent, that the merits of Erse and 
Cymric poetry is {sic) not of that solid kind which can 

A little farther on the writer gives us 
his ideas as to what our Irish imaginative 
productions are. He writes: — 

Irish imagination, though it has called up the banshee 
and an abundance of hereditary curses, revels chiefly in 
more jvViw/i dreams — the Leprachaun and Phuca (Puck) ; 
the beautiful invisible island of St. Brandan in the far 
Atlantic ; the towers of the submerged city beneath Lough 
Neagh ; and the endless droll legends of the giant Fin 

This utterly " crass " ignorance as to what 
Irish literature is, this supposing the nume- 
rous myths about Fionn to be " endless 
droll legends," this it is which allows Mac- 
pherson's theory oi curiosa felicitas to con- 
tinue prevalent. The great blow against it 
has been struck by Dr. Joj'ce. He has 
ventured to translate for the ordinary cul- 
tivated reader a considerable portion of 
that Erse poetry which it is said cannot 
bear translation ; and he has translated in 
such a manner as to show that what he 
least cares for is any curiosa felicitas XhdX 
may happen to occur.* He has taken prose 
tales and tales in verse together, without 

* Old Celtic Romances ; C. Kegan, Paul and Co., 
London, 1879. 


distinction, and presented them to the , 
English reader as fully worthy of his at- j 
tention, precisely for their merits as com- 
plete and integral compositions, as old 
Celtic romances, really poetic stories told [ 
in the old Irish way. 

( To be continued.) 


Go mairidh na Gaedhil a's a g-caoin-chaint 

cheoil ! 
Go mairid le saoghaltaibh i d-treise 's i 

Nach taithneamh libh an sccul, nach grádh 

libh an glór — 
" Anois tá na Gaedhil in Eirinn beo /" 

NÍ fi'or go bh-fuil an ti'r no an teanga dul a 

NÍ fi'or go bh-fuil ár mcanmain caithte go 

Cia seal dúinn faoi scamall 's Ic tamall faoi 

Tá Gaedhil agus Gaedhilig in Eirinn fos. 

Och is sámh linn na sceula, is grádh linn 

an glór, 
Go bh-fuil sean-teanga Eireann ag éirghe 

in onóir, 
Biodh an guidhe in ár g-croidhe anois a's 

le n-ár \ú, 

Nár raibh Eire gan Gaedhealaibh, gan 
Gaedhilig go deo ! 

Go mairidh na Gaedhil ! a startha 'gus a 

A ngean as a ngreann, a g-cluichthe 'gus 

a g-ceol, 
Ma's mian linne féin, ma's dúinn croidhe 

na d-treon, 
Beidh na Gaedhil as an Ghaedhilig faoi 

fhi'rmheas fos. 

War le cluasaibh 's le croidhthibh na nGall 

fad Ó 
Ba bhinne ár nGaedhilig a's do b'fheárr ná 

Ag sliocht na nGall g-ceudna ta andiu 

grádh mór 
Air ár d-teangain, sin ár g-ceangal, ó's 

le h- Eirinn dóibh. 

Gaill agus Gaedhil in aon ghrádh teo, 
Acht Gaedhil-fl-iir go leir ins an aon 

chaint bheo, 
Do Dhia na bh-flathas biodh scacht mile 

Tá caithréim agus clú i n-dán dúinn fós. 

Go mairidh na Gaedhil 's a bh-fuil i ngrádh 

leo ! 
Sonas agus seun ortha, aosda a's óg, 
Suaimhneas a's si'odh aca d'oidhche a's do 

Mar sin go raibh se linn in ár d-tír go 

deo ! 

Le.ath Chuinn. 

Oidhche Shain/ina, 1S82. 


Adolvgiad y Wasc;. 

T/it Gaelic Union Report, &-o. Dnlyii : M. H. Gill, 
ai Fab. 

Bydd yn dda gan rai o'n darllenwyr ag 
sj'dd wedi bod hyd yn hyn yn anwybodus 
o'r pwnc fod cymdeithas mewn gweithrediad 
)'n yr Iwerddon er coleddu gw}'bodaeth o'r 
iaith Wyddelig a chyhocddi llyfrau i'r 
perwyl. Meg)'s y Gymraeg, y mae'r Wyd- 
delaeg wedi bod yn nod gwatwar i anwy- 
bodusion ofnvvn i anw\^bodusion 
Cymreig hcfyd. Nid gwaith caled yw dir- 
mygu yr hyn nad yw'r dirmj-gwr yn ei 
ddeall. Ond }• mae ieithwyr dysgedig, yn 
neillduol ar }• Cyfandir, yn prisio yn uchel 
y ddwy iaith h)'n yng nghyd a'u chwaer 
ieithoedd, ac yn cael oddi wrthynt wybo- 
daeth o egwyddorion nas gellir )'n hawdd 
eu cj'rhaedd heb eu cynnorthwy. Y mae 
hef\'d luaws o hen ysgnifau tra gwerthfawr 
i'w cael \-n iaith y chwaer ynys ; ond y mae 
yn iaith dan un anfantais y mae'r Gymraeg 
yn rhydd oddi wrthi, sef orgraff dra thrwsgl 
a llythyrenau afluniaidd. Y mae rhai 
llenorion Gwyddelig }-n glynu wrth yn hen 
ffurf o l}-threnau gyda thaerni, gan anghofio 
mai nid yn iaith ysgrifenedig yw bob amser 
yn iaith lafaredig, ac mai'r orgraff oreu yw'r 
lion ag S)'dd }'n dangos yn y modd cywiraf 
beth yw llafar y bobl ym mhob cyfnod. Y 


mae orgraff sefydledig a digyfnewid yn 
cuddio hanes iaitli ; tra y dylai'r dull o 
osod mevvn ysgrifen leferydd pobl newid i 
ateb eu Ueferydd, ac felly fod gofrestr o'r 
cyfnewidiadau sydd yn cymmeryd lie ynddi 
o oes i oes : dyna beth fyddai orgraff 
hanesiol. Ac am orgraff darddiadol, fel ei 
gelwir, nid hawdd sefydlu ei hegwj^ddorion. 
Fe dylid cadw ffurf yr iaith o'r hon y 
cymmerwyd gair, d}'lid ysgrifenu llawcr o 
eiriau yn gwahaniaethu yn fawr oddi wrth 
eu gilydd yn yr un dull ag yn yr iaith oddi 
wrth yr hon y cymmerwyd hwynt ; meg)'s 
esgob, bisliop, évcqiie, y rhai a ddylent fod 
yn unffurf â'r gair Lladin cpiscopiis, os nid 
â'r gair Groeg. Y gu'ir yw, mae gwaith 
ieithwyr yw olrhain tarddiad a hanes 
geiriau, a gwaith ysgrifenwyr cyffredin j-w 
dangos i'r Uygad mor eglur ag sydd ddic- 
honadwy beth yw'r iaith .s)-dd ar dafadau 
y llefarwyr. Camsyniad mawr y dydd yw 
edr>-ch ar sillafu mewn modd direswm, 
megys y gwneir yn arbeni,g yn Seisoneg, 
fel peth sanctaidd o'r sancteiddiolof 


A Ghaidheil Eirionnaicii— Guidh- 
eam mile failte dhuit air do cheud thuras 
am measg do luchd-duthcha. Tha na 
Gaidheil Albannach agus na Gaidheil 
Eirionnach sean-eolach air a cheile ; bha 
latha agus bha malairt agus co-chomunn 
nach bu bheag eadar iad. Cha 'n 'eil ach 
uine gle ghoirid bho 'n bha an aon chain nt 
aca, agus gus an la an diugh tuigidh agus 
leughaidh muinntir na dara duthcha cánain 
na duthcha eile. Ged is fior so uile, is 
doilgheasach leam a radh gu bheil iad gu 
mor air eolas a chall air a cheile, agus, ni 
is miosa na sin, tha tomhas mor de dhroch 
run air eirigh suas agus air bcalach farsuing 
a chur eadar an da shluagh sin a bu choir 
a bhi, mar dha chraoibh, gu cairdeil ag 
eadar-fhigheadh an cuid meangan agus a' 
nochdadh an toraidhnean, taobh ri taobh, 
gu h-aillidh, grinn, do bhrigh gu bhcil iad 
a cinntinn bho 'n aon fhreumh. 

Ann am failte agus furan cridheil a chur 
ort, mar tha mi a nis a' deanamh, ccad- 
aich domh an dochus altrum gu 'm bi 

thusa le do leabhran úr ad mheadhon gu 
drochaid a chur air a' bhealach a tha eadar 
sinne agus thusa, agus gu 'm bi sinn as a 
dheigh soagurachadh ar sean eolais agus a 
nochdadh cairdeis mar bu nós. 

RIa ghabhas tu gu togarrach ris an earlas 
so air mo dheagh dhurachd, cha 'n abair 
mi nach cluinn thu gun dail a ris bho 

Do charaid dileas, 

Iain Ban Og. 
Gaidhmliachd Alba, 

Oidliche Shaiiilina, 1882. 


Any person interested in the study of lan- 
guages and their literature, who, emanci- 
pating himself from common prejudices, 
makes a serious effort to cultivate a know- 
ledge of the primitive and beautiful Celtic 
family of tongues, will have his attention at 
once caught by the best preserved of these, 
viz., the modern Irish. He will, in the inte- 
rests of science and literature, regret the 
rapid disappearance of this venerable lan- 
guage, as well as the unfortunate apathy of 
those who at present are able to use it in 
adopting means towards its preservation. 
He will consider them as unreflecting per- 
sons in possession of a precious treasure 
who cast it from them through ignorance 
its value ; for when once the use of a lan- 
guage is lost by a people, they never tho- 
roughly regain it. To such a man, espe- 
cially if he be an Irishman, the necessity 
for fostering the Irish language before it be 
too late will often form a subject of reflec- 
tion, and the mention of its revival will 
always cause the liveliest interest. Every 
such person, therefore, must feel attracted 
by the discussion of opinions on the best 
manner of attaining a knowledge of and 
teaching the Irish language. 

In order to clear the way for such a dis- 
cussion, it seems in the first place needful 
to pass in review the principal, real or ap- 
parent, obstacles to the learning of the 
ancient tongue of the most western isle of 
Europe. These obstacles — most of which, 



by-the-waj-, are more apparent than real — 
may be classed, nearly all, under two heads, 
viz. : 1st, those which originate in igno- 
rance ; and 2nd, those comprised in the 
modern term, " philistinism." The great 
mass of ordinary people are quite ignorant 
of the general nature and peculiar charac- 
teristics and differences of different lan- 
guages, and as they judge of all other 
forms of speech by that which they habitu- 
ally use, and in which they think, they are 
unwilling, unless persuaded by the public 
opinion around them, to allow of the exist- 
ence of beauty or merit in any tongue 
differing much from their own in sound or 
construction. To such narrow-minded 
speakers of English alone, who have not 
been taught otherwise, Irish, if they ever 
hear it spoken, is an object of dislike or 
even of contempt. They are prone to 
despise or hate whatever the}' cannot under- 
stand. Of this description are many Irish- 
men who not only do not know anything 
of their countr}-'s language, but are equally 
ignorant of her history and antiquities, and 
of the very existence of an Irish literature. 
Of course they know nothing of the value 
of the language and literature to philo- 
logical science, or of the beautiful construc- 
tion of the former and its use equally with 
Greek, German, or Sanscrit, as a training 
for the mind. In the same way, men who 
are classical scholars and nothing else, 
generally have a dislike for mathematics, 
while mathematical specialists usually de- 
test the study of classics. Thus there are 
thousands who know of the existence of 
the Hibcrno-Celtic only to dislike or de- 
preciate it. On this class of persons, whether 
Irish or not, argument on the subject is 
thrown away. Disregarding the axiom that 
we must know something about a subject 
before we can pass judgment on it, their 
ignorance gives them a force of inertia proof 
against the appeals of science, patriotism, 
and intellect, and their crass prepossessions 
are impenetrable to the force of argument 
or the light of progressing intelligence. So 
we must needs leave them in their dark- 
ness, it being impossible to teach those who 
will not learn. 

The second great obstacle to the learn- 

ing of Irish is " philistinism." By philis- 
tinism is generally understood that devotion 
to material gain and sensual enjoj'ments 
v>hich makes money-grubbing the sole ob- 
ject of life, without regard to moral, intel- 
lectual, or artistic considerations. This 
money-grubbing, and the love of sensual 
pleasures — in short, that gross form of mate- 
rialism so characteristic of the nineteenth 
century — these low and base motives, con- 
stitute the principal obstacles to the study 
of the Irish language. One hears conti- 
nually in reference to this study : " Will it 
pay?" or "what shall I gain by learning 
it?" — just as if the goodness and value of 
everything were to be measured by the 
amount of money to be acquired by it. 
Religion, art, science, literature, patriotism, 
poetr}', virtue — everything that is ennobling 
to human nature, would possessbut little in- 
fluence or charm if judged by this sordid 
standard. The man who essays to teach 
Irish must set his face firmly against this 
degrading philistinism, and must impress 
upon his pupils the necessity of taking into 
account the beauties of the language, and 
the advantages to the mind of the novel 
and fresh modes of thought developed in its 
construction and expressions. He must 
show how — 

Bright-eyed Fancy hovering o'er, 

Scatters from her pictured urn 

Thoughts that breathe and words that burn. 

But even those who are not absolute and 
thorough " Philistines " are frequently re- 
pelled from the study of Irish by difficul- 
ties which are really only apparent, such as 
the difference of printed characters, the, at 
first sight, complex grammar, the unfamiliar 
articulations, and the scarcity of good ele- 
mentary books and of skilled teachers. 
These difficulties we shall show to be very 
slight indeed, and easily overcome, when 
resolutely faced. But before proceeding to 
prove our point, we need merely allude to 
the numerous classof persons in this country 
who, animated by an irrational and un- 
patriotic spirit, would wish for nothing 
better than that the Irish language should 
be dead and forgotten, as is the Sumerian 
or Etruscan, and all Irish books and manu- 
scripts sunk in the sea or consumed by fire. 



Some Vandals there may be even yet who 
cherish the same unworthy feelings towards 
the Irish race as towards their language 
and literature. With such as these we have 
nothing to do. 

" Non ragionar di lor, na guarda e passa." 
Let us now see what the other difficul- 
ties alluded to are worth. With respect 
to the Irish characters, they are only a form 
of the early mediieval Roman letters, and 
can be learned in half-an-hour. Any person 
who cannot make use of them will certainly 
be unable to learn the language itself. The 
grammar is not so complex as that of the 
Latin or Greek among ancient, or of 
German or Hindoostanee among modern 
languages, and when once the rules of Aspi- 
ration and Eclipsis are mastered, it is com- 
paratively easy. The sounds are of course 
different from those of the English lan- 
guage, but so are those of every other 
tongue. Whatever articulate sounds the 
ear is accustomed to it will hear with plea- 
sure, and unaccustomed ones will at first 
seem disagreeable. Thus the English " th " 
in " laigtii " is an abomination to most of the 
peoples of the Continent who do not possess 
it in their own tongues, the // so much 
admired by the Welsh is unpleasant to the 
other inhabitants of Great Britain, and so on. 
Accordingly, the Irish aspirated c and j;; 
the w^'- at the beginning of a word, the 
broad // and ;?, the slender r and some 
other sounds must at first appear strange to 
the unaccustomed ear. To a person habi- 
tuated to speak nothing but Irish, the 
English consonants sound harsh and un- 
euphonious, and in our opinion with much 
greater reason. We consider the Irish lan- 
guage, when properly spoken, as particu- 
larly sweet and euphonious, and much 
better suited for singing than any of those 
of the northern part of Europe, and we 
speak from considerable experience. These 
things should all be explained by the 
teacher to his pupil, and the ear of the 
latter should be accustomed, by frequent 
repetition, to the more peculiar sounds of 
the language. As 'OulJAlrAC 111 ac Pjibipj 
would say, thus should the ].-oi)\ceẃ'DLAVòe 
act towards the pójlAinci-ó. 

The little use made of Irish in com- 

merce and trade, it being colloquially 
almost entirely restricted to the peasantry 
in the west and south, the small number of 
modern books printed in the language — 
these do not constitute reasons why it 
should not be revived and still flourish, if 
proper means are taken for the purpose, nor 
do they take away from its beauty and 
scientific value. The same objections might 
have been made half a century ago to 
various other European languages which 
are now flourishing. These are, therefore, 
obstacles to the learning of Irish which 
both teacher and pupil can afford to disre- 
gard. Slight obstacles, such as those we 
have mentioned, have been conquered in 
Wales, Belgium, Bohemia, Iceland, &c., and 
why not in our island ? and of this we may 
be certain, that a language is a most dis- 
tinctive mark of the intellectual indepen- 
dence of any nation, and the best guarantee 
of its continuance. 

The teaching of Irish must be modified 
in its methods to suit two classes of learn- 
ers — those who speak the language from 
their childhood, and those who have little 
or no knowledge of the spoken tongue. 
Of the former class it may be affirmed that 
they have been worse than neglected in an 
educational sense, and that every effort has 
been made to deprive them of the inesti- 
mable treasure of their native tongue. If 
the "National" system of education had 
been really national from its inception, 
Irish-speaking children would be taught 
first to read Irish as a preparation for learn- 
ing English : and this it is not }-et too late 
to put into practice. By this rational plan, 
instead of time being lost, much time would 
be gained, and the teaching would be com- 
prehensible to the children, and approach 
towards completeness. For such children 
primers and spelling-books wholly in Irish 
should be prepared ; and there is no reason 
why elementary geography and arithmetic 
should not be likewise taught in the verna- 
cular tongue of the pupils. Such a course 
would not prevent these children learning 
English as well, and in a much more in- 
telligent, satisfactory, and consequently 
quicker manner than is done at present — 
for instance, in the Arran Islands or in 



Erris. We speak from the experience of 
similar districts to these, and we need only 
refer in confirmation of the above state- 
ments to the recorded opinion of Sir P. J. I 

For those who study Irish as a non- 
vernacular (we would not say a foreign) 
language, the methods would suit which are 
now employed in teaching other modern 
languages. In adapting these to Irish, we 
must first obtain good elementary works. 
The three books published under the name 
of the Society for the Preservation of the 
Irish Language are excellent, as far as they 
go, but they do not go far enough. A 
fourth, fifth, sixth, and succeeding books 
are required on the same plan, taking 
pupils through the declensions and conju- 
gations and the other portions of the gram- 
mar and idioms, as also books supplemen- 
tary to the first three, containing more 
extended exercises on the contents of these 
latter. A modification of the methods of 
Ahn, Ollendorff, and Arnold combined 
would, we think, be the most suitable for 
these works. They should contain no un- 
necessary, diffuse, or scientific disquisi- 
tions ; no visionary theories or philological 
hypotheses ; no doubtful etymologies or 
strained explanations ; but should be clear, 
concise, and, above all, correct and idiomatic 
in orthography and phraseology. Such 
works should be carefully written and re- 
vised, and not issued till well examined and 
corrected by persons possessing a practical 
knowledge of the spoken language and of 
its grammatical construction. Another 
series of elementary treatises, with fuller 
notes and explanations, should be pre- 
pared for those who aim at self-instruction 
in the language. 

A person who does not possess a good 
knowledge of a subject cannot teach it 
efficiently. On the other hand, there is 
many a man knowing a subject thoroughh', 
and yet unable to communicate his know- 
ledge easily and clearly to a pupil. Know- 
ledge and the power of communicating it 
are two entirely distinct things, and the 
present state of Irish teaching is a very 
good example of the truth of this principle. 
Of the many thousands who speak Irish 

fluently and correctly, how few there are 
able to communicate their knowledge of 
the language to others, or even capable of 
rationally explaining the construction and 
meaning of a simple idiomatic phrase in 
their native tongue. Even most of those 
who can read and write as well as speak 
Irish, seem to be almost as helpless in this 
respect as the mass of illiterate persons. 
The remedies for this defect must be — 1st, 
a careful study of the rules of Irish gram- 
mar and orthography ; and 2nd, the ac- 
quiring of an acquaintance with school me- 
thods, particularly those used in the teach- 
ing of other modern languages. Our aim 
at present must therefore be two-fold— to 
produce good elementary books and trained 
teachers of the language. Anyone who can 
speak Irish, read English, and knows some- 
thing of general grammar and of another 
modern language, will require very little 
effort to become an efficient teacher of Irish, 
if possessed of the ordinary mental qualifi- 
cations necessary for every person who 
aims at teaching any subject whatever. 
Such a man can train himself by acting on 
the lines indicated above. 


" Erin Gu Brath ;" i.e., " Ireland for Ever!" 
" Vive a jamais ITrlande !" 
Traduction du chant national Irlandais. 
Par John Sullivan. 

Sur une rive étrangère, reveur et melanco- 
lique, un Barde proscrit chantait avec cette 
ardeur, cette âme qui caractt'rise à un si 
haut degré les fils do I'antique, de la mal- 
heureuse Erin, de ce berceau des Bardes 
OÙ naquit la sublime Poesie. Sa tunique 
légère était saturée d'une rosée lourde et 
glacée qui détendait ses nerfs engourdis. 
II soupirait apres son Erin, sa brillante 
Emeraude, sa patrie aux monts verts et 
riants, qui avaient donne de I'essor à sa 
verve, à son âme, à sa Ij're dcs sa plus 
tendre enfance. 

Un soir, à I'heure oil nait le crepuscule, 
seul, expose au fort de la tempête, des 
eclairs, de la foudre, entre la crainte et 



l'espèrancc, il chantait les désirs arder 
que fait naître I'amour de la patrie dans 
sein du malheiiieux Exile comme suit : 

I. Oh, qu'affreux est mon sort ! 
Le cerf, la bete fauvc 
Ont un refuge, un port 
Qui du danger les sauve. 
Je suis reveur et coi, 
Je pense à ma chaumine. 
Pius de paj's — pour moi, 
L'exil et le famine. 

II. Jamais dans ces verts prés, 
De mes ai'eux I'asile, 
Jamais dans ces bosquets 
Pour chanter ma belle ile. 
Ma harpe implorera 
Le " Shamrock" qui I'inspire ; 
Oh, mon " Erin Gu Brath," 
Sois le lai de ma Lyre ! 

III. Erin, oh mon pays! 
Humble et abandonnée, 
Je songe à tes parvis.... 
A ta rive adorée ! 

Je m'éveille en exil.... 
Et mes amis je pleure.... 
Sans revoir leur sourcil 
II faudra que je meure. 

IV. Porte de ma chaumine, 
Es-tu la près du bois 
Oil le berger domine 
Avec son fier hautbois ? 
Dites, mes sceurs, mes frères 
Ont-ils verse des plcurs, 
Ont-ils dit des pricres 

En caressant mes fleurs ? 

V. Assez de souvenirs.... 

Un désir....puis la tombe.... 
Erin, vois les soupirs 
De l'exilé qui tombe.... 
Mourant, il chaiitera 
Pour sa noble patrie, 
" Erin, Erin Gu Brath," 
O doux sol que j'envie ! 

VI. Ou que verts soicnt tes champs, 
Mon ile enchanteresse ! 
Quand aux éternels camps 
Mon coeur priera sans cesse. 

Ton Barde chantera 
Sur ta harpe sonore, 
" Erin, Erin Gu Brath," 
Mon divin E.xcelsiore. 

Londres, British Museum, 15 Août, 1864. 


[The following lines, "Resiirgam" (I will rise again), 
were written for the Gaelic Union at the request of 
the Hon. Sec., Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C.] 

O SORROWFUL fair land ! shall we not love 
Whom thou hast cradled on thy bounteous 
breast ! 
Though all unstarred and dark the clouds 
above thee, 
Thychildren shall arise and call thee blest. 
Never our lips can name thee.Mothcr, coldly, 
Nor our ears hear thy sweet, sad name 
And if from deeper pain our arms might 
fold thee. 
Were it not well with us, O best beloved! 
Yet when we hymn thy praise, what words 
come thronging ? — 
Not the sweet cadences thy lips have 
Accents are these to alien lands belonging, 
Gifts from another shrine thine own have 
For, ah! our memory, in the darkened years 
Of thy long pain, hath waxen dim and 
And we've forgot for weariness and tears 

Our grand old tongue of poet and of saint. 
Most like a little child with meek surrender. 
Learning its lesson at the mother's knees. 
Come we to hear our own tongue, soft and 
As wordless bird-songs in unnumbered 
And now it shall notdie ; through all the ages 
Thy sons shall hold it still, for love of thee, 
This strong sweet tongue of warriors and 
Who served thee much, }-et loved not 
more than we. 




E\}C (Sadie 3 u r u a I . 

The heavy burden of establishing and con- 
ducting a periodical exclusively devoted to 
the interests of the Irish Language has 
rightly fallen to the Council of the Gaelic 

Their wisdom and patriotism have been 
proved by their work, and by no portion of 
their work more than by the lines which 
they have laid down for the conduct of this 
periodical. Their provisional circular, widely 
distributed, and which has met with all but 
universal approbation, indicates clearly the 
course of action. 

It is well known that they have for some 
years conducted in several important weekly 
journals " Gaelic Departments," which have 
prepared the way for their Gaelic Journal, 
and have, in fact, rendered the establish- 
ment of such a journal a matter of necessity. 
Since they first commenced their work, 
now more than six years ago, the feeling 
in favour of the preservation of our ancient 
language in those districts where it still 
keeps its ground has been steadily increas- 
ing. The progress towards the end in view 
may have been slow, but it has been sure ; 
and now, at length, what there can be no 
hesitation in considering the most impor- 
tant step yet decided on, and likely to be the 
most useful and most productive of good 
results, is about to be taken. 

The Council having unanimously decided 
on appointing me Editor of their journal, 
it is necessar)' that I should say a few words 
as to the hope I have of being able to do 
some service in that position. 

I have too high a sense of the honour 
they have thus done me, and too keen an 
appreciation of the spirit which prompted 
the proposal, to attempt to decline it, or to 
hesitate about undertaking a work of labour 
and responsibility. 

Were it not that I know very well on 
whom I can depend for willing help in this 
work, I should be the very reverse of con- 
fident. The early numbers will show that 

those who have all along provided the 
varied literary contributions in prose and 
poetiy for the "Gaelic Departments" of 
which I had charge, are still working in 
such a way as will probably, in a very short 
time, render my office, as before, almost a 
sinecure. The difficulty I have hitherto 
experienced was, not the want of readable 
original matter, but the want of space in 
the scanty column or so allowed me in 
newspapers, and which very often caused 
great disappointment to able contributors 
who were only anxious to work for the 
production of a modern Gaelic literature, 
if permitted. 

It will be strange, indeed, if this journal, 
founded as it is on an independent basis, 
going neither to the right nor to the left, 
but keeping its object steadily in view,should 
be allowed to languish and die. Estab- 
lished, not as a commercial, but as a purely 
patriotic undertaking, and by those who 
have already given such good earnest of 
their zeal and energy, I cannot believe that 
Irishmen will fail in their clear duty of 
sustaining the Gaelic Union, which in this 
effort needs the aid of all. 

Many things are yet necessary to com- 
plete our country's regeneration and secure 
her happiness, but I am unwilling to believe 
that in the struggle she would suffer her 
language to be lost ; and I think that if the 
case were fairly put before the people, they 
would not purchase a (perhaps) verj' tem- 
porary material advantage b}- the loss of 
the one grand link which binds them to the 
past — the one indelible, undying and un- 
mistakable mark of Irishmen. 

David Comvx. 

The Late Archbishop MacHale. 

Ox the 7th November, i88i, the great 
defender and supporter of the Irish language 
departed this life. It is now exactly a year 
since the elegy we print in this number was 
written by the youthful Gaelic poet, so well 
known under the noiii'de-pluiiie of ''An 
Chraoibhin Aoibhinn." We content our- 
selves on the anniversary of the sad event 



which called forth this touching and beauti- 
ful tribute by simply placing the poem 
before our readers. It requires no words of 
ours to keep the great prelate's memory 
green. This poem is, so far as we know, 
the only wreath of song which has been 
offered to the memory of the poet who gave 
us Homer's heroic page and Moore's sweet 
lyric in our country's language for the first 

Our readers arc, doubtless, aware that a 
Memoir of the " Life and Times of John 
MacHale" has been recently published by 
Rev. Canon Bourke. We intend noticing 
this work in a future number, and shall licre 
advert to it merely for the purpose of intro- 
ducing an account of the Archbishop's Life 
by the same author in the Irish language, 
and which will be continued in this journal 
until concluded. This is a different work 
— in its plan, style and scope — from the 
English " Life," and (at least in the early 
part) may be looked on as the original of 
the English. It was undertaken in conse- 
quence of a suggestion made to us by 
Mr. Thomas Flannery, of London (himself 
a clever writer of Irish prose and poetry, 
and a contributor to this journal), that we 
should ask Canon Bourke to write Arch- 
bishop MacHale's Life in Irish as the most 
fitting tribute that could be offered to his 
illustrious friend's memory. Canon Bourke 
willingly complied, and more than nine 
chapters were written before he even enter- 
tained the idea of writing the English work, 
which, as he says in his preface, he was 
pressed to begin by literary friends. Though 
not so comprehensive in its scope, the Irish 
" Life," we venture to think, will be found 
quite as interesting as the English work. 
The style is clear, easy and natural, and our 
Irish classes and students will find it a most 
desirable reading book. 

Dramatic Scenes. 

It has been reserved for our day to wit- 
ness, and for our journal to contain, the 
commencement of a series of Dramatic 
Scenes, the first ever written in the Irish 
language, and which develop a new vein of 

literature, hitherto almost unknown among 
Gaelic writers. It is true, beginnings have 
been already made by some good transla- 
tions of portions of English drama ; but as 
an original Irish composition, so far as we 
know, nothing similar to the piece which we 
with great pleasure place before our readers 
in this number, has hitherto been at- 
tempted. It is also true that in many of 
our ancient poems the chief characters speak 
for themselves, often with an interlocutor 
(not unlike the Greek chorus) ; but in these 
there is no attempt at dramatic design, 
colouring or plot. Nevertheless, we are in- 
formed that in Scotland some of these 
ancient dialogues were regularly recited, 
and the characters sustained with some 
regard to dramatic effect. But dramas, 
after all, they are not, and do not pretend 
to be ; yet, considering the stirring scenes, 
well-conceived characters and striking inci- 
dents which are now and then to be found 
in our ancient writers, it cannot be said (as 
has been rashly asserted) that they had no 
dramatic talent or appreciation of theatri- 
cal effect, though it does not appear they 
ever followed out this particular line of art 
as they did so many others, or in the style 
which has produced so many glorious scenes 
in other tongues. 

To our Irish readers no words of ours are 
necessary to introduce the " Soliloquy of 
Brian Boroimhe before his last Battle," but 
by such of our friends as have the mis- 
fortune to be still without sufficient know- 
ledge of Gaelic to enable them to appreciate 
the rev. author's composition in the origi- 
nal, these remarks may not be considered 
entirely out of place. In further pity for 
their ignorance, and in order to encourage 
them to study, the author has yielded to a 
suggestion made to him since the Irish 
manuscript passed into our hands, and now 
appends a worthy English translation of 
his own work. We venture to hope he will 
continue this practice until such time as 
it becomes no longer necessary, when all 
our readers will be able not only to read 
and write Irish, but to converse fluently 
in the language with their Irish-speaking 
fellow-countrymen — a consummation de- 
voutly to be wished. 



Our Scotch and Welsh Friends. 

The name of lAIN Bax OG is well known 
among Gaelic readers as that of one of 
the most correct writers of Scottish Gaelic 
in modern times. We gladly insert his 
hearty Highland " \\'elcome " to our effort, 
and hope, as he promises, tliat we may fre- 
quently hear from him. Xo Irish scholar 
will have any difficulty in reading his 
Gaelic, which is very little removed from 
that of our best standard authors, and is re- 
markably free from the artificial variations 
of which too many recent Highland writers 
are so fond. We have also to express our 
thanks for his efforts on behalf of our under- 

Mr. William Spurrell. J.P., of Caer- 
marthen. South Wales, is distinguished as a 
Cymric scholar, an enthusiast for the pre- 
servation of the Welsh language, and author 
of several valuable works on that ancient 
tongue, including a verj^ useful grammar 
and two dictionaries. He also edits " Yr 
Haul" ("The Sun"), a popular monthly 
Welsh magazine, and has always taken a 
lively interest in the doings of those who 
labour for the preservation of the Irish lan- 
guage. The Gaelic Union has to acknow- 
ledge several practical letters and much 
sound advice, which, coming from so ex- 
perienced a source, shall always command 
their respect, even on points where both 
parties still " agree to differ." In another 
portion of this journal we copy a notice 
written b}- Mr. Spurrell in his magazine 
in reference to our movement. He writes 
as follows in explanation of his Welsh 
article : — 

I send you a copy of the Haii! (Sun), wiili 3. nolice 
of the Gaelic Union Report. As you possibly may not 
understand the Welsh, I give you a free translation of 
what is said :^" Some of our readers who may till now 
be un.acquainted with the fact will be glad to know that 
there is in operation in Ireland a society for cultivating a 
knowledge of the Irish language, and for publishing 
books for that purpose. As fias been the case with the 
\yelsh language, Irish has been a mark for the ridicule 
of ignorant English folk, and, we fear, of ignorant WcUh 
folk too. It is not a difficult thing to despise what the 
despiser does not understand. But learned linguists, 
especially on the Continent, highly prize both languages, 
as well as their sister dialects, and acquire from them in- 
foi-m.niou not easily obtainable without their help. There 
are also many very valuable manuscripls in the language j 

of the sister isle ; but the language is under one disad- 
vautnge that the Welsh is free from, that is, its very 
awkward orthography and inconvenient letters. The 
Irish /;ẅ-fl// adhere to the old form of letters and spelling 
with determination, forgetting that the written language 
is not ahv.iys tlie spoken language, and that the best 
orthography is that which shows in the clearest inanner 
what is the speech of the people at each epoch. A fixed 
unchangealile onhography hides the history of the lan- 
guage ; while the method of putting in writing what is 
spoken by the people should vary to answer their speech, 
and >o bucnme a recor.l of the changes that are taking 
I'l ' -I '■ 'I' 1:1 - '•' .-A--'- that constitutes an historical 
' \ , : iiiiological or derivative ortho- 

-i . 1 ' settle its principles. If the 

1' ill 1 ' -■ li::^v^' Í1 in which a word is taken is to be 
rci,i:niil. cognate words, differing much firom each 
other, should be w'ritten in the same form as in the language 
from which they are taken, as esgoò, bis/10/', éflqtie, &c. 
which thus ought to be written as in Latin, if not as in 
Greek. '1 he truth is, it is the business of linguists to 
trace the derivation of words, and the business of ordinary 
writers to show to the eye as clearly as possible what the 
language on the speaker's tongue is. A great error of 
the day is looking on snelling, especially English spelling, 
as aholy thing of the holiest." Mr. Spurrell continues : 
" We here have no schools for teaching Welsh except 
Sunday schools, and there persons learn in the hour or 
two of the Sunday to read Welsh more easily than they 
learn to read English in six or seven hours of each of the 
six working days. The reason is that Welsh is nearly 
phonetic, each letter having, with veiy few exceptions, 
only its own proper sound." 

Our journal's new year begins on the ist 
November, the " great Feast of Sainkaiii 
among the ancient Irish," and the morrow of 
the momentous " Oidhche Sainhna" which, 
through so many ages, even to this day, 
has continued in Ireland and Scotland to be 
devoted to those curious and primitive cere- 
monies which, as shown elsewhere in this 
number, present in the two countries such 
remarkable evidence of a common origin. 
With Ld Bcaltaine (May-da\j Oidhche 
Saiiiluta marked the great divisions of the 
year in the primitive calendars of our 
ancestors. Each of these was subdivided 
into two portions, thus forming four rdiihe, 
or " quarters," but no arrangement of months 
appears. On the eve of Samhain the Feis 
Teamhrach, or great assembly of Notables 
at Tara, was solemnly opened every third 
year, and in other ways the date seems to 
have marked " Le Jour de I'an " among the 
Celts. In next month's number we shall 
copy from Dr. O'Donovan's " Introduction " 
to " The Book of Rights," his learned essay 
on the '■ Division of the Year among the 
Ancient Irish." 


The much admired poem entitled " Re- 
surgam," printed on page i6, has been 
copied and quoted from by many journals 
and newspapers. The Daily Nezus speaks 
of the author as the " poet of the Gaelic \ 

Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., Hon. Sec. 
to the Gaelic Union, purposes in an early 
number to recount the history of the move- 
ment set on foot by him for the preserva- 
tion of our native language, over which he 
has watched so sedulously, and for which he 
has worked so zealously. 

We are obliged to hold over for next 
number the first of a series of articles in 
Irish, by Mr. Thomas Flannery, on the use 
of "the word Cii in Irish names," and which 
is in type. We shall also shortly print from 
the pen of this practical Irish scholar a care- 
ful and learned review of the Gaelic Prayer 
Book — "An Casán go Flaitheamhnas,"— 
recently published by Rev. John E. Nolan. 

There are î<í\m, indeed, who have laboured 
for the cause of the Irish language so 
earnestly, unselfishly and ably as has 
Thomas O'Neill Russell, for the past twenty 
years. We are glad to see that he has not 
yet wearied of well-doing, and it is a source 
of great gratification to us that his name 
appears among the contributors to our first 
number. He has also promised to continue 
in behalf of our present venture that whole- 
hearted support he has always given to our 

Among the contributors to our next num- 
ber will be P. W. Joyce, LL.D., author of 
the " Irish Names of Places " (two series), 
an Irish Grammar and other works. 

An apology is due to our Subscribers for 
the great delay in the publication of this 
number, which we fully expected ourselves 
would have seen the light at farthest before 
the middle of the month which is now 
drawing to a close. Our arrangements, 
however, being now completed, we expect 
that the December part will not be far behind 
its nominal date, and the January part we 
shall endeavour to have ready before the 
close of the present year, so that at least in 
18S3 we may start fairly with a clear 
conscience. We were loth to alter the date 
of this number, as we are hopeful that the 

unforeseen delays which attended its pro- 
duction can scarcely occur again. 

Mr. John Sullivan, of St. Helier's, Jersey, 
has favoured us with a French version of 
" The Exile of Erin," which we print this 
month. We also give, among the " Opinions 
of the Press," Mr. Sullivan's remarks on our 
provisional circular in his paper, the Jersey 
Observer. We shall shortly print Collins' 
Irish translation of " The Exile of Erin," 
which is certainly not second even to the 
original. Our present number, by the way, 
bears something of a polyglot character. 
It is pleasant to find Irishmen and friends 
of the Irish cause noticing our effort in un- 
expected quarters. 

Owing to the great variety of matters de- 
manding our attention for this first number, 
we have to defer the publication of the List 
of Subscribers, which will commence in the 
second, and be continued in succeeding 
numbers. As all subscriptions are payable 
in advance, only the names of those who 
have paid up will be given. Intending 
Subscribers are earnestly requested to for- 
ward their proposed subscriptions or dona- 
tions before the issue of the second number. 
The Council of the Gaelic Union has re- 
cently decided that all Members of their 
Society subscribing at least ten shillings 
per annum, not in arrcar, will receive a copy 
free of the Journal each month. All moneys 
are to be made payable to the Hon. Trea- 
surer, Michael Cusack, Esq., 4 Gardiner's- 
place, Dublin. 

A large number of circulars and forms 
for enrolling Subscribers are still on hands, 
and may be had, post free, for distribution, 
on application by letter to the Hon. Secre- 
tary. The Report issued for 1880, and 
the Pamphlet of Rules, &c., issued in the 
present year, may also be had. 

Rev. Patrick O'Keeffe, C.C, Fethard, Co. 
Tipperary, a member of the Council, has 
produced a book, now well known, entitled 
"Moral Discourses." As Mr. John Fleming, 
another member of the Council, and a well- 
known Irish scholar, is engaged in trans- 
lating this work into Irish, we hope to be 
able to publish in future numbers his Irish 
version of some of these discourses. His 
classic style may be judged by the first 


article in this number, which is from his 
pen, and which is "as good as a picture." 
The very "look" of it in print would do 
good to one who did not even know Irish 
as the old lady did Greek, " by sight." 

It may be necessary to remark that this 
journal is not a commercial speculation, 
nor has it any connection with any project 
whatever founded as a source of gain to the 
promoters. No one has in it any personal 
interest of a pecuniary or profitable nature. 
It is the property of the Gaelic Union, who 
have collected a small fund by way of 
"subsid)'," and which with the subscriptions 
they believe will be sufficient for its sup- 

In our next number, amongst other good 
intentions, we hope to be able to commence 
a " Notes and Queries " Department, a 
column for " Folklore," a space for " Desi- 
derata," and " Answers " to Correspondents. 
For " Folklore " we have already a fair col- 
lection ; and Rev. Mr. Cleaver and other 
friends have lately favoured us with some 
interesting specimens to begin with. 

The Literary Committee appointed with 
the Editor to examine all articles chosen 
for insertion in this journal, consisting of 
Rev. M. H. Close, M.A., and Rev. J. J. 
O'Carroll, S.J.^ is a sufficient guarantee that 
the principles on which it is founded, namel)', 
" non-interference " in controversy, either 
touching religion or politics, will be strictly 
adhered to. On this point it may not be 
out of place to quote from Christopher 
Anderson's " Native Irish and their De- 
scendants " a few remarks which seem ver\" 
well suited to the present case. He writes : — 

A very cheap periodical work, if well conducted bj 
a man of principle, who, upon certain subjects, well 
understood the doctrine of noninterference, but was 
thoroughly imbued wiih tlae desire of tienefiliiig his 
countrymen in every way, cautious of admitting speculative 
opinions, and determined to insert no mere idle reports, 
on whatever authority, but resolved to put the native 
Irish reader of the day in possession of what is indubitable 
as to nature, science and art, would be of essential service. 
There is not a people upon earth who would read such a 
thing with as much avidity, nor would any reader have 
a greater number of such eager hearers. 

It shall be our desire to conciliate all who 
wish well to the Irish language ; the sus- 
ceptibilities of all must be respected, and 

no friend kept out of the ranks by petty 
jealousy or private spleen, so long as he is 
willing to work heartily and honestly. 

ScÁro iK\ J^^e-ótlje AJU)' UeAiijCAX) eite 
111]- iiA SrÁmib iXonruijro. 

te Ü. O. lltiii'éAl. 

ní'L Aon ct]i 'y^n ■ooiiiAn m a ■o-cujcau 
nioj- ItJJA 'oé ciiiiAni ■oo cedngcAib, lonÁ 
cugCAjv -oóib 'f nA ScÁrotb -cVonciiijce ü' 
•AniepiCA. <\5 ]'o Aon ■oe 11 a neicib a cá 50 
léi]i in AJATO nA bAjtAiiiLA ■do cioci.-a-ó a 
j-ccAnn ■ouitie nAc jiAib itiAtii m <.\nie|\icA, 
Ajui'üo -óeun^A-ó AbA)tAtiiuii -oe iiéi)t céille 
coiccionnA. "Oo beiueAt) yio]' Aije nAc )k\ib 
ccAnjA Y"-^" ■oo'ii*^^" ">^c lAbAipeAt) m 
•diiieniCA, A511]' •|"nutAnij:eAT) ]-e 50 nAnújtcA, 

5U|t ]llACCAnAC UO JAC AOn, leAC T3U]'Ain 

ceAnjcA ■00 lAbŵinc -oA in-bA Á1I leif -out 
Aijt AJArò in A jnó, i]' cuniA cad é An l"ó]ic 
jnó no leAn]."Aü ]'e. 

ÜÁ An bAHAiiiAtt ]'o miceA]tc 50 lci)i. 11 1 
cui)teAnn wa 1i-Ame)ncAnAi je Aon c-]'uiiii 1 
■o-ceAnjcAib. CluincAnn ■\-\<\x> beAjnAc jac 

CCAllJA HA h-GoUpA 'gA LAbAl|lC in A 

■o-cimceAbb 5AC La ']-An ni-bliAtiAin, acc ni'l 
Aon -peAH ']"*" 5-céAT) iiiiLe •oiob, j^-ó jLtimicA]' 
Aon ceAnn ■oe ha ceAiijcAib coijchioca da 
5-cliiiiieAnn -j^iAD, Agiij' 1]' co]'AiiiAiL 50 
n-inni]'eAiin ni-o éigin DÓib, 50 ]VACAm ua 
CBAngcA coi5C]\i'ocA \-o CA]ic niAji ceo, AgU^' 
nAc njeubfAró pAD ].-neuiii ]tu\iii in a d-ci)i. 
ni'l Aon -oe nA ceAnjcAtb \-o co cÁbACCAC 
lei]- All 5*?'-^l*"^^^''''-^c- LAbAiiicoAH i le 
ceicpe nnluin DAoineA-ô in <.\iiie|ucA, acc 
CÁ \\ Dul cA]tc 111 AH ceo 11 A iiiAiDiie. \y i 
All ỳi]iinii 50 bedc^o i, da 5-cui]i|.-eAD co)-^ 
Ai)i Aij-ciMUJAX) nA ii5eA|\iiiÁnAC 50 D-ri 
v\iiienicA, iiAc iiiAin].-eA-ó a D-ceAngADÁ ýiciD 

bllA-ÓAin. UÁ pO DGAJtbcA 111 10111AD lllÓ-Ó. 

Ill i.'Ó5luitneAnn nA 5eAi\iiiÁnAi5e nugCAit 
in <Xme]\icA, ueAnjA a pinpeAH ; ]:euDAnn 
An cuiD If tnó tn'ob í lÁbAijtc ; acc i]- ẃnAtii, 


qiA, A y-AJCA]! ẃOn ACA ^-OjluilluA 111 A ceAll- 

jAiii, ^vju]" 1)" ceA]ic HA •OAOine aca te ii-a 
•o-ciocpAt), ]JÁipeu)\ JeAjMiiÁiiAC ■oo cu]\ in 
eAjAji no leAb]iÁn ai]i 5]\AiiTiéAH nA ceAnjAii 
T30 ■p5]iiobA'ó. "Oo bi "OA joÁipeu]i 5^<^l'i'''' *'•''' <^ca 
in <.\LbAni, i pcAi-o 11uATÌ)-6Ab]iAic, qn'ocA-o 
l)liA-ÓAin Ó fom, ACC cÁ pAX) iiiAtib Anoi]-; 
CO liK\r <\y •o'ýÁ]- yuAy gemeAlAc 05 •oe 
5eA]iiiiÁnAij;ib in]- ah j-cachaij'] ym, no 
l-5n1l1cAr.AH Ó lAbAijic nA rcAnjAn Sca]!- 
iiiÁnAije; x>'eiì^ iia i-eAnüAome; ní ]iAib 
AonncAc le leiiJA-ò iia b-pAipen^i 5^<-M*" 
iiiÁiiAC, Agu]- "oob' éigin •oóib yÁJAit bÁi)- 
"Oe iiA li-uile ccAiijcAib a rÁ 1 ■o-rnA-|-ceA]ir 
iiió]\ri]ie ^iiie|iicA, rAob Aiinii j üe'n DciihIa, 
ni'l Aon ccAnn t)iob 11 ac b-yiiil aj enjA-ó 
ACü All ll'iiAincí]- An'iÁm. "OÁ ni-beic An 
111CU-0 ■pnAiicAC iiinri, Agu]- ArÁ tie jcA]!- 
iiiÁnAigib, 1]- co]-AiiiAil 50 ii-ei]ieocAi-ó aii 
ýliAincí]- "oo belt 'iiA reAiijAin ik\ ci|ie 50 

1]' ll]U1]- A lÌieA]' 50 b-l.-llll All t^AP-ÙlllJ 

yAillijce m <.\tiie]iicA iik\)i auii Le iia 
rcAnjCAib coigcniocA eile; acc cá Aon cúi]- 
■]-A0]irA A15 All 5'-^^''^"-'b mnn, iiac b-yiiiL 
A15 11A reAiigrAib eile ; 'yi yo j-nuiAnieA-ó nA 
Ti-éineAnnAC ju]! Ab éijm tioib ŵ ■o-ceAiigA 
■00 j-AOjiAt) ó bÁ]- 111 A]! Aon ie n-A t)-ci'|i. 11 í 
■)\Aib Aon ]-iiuiAiiicAt) A15 All b-pAi]iri río]\Aiii- 
ŵil éi|\eAnnAC m A.\tiic)iiCA yice bliATJAin 
ó ]-otn mm a ■o-rcAiijAin, acc, CAob A|-ri j "oe 
iiA peAcc no occ iii-bLiÄüAnAib üéi jcaiiaca, 
rÁ An ]-niuAineA-ò yo, ^vy Ab lonnAn bÁ]- iia 
ceAnjAn aju]- bÁ]- An cini-ô, aj pÁ]- iiio|- 
rpoinie jac iÁ 'iia ihoaj-j; ajii]- roi-in jcAiiii 

■j-lA-O T) peicpm gll)! ŵb All í rCAHJA " All CAHCA 

•oei jcAnAC in a lÁiiiAib." 1]- |.-ío|\ 50 b-pnil 
iiió]iÁn -oe'n pAi]ici vÁ iigoiiiceA]! 'tioiia- 

il." n< 

5-ciii]\eAiin Aoii r-)-niiii m a 

•o-ceAnjAni, Aju]- i)- chhia beo ca iiai]i eiij- 
yAi-ó ]-i ; ACC CÁ All i-ó]\c po -o'eiiieAiinAijib 
A5 eijige ni'o]- reiiice jac lÁ, Agu]- Anoi]- 111 
bAiiiocAT!) Aon "oóib Aon iìiaja-ò -00 cii]i ai]i 
An 5<^e'óili5, bi'ot) nAc -o-cuijeAnn piA-o péiii 
pocAl ■01. 'SiAT) pqi-eAjAi)! riA b-pAipeiiji 
é-ijieAnnAc, nAnAiiiitie ip mo Ajupip qioime 

A15 All gAetiilig 'y.s 111-bAile Ajup 1 5-ciAn. 
^y ceAjic 50 b-puil Aon peAji aca le pÁJAit, 
nAc iiiAinbeócA-ó ah jAebilje I'lil cAicpeAb 
ye A ■oinei]!, tiÁ 111-b' peitiip lei]- é ■óéAnAiii. 
CÁ cajIa o]i]iA A T3-CA0ib nA 5<^et)il5e, oiji 
1-AOileAnn niópÁn tn'ob nAC pAt) t)iiiiin An 
Aimpi)! ill A m-beib piACCAnAC ■óóib a 
b-pÁipeii]iA Tio clobiiAlAb 50 Icacac 110 
b'péi-oin 50 léi]\ A njAcẃilig. 11í li-Áil leo 
)-o, ói|i iii'l peA]i ACA ciiijeA]- pocAl Toe 
ceAn^Ain a -o-cipe, A511)- cÁ yuwi yó leij-geA- 
liniil -d'a pójliiiiii. "OeiiiceAp po gAii Aon 
■oiìil nÁiiiüAcin AJAiT) iiA li-ioiiiAt) -OAOineA-o 
iKvpAl poilll-iSCAp nA pÁipenpA éipoAnnACA 

']■ A111-bAlle AgllJ- 1 g-ClAll. nil AOn lÌllAll A15 

All p5]iiobAT)óii\ Tio ]iÁ-ò iieireAb 'iia 'o-riiii- 
ccaII nAC b-puil rAicneAiiiAc leo: -oA 111-beic 
•0Ó no r]\i aca no cuippeAn ppei)" aju]- puini 
111 A ■o-reAiigAin rio]\Aiiiil, aju]- "oo -oeAii- 
pAb Aoiinib X)'a CAbA]iAÚ, 111 bcAHpAb ]'e 
Aon pocAl 'nA iD-ri nice All; acc '1111 aij» hac 
b-puil Aon ACA le pÁJAil no cAbAipc An 
con^iiAin ip li'iJA ciim iia 1i-oib]ie iiAi)-le po 
A CÁ op A j-cóiiiAip At]i peAn ye no i-eAcr 
111-ViliAnAii, 1)- )-oilléi|i lei]- pétii Ajii]- iiA 
li-iiile -ÓAoinib, 11 AC ii-néAiipAin iia nAome 
UAi]-le ]-o Aonnib ai]i ]-on nA gAenilje no 50 
m-bein ]-e jiiaccaiiac nóib é -oeAiiAn Ai)i]-on 
A ii-A|\Áin A^u]- A 11-inie péiii. 

Ill iiui]! è le li-iAppAiú, 50 tii-beit. An 
leAbAp iiiio]-Aiiuiil ]-o clóbuAilre 50 ceAjic 
Ajnp no péip ]iia5aI 5|u\iméi]i nA SAeni^e. 
1)- ]-CAnnAil 1110)1 1, All ]-óiic 5>-\Pbil5e cló- 
biK\ilreA|i j^Ac lÁ 111 ei]iiiin, m vMliAitin 
Agii]- 111 Ame]iiCA. "Oob' péApii é mile 
nAip, jAn All 5'-^'?bili5 no clobuAlAn ai]\ 
Aon cop, lonÁ n'A neAnAt) iiia]\ néAncAji é 50 
minic. T)ob' peÁ]ip no'n jdebilij mile uAip, 
cum ne nA IcAbpAib clóbiiAilceA]\ iiinri 
A beir 111 locrAji ha niApA, 1011Á A5 cup 
néi]-nin ai]\ ik\ ]-j;i)lÁi]ub Aj;iip iiiAiple ai)! An 
n-ceAngAiii 111 a j-dubuAilreAii 1. Ilil Ami 
leiq-^enl nuib ]'ü cuipeA]- aiiiac leAbAji 
mioi-Aiiiuil All CAii congbAijin ]-iAn eAp]iAine, 
ne V)]\i5 50 b-piiil Am 50 leoji aca v'a 
5-ceA]iriiJAn. Jninin ]-5)iiobAnóiii ah aiji- 



nogAil ]'o, Ai|i All Aubw]! ]"in, mÁ jeiibcw)! 
eAUjiAiue Ann, "o'a 5-ceẃ)\cuJA'ó ytí'L ctó- 
biK\ilreA]\ é. 1]" cum a caü iaü nA li-eAji- 
jiAiTie -óéAnAi" An r-Aic]U]'reoi|\ ni cói]\ vo'n 
ýo)ll]-ijreoi]\ kw clóbuAÌA-ó. 

v\i]i bÁ]- LeoiiiAin nA li-diHT)e 1 ii-iah, SeÁ- 
JAin IÌI1C 1léil, i\iiroeA)'boi5 Uuahia. 

S.Miio>in, ISSI. 
tei]- All g-Cp^voiljin Aoibimi. 

ÜÁ b]\ün yU'.\]\ a'i' ceo xjub 50 no-cm j 'ynò. 

ÜÁ -oonA)- Ai]\ foliq-A']- j-onA]- j;eAL poebii]- : 
V'mre'OSA Y TpiüeosA jAn ceoL m a 111- 

beiiLAib ; 
An bcj ni]' An 111-biiAiLe jAii Inij a']' 5An 

Ill liiAj'CAiin jaI ^Aoice bÁ]in c)iAoibe no 

l]- lonjAncAc ciumeA]' ha b-]3lún a']' iia 

n AiieiitLrA']Mi>^ l"]3euncAib 50 bAjAjiAc ■oonn 
'S rÁ rACCAt) ']v\n Ae|\ ctuj acá ]'e co ciiom. 
I]- iiiAnb An co]\]iAnn A15 fporÁn An c-i'béibe, 
-t\ n-üé bi Aj ]iiceA-ò 50 li-AOibnin ']- 50 

ni'lb]\icin ]-An ui]-ce A5 jiinnce ']■ aj léminij 
ní'l plbín A5f5]noc nÁ yeAüój nÁ eun Aim. 
ÜÁ'n neAnncój huaü ai)i cúl aii bAllA, 
<\n yócAnÁn c]\tiAi-ò 'y An cupój jiumia, 
t\n plij Y 5<-^c luib cÁ 50 CU1 5 Aj yÁy Ann 
50 ]'0CAi]\ 1-0CA1]! 'y co]'aiìiIacc bÁi]- Ann. 
Oc, ìy 1.-01111]' Aiéne 50 b-]:inl An bÁp Aiin 
1]' -i-'oini]' ẃicne ai]i bionnüiib 11Á'oúi)\, 
<.\i]\ rnoinie ha ]-|Déi]ie bi' 50 h-Aibbenb 
50 i\Aib A-óbAn jenn-joil Ai|i i-eAt) An 

1)' bÁ]- iiío|- iiieA]-A 'nÁ tniLe bÁ]' é, 
OÁy An ACAji but) cuiin, 'y bub j]vÁ-ÓAC, 
iVrAiji Á]ro nA cléin' 'y nA iii-bnÁcAi)i 
Oc, I]- é Tio bÁp--|-A no linll ah nÁi]-iun. 
<\i]\T)eA'|-boi5 ■ói'Lip, 5|u\b tiA cléipe 
5jiÁt) nŵ n-üAomeAb, 'y ciioibe ha yéAe, 

1lló]ibÁil ConnAcc, iiió]rôÁil ei)\eAnn 
IÌI0 itiíle quiAJ, A SeÁJÄin lilic lléil tu. 
11 1 ŷeu-OAiin An fjeul fin ■00 feAfAt) 5 An 

'Sé AU yv,eu\. é, le li-eq-reAcc, ij- iiieAj-A 

belli' cnoi-óe-]'e, 
■O'ŷÁg Gijie 50 ceu)'CA, í yéiii aY a ■OAonie 
'O'ỳ.s-^ ConnAcc 50 -oonA jAn yoluy 'iiA 

cnoi-óe 'i'nj. 

1)- CUJ-A bí CIU'OIIA, ClAbllÌlA]l, JAC Alll, 

<\5 peolAb iiA n--OAoineA-ù 'y^sn c-j-bije iiac 

]lAlb CAlll, 

1]' ru]'A -00 ]'C]u'ob|:Ab nu\]i nAOiii be jDeAnn 
HIah yuAin ru ó TJiA -Oü CKvbl Y "00 ceAnn. 
v.\cr b'ýeÁji]! 'tiÁ i'in uile, Y 'i'-^c bjieÁj é le 

nÁY CAill ru AniAiimo i-péi)- A^up 5nÁb 
X)o ceAnjAHi iiA b-éineAnn cÁ CAOin-iiiili)' 

SeAU-ceAnjA fiubAbAc nA ngAebeAb aY "<-\ 

An c|\Ár iiAC i\Aib bÁnn Ann,bí cuj-a An' bÁiro, 
i\\\ n-ccAnjA beAc-c]\Áinre no cój ru 50 

bun cu An peA]\ n'ỳeunAn Â)i 5-ceob no 

ni ciocpAin 50 neo bmn no f-AiiiAil-pe 

'S ni b-puijm cÁinne iia gAenib^e beo, 
Coi-óce Aon cajia ip Áinne 'nÁ cu, 
ÜÁ pobu]' iiA gAenibge iiiúcrA 50 neo 
Ajupj-oiui'nAh-eiiieAnn cÁbÁinuepAOi ceo. 
v\i|\ n-éipreACC An l'jéib pm 'y nuA-ÓAcc 

An bÁ,r. 
■î^ocuir ün-Á)i5-c]ioine']xij Aon.]-5)u'oc uac- 

<\'y n)\UA5 ACÁnium, i]- ciuiAin Á)\ 5-cÁ]' 
An ponAp Aj iiiiceAcc, 'y aii noiiA]- aj pÁp. 
An ryÁt cuAin n'AUAiii 50 pL-^'teA]- be bémi, 
bun cjiUAin An buibbe no ruic omiAinn pém 
'IIUAIH píneA-ó no co|\p ■^^y au j-clAjv boj 

Oc! cuAin A]i njt^'-^'ó bcAC, a SeÁJAin 1Ìlic 




beACA SeAJAin 1Ì1ic lléiL, ^ijroeAi-poij 


<\n Ceiiü CaiIhthI. 
'bnonrA]! ihoIa-ô •oo 'n ré -o' Án cóip é. 

'nUAl]A A l-AgAl- AfAl]l h.iy 1 TI-CI5 AIH 

"bic, bi-óeAnn b]iüii iiiij]i ai|\ a ciiiti cLAHine. 
"OeAiiAnn i'iAD cAiiin eArA]i]iA yem ai]i aii 
nieuü A 1115110 ]-e A511)- Aiji iia bpiAcjiAiVj a 
•oubAijir ]-e 'miAi]i a bí ]'e beo A511]' 111 a 
iiieAj-g. 1|' 111AIC leo bjieAcmiJAu aì]\ ah 

CAOl -OO CAIC l'e A beACA, AJ AniA|lC Al]l JAC 
btlAt>Ain, 5AC lllí AgU]' JAC lÁ. ÜÁ A loriiAi j 

yóy óy cóiiiAtn a ]nil, gi-ó hac b-'piii'L ^'e 
beo, Aju]- iiAc b--|:iiil fe A5 cAinc leo iiiAp 
bí 50 iiimic iri]" All Am a cá aiioi]- caiic. 
Ill b-yinl yocAi A T)iibAi|\c ]'e, no beAUAC 
in A piibAiL ]'e iiAC b-pml yAoi iiieA]\ 
-eVgii)" iiiA|i i'lii •né, cui|ieAnn j'iaü 1 g-ceAiin a 
céile, nA buiAcuA, nA beAlUMj, nA beu^^A 
Ajuf nA gnioiiiAjicA but) jnÁcAc beif, be 
cuiiiiniuJA-ô Ó Aiii 50 n-AHl A •óéAnAt) 0]\\\&. 
dpreAiin j^iatd 50 yoiiniiiAH be ■ouine aiji bir 
A beiiioA]- eolu]- •ooib ai]! bLiATÍiAiiCAib a 
beACA — Aj r]\Ácc Atji neicib éAjf awIa : 
nA neice jnÁcACA noc ■00 innne ]'e, aju]' nA 
comAi]ilix) ■00 CI15 ]'e tiAit) — beijeAnn a 
cÁijTOe jAC nit) A CÁ ]'5]iiobcA |-aoi. 1f iiu\]i 
yo CÁ ye 1 tiieA]'^ tiAomeAt) jac cijie, Agii]' jac 
pobuib Ajiij' cimt) y<\oi An njjiéin. üa ^'e 
m Áji 5-cnoit)cib Ó nÁt)úi]\ yéin cunnniuJA-ó 
Ai|i, Agtif CAinc A t)éAnA-ô y<\o^ Á)i n-Aic|\ib 

Ajllf UlCC-JAOlb meAjWlilAll a CUAltl ]\0- 


IfiiiAH ]'ocÁ-]^eit)i]i jAc AÜA1H Agiq-A cmt) 
cbAinne. ÜÁ iiieAj- aca aiji a Ainm Ajuf aij; 
A ciniiine. 111 a']' niA]\ ]'o é, 1 meA^'g cbAinne 
An t)oiiiAin iiiüi|i, !)■ 1110 'nÁ i-in An meA]" aju]' 
An geAn a cá A15 cbAinn C)iíü|-caiìiaiI ai]i a 
n-AcAi|i iiiúi)\neAc i-'éin. -^-Vsuf 50 t)eiiiim 
nAc ).'io]v-ACAi)i A bi in]- An -AitTOeAj-iDoj 4 
t)'iiiici5 «Ainn ? — nAc acai]! TJiLeA]- a bi Ann 
x>\\ çLéi|i Agii]' t)'A pobnb ? Ill li-ionjiiAt), 
iiiA|\ I'm, 111Á CÁ iiieA)- mop aju)- geAn A15 a 

clAinn Ciii'ofCAiiiAilciiit) An tioiiiAn Aippgeub 
A beACA. ÜÁ AH meA]' |-o Ẃ15 mumcin nA 
li-éincAnn Ai]i, Agu)' A15 nA h-éijreAnnAijib 
A cÁ 111]- All -dmeniCA, in]' An OileÁn I'qi, 

111)- llA 1l-1mD1ACAlb f01]l AgUp I'lAjl, 111]' An 

v\]-r]\Alu\, Ajuf JAC céAjTOA yAoi An njnéin 
111 A b-j-'iiib niAC no injeAn ve cLAinn nA 
gAoiJeAl. Ill peiuiji, iiiA]\ ]-in t)é, nAc m-beit)- 
cAt) jAiiTOCACAf on]\A f5eub A beACA A lei- 
jeAt) 111]- All ceAnjAin iit) a ntiúccAi]- i'éin — 
ceAiisA Ai]i A ]iAib geAn aju)- 5iu\t) A15 An 
cé lit) A CÁ Anoi]' eulmjce UAinii 50 1i-Á]ia]' 
yýo]\ clAinne "Oé. Ciii)iceA]i ó]' bu]i j-cóiiiAin 
lAece A óije, lAece a liieÁ-óoin AOi]-e, aju]' 
lAece A Aoi]'e ]:oi|\].'e, 'iuiAi]i a bi ]'e aj 
cjieoiiuJATJ Aju)- Aj I'diijiAt) t)Aoine nA 
1i-&i)ieAnn cum ]-ao)\]"acca a 5-c|ieiT)iiii : ]'e 
]'in, i-Aoiii-AccA, no ceAt), "Oia An llile ci'nii- 

ACCAC A tV leu 5 At) AJU]' A At)]\At) mA]1 ]lin- 

)ieAt)A]\ p'o]\-clAtin 11A 1i-éi)\eAnn ]ioiiiie ]-o. 

Saii r-SeAii-KeAcc bub liiAic lei)- ua 
b-iutiAijib b]ieAcint5At) in a n-inncinn ai]i 
lilAOi)' A bi 'uA cjieutiAit) AjU]- 'nA ceAnnA]ic 

0]1]1A, AJU]- IllA]! ỳeA]l A bl ACA in Á1C "Oé 

A5 cAbAi|ic t)óib cöiÌK\i]ile ai]i ah m-beAlÍAC 
but) cói]\ tioib ]-iubAl Ó)- cómAi|\ üé, Agu]- 
Ai]i All mot) bi ceA]\c a AiceAUCA aju]- a 
blije iiAoiiicA A coimeÁt) aju]- A coiiiilionAt). 
1]- iiiA]! ]'o bi ]-e Ai)! ];eAt) bliAuAiicA le ]Dobul 
iiA 1i-éi|\eAnn. bi a ]-úile aj tseAHCAt) ai]i 
SeÁJAii 111ac hell, -i\iiit)eA]-]D05CuAmA, mA]\ 
c]ieut)Ait) Aju]- mA]i ceAnnA]\c ó "Óia, — yeAji 
]:Ai]ie in 5AC gÁt) A5UI' in jac cúi]- 
AC]iAnAC Aim)iéit)ceAc a cÁinic. 1)- 111 A]! ]-o 
bi ]-e A15 nnnncin 015 ua li-éijieAnn a t)' éi]\i5 
iniA]- le pee bliA-óAU, aju]- 1]- mAji I'o a 
CÁ I'e A lÁCAi]\ 1 iiieA]-5 póji-clAinne ua 
njAcbeAl. bei]i S]3io]iAt) ua ■pi]iinne ccitii- 
Aiple t)úinn ha ]:i)i meA)-AiiilA, cneutiiiiA]iA, 

glOluilAJlA, AgU)- Á|l 11-Alflie 111Ó]K\ A CUAIt) 

]\oiiiAiiiii 111 A n-Aiii |.-i'iii A liiolAt); y\\\ a 
IMJne iieice longAncACA, Agu]- A15 a ]iAib 
CÁ1I mó]i Aju]' eAjUA mó]\ in]- a ii-aiii a^ 
]-ÁbAlAt) Agu]- A5 ]-cuinAt) cum CUAin 1U\ 
]-ioccÁiu\ Aju]- UA iiiAiccA]-A UA inuiiici|ie A 
bi yAOi iiA j-jAc A5U]- ].-Aoi n-A ü-cjieoi]!. 



îléll Ŵ]At3eAfp015 üiiAniA, a CÁ p ]11ACCA- 

iiAc, inf An Atn ceAwnA c|\acc aiji An aiiii]'ih 
A bi Ann 'nuAip a iaujax) é 

t)]ieAcnui5 p^n ai)i An iii-bLuvWAin liti 
17S9 — no, 1790, 'niUMH A bi An i:]\Amc aju]- 
An 6111101)3 Ain -j-'A-o, Ai]i bnuAC A beic bni]-ce 
bnúijce, 1--A01 fŵlcAiic foij-onin a bi Aip 
niijie le ceAnn vei^je a']- Ia]'ahacca no. 
li-AncobA boi)ibe. peuc u\t) aj buAbAt) aju)- 
A5 bnifeA-ó, A5 nenbA-ò, aj lorgAt), Agn)- aj 
]-Iatd 5AC nib Aju)' 5AC TDinne Ai]! a ^Aib 
me-^]- no blÁc, no bifeAc. ÜÁ An jmj, An 
bwinnioJAn — An ■[.■eAi\-cine, An niAC 05, no ah 
injeAn Átinnn Aip Aon 'ja T3-rioiiiAinc mA]i 
CAOiicAib Ann Á1)\, le 1i-k\-o a iiiA]\bAü Ajii]' 

uvo A •oiceAnnnjA-o. 

5eu|i, ciiMAJAc; bi aiìijah Ajnf An^'oj, cnÁiJ 

; TDAomeAt) n. 



Ajiii'CAOineA-o 1 

Ajuf nv\ li-Go]ipA Ai]! -pAu. -iVju-p bi Gi)ie 
yéin Aj yeiceAb ai]i uaiji a reAi'diijce. Di 
An tJoiiiAn mó]\ -pAOi c]iic Agn]- -pAOi cajLa ; 
Ajtif bi iiiemne nA n--0A0ineA-ô li'oncA t)' 
inmi-oe aju]- ve lin'o-fuAinmeAp 

Sm cugAib An c-Ani m a l^njAb SeÁgAii 

in AC 1iéii. 

bub I1-1 inÁi|\e llij 1ÌK\oilciA]iÁin a ẅá- 

CAIJI, Ajn]' PÁÜJIAIC in AC lléll A ACAIjl. V)i 

A15 A 1Ì1ÁCA1H niói)ifei]'eA]i niAC Agii]' c]\ni]i 
injeAii. biib 1i-é SeÁJAn An ct'njeA-ô hiac 
Agu]" An I'eii'eAu •oume ve clAinn a iìiáca]i — 
01^ bi tjeinbfiiín Aije ■d'aji b' Ainiii <.VniiA a 
bi ni bub piie 'nA é yéui. So Ii-iatj Ainnine 
cÌAinne a acaji Ajuf a iìiáca]\ ; üoniÁ]' An 
ceuTj ■oume ; 1l1Ái)\cin, An •oa]\a leAnb — a 
yuAip bA]' 'nuAiji A bi fe Sia iiiAl]k\c ; 111 ]in, 
inAolrhuijie; ajuj- pÁütiAic An ceACHAiiiAb 
■oume — ACAi^ An obÌAni) tduwacca ComÁi]' a 
bi I'eAl, jeAji-p Ó i'oin 'nA oi^oe Aip ireA^ó 
bliAbAn A 5-cobÁi|'ce niumcipe nA h- 

éineAun, 1 b-pAi]\i]' n a P]iAince. An cúigeAÚ 
IcAfib-'pn — SeÁjAn — -o'a i\Aib fe 1 n-'oÁn a 
beic 'nA Aiii-oeAj-poj, 'nA cpeoip Ajuf 'nA 
ýeAf coimeÁ-OA AjCAcoit-icijib nAli-GipeAnn 
Ai]\ yeAX) C]ii p'ceAt) bbiA-ÓAn. Ruja^ó ■oo 
1Ì)Á^o]\Aic éA'ôiTion Ajuf mÁife Ajuf beijic 
clAinne eibe, a yuAi]\ bAf m Ainip]\ a 
n-óije — r>eicneAbAi\ ■OAomeAb — lomlÁn nA 
bcAnb A 1^15 inÁi]\e A céile bó. 

bub beon loniiiedfOA inAife Hij IÌIaoiI- 
ciAiiÁm, bcAn cuijponAC, Á|\-o-inncmneAc, 
céillibe, A rug Aife'o'A C15, Ajup ■o'a cii]iAtii 
Ajuf ■o' ACAijA A clAinne. bi 5iu\b iiiacau 
Aice ■Oüib Aiji f A^o, Acc bi ]-"eÁ]\]i a'-]- bopn y^n 
— 51K\b bAnAlqiAije a bei|ieAi' Ai|ie ■o'Á 
clAinn Agui" ■o'Á cú]AAiii inAf jeAll 50 b-j.-uil 
p A5 •oéAnAb coIa "Oé. IIIaji jeAbl aiji fO, 
bi jeAn 1110)1 A15 A 111 AC SeÁgAU ui)ine co fA^o 
a')' bi )-i beo, Agu)' CA)i éi)' a bÁi)' bi a 
cuiiime 1 5-cóiiiiniibe A15 a c)\oibe niA)i )ió)- 
I.-A01 blÁc A5 CAbAi)ic UAIC1 bAlAib TAicneA- 
liiAij linli)'. puAiji p bÁ)- 'nuAi)! bi a nu\c 
ciiiiceAÍl 11A01 bliAbnA -oeuj -d'aoi)'. 

"Oo pó]' pÁ-o)\Aic An ■OA)iA UAi)\ bcAn Ó5, 
Áluinn,iiiAi)-eAC — a col-fet)'eA)i irem — ■o'a )\' 
b' Ainm CAiclin llic lléil, -d'a iiiuinci)\ aju)- 

■OA cme irein. 

)i Aige "oen )3o)'a^o ]-o 

)-ei)'eA)\ cÍAmne, ■o'Á b-iruib bei)ic beo m)- 
\ ÜÁ 1 lÁrAi)i. 
(Le bheith air leanaiiihaiu.) 



Til THE Editor of the " Gaelic Journal." 

Sir, — While all agree that the article on the Gaelic 
Union Circular in the Tunes of the 4*'^ '■'' i- ^ i^iM.Uictipn 
of very great vÍL;our and ability. \ 1; '1 \ ■ 'iülain of 
the tone of some (lassaL^es in it. I I ink the 

article very fair, nay, very iavniii-j , , ,., i ,,i,i;. appear 
from the writer's point of view. lit; wimM ijc \Liy glad 
that an " intligeiious tongue — a distinct variety of human 
speech," such as is the Irish language, should be preserved. 
But as seen fium liis , land-point he believes that all things 
fV,rcb..^I-i-' ii:''i 11. li i' ' ''•■■ i!,miitsofus who 
are M I , : 1 'Quixotic. But I 

believe i!. •"'• 1 :' ■. . I'i iliat I can show 

this to iliL- wiKci .■! ilh: jiUlU-. Liii'l I" tlie thousands who 



think with him. And what are these objects? To banish the 
English certainly is not one of tliem. It is the language 
of commerce, science, art, and so on ; let it remain sucli. 
The promoters of the Gaelic Union — many of them — are 
admiiers of the English language and of its noble litera- 
ture. With the language of Shakespeare and Newton we 
are well satisfied — nor yet would we require a single defi- 
nition in the works of Salmon or Casey to be translated 
into Irish, We are striving to keep the Irish tongue alive 
where it is still spoken as long as we can ; we wish to 
have all the local words in the language taken down while 
those who know these words are siiU alive. We also wish 
all the songs or fragments of songs, poems, proverbs, 
folklore, traditions, manners, customs, to be written as 
soon as possible, before the old Irish-speaking people 
leave us ; we wish to create an interest in the language 
that people may learn it in order to take down these 
things. There are, moreover, in the Royal Irish Academy, 
in Trinity College, &c., piles of Irish manuscripts — manu- 
script treasures as they ate thought by the ripest scholars 
of Germany, France, Italy, and other countries. These 
scholars think the Irish manuscripts worth transl.iting into 
the languages of their respective countries ; and in order 
1 1 fit themselves for the task of translating them they learn 
Irish, of course as a dead language. But there are so 
many idioms in Irish — they are almost innumerable — and 
the shades of difference between the meanings of many of 
these idioms are so nice, that it is a life-long labour to a 
foreigner to master them, if he can ever master them at 
all. Those who speak the language in early life have no 
difficulty in understanding the meaning of these idioms — 
even the illiterate never commit mistakes in the applica- 
tion of them. It is only Irish-speaking scholars, then, 
that can rightly understand, translate, and explain these 
idioms, and we wish the language to be preserved alive 
until the last page of our manuscript materials is secured 
for the scholars of the world ; and we wish the Irish to be 
taught to Irish-speaking children from infancy in the 
schools, and the English language through it as a medium, 
that so these little I'ells may l.c lnoiight upas rational 
beings, and that the j^iÍIl'Í .ìiimii- llicui may'learn the new 
science of comparatn c |ilulo'ii^\. and in this way be pie- 
pared to give our manuscnpls to ihc world of letters. No 
one will say that the people of Ireland are not as capable 
of learning philology as their Aryan kinsmen of the Con- 
tinent ; and surely with equal culture they can understand 
their own language better any other people in the 
world. All along the sea-board and in the islands, from 
the Foyle to Waterford Harbour, the people speak Irish : 
we wish, then, especially for the reasons given above, that 
the children should be taught Irish at first in the schools, 
at home, everywhere. But would not this be sacrificing 
the children? The localities specified above are the 
poorest in Ireland ; the children in these localities are 
soonest taken from school — would it not be better, then, 
to have the children taught as they are now, /.e-., English 
at first, and during all the time they remain at school ? 
Let us see. 

In one portion of a school district m Donegal there 
were, four or five years since, 30,000 e\clusuLly Irish- 
speaking people. No attempt had e\ ei been made m a 
single instance in this district to turn to any account thi 
pupils' knowledge of Irish. '1 he children seeing turf 1 
home and in the bog since infancy could not say w I 
turf is, or what is a bog. It is the Inspector of the disiii 
that tells this in a Blue-book. It must be allowed th u 
these children did not gain much by bemg taught m t ng 
lish during their time at school. In February, 1880, 
the correspondent of a Dublin daily paper thus describes 

the state of education in a portion of Kerry :— " In all the 
vast district lying to the west of Dingle scarcely a word of 
English is spoken. ... In Coumeenole not a single 
individual in the village could speak a word of English, 
and the young children, though they attend school, and 
are able to read the third and fourth books tolerably well, 
feel wholly at a loss to comprehend any question addressed 
to them in English." It m.ay be said that these children 
were incorrigibly stupid. No such thing : had the In- 
spector or the correspondent been able to question them 
in Irish, he would have got intelligent answers. Fifty 
years ago, the Right Rev. Dr. Abram, Bishop of Water- 
fonl and Lismore, said of such Irish-speaking children : — 
*'The little country children presented to me for Con- 
firmation who had been taught the Christian Doctrine 
in their native language, as far surpassed, in the knowledge 
of their religion, the children taught in the English lan- 
guage, as the rational being surpasses in solid sense the 
chattering jay." Dr. Abram had been President of St, 
John's College, Waterford, and Professor in the College, 
too, and no more strict and methodical educationist could 
be found, nor any person less prone to exaggeration. It 
may be added that the children of the very highest classes 
only, or the children in the larger towns, were at that time 
taught the English Catechism, whereas all the poorer 
children, servants, and such, one-half of whom never 
entered a school door, were taught in Irish. Had these 
latter been questioned in English, a moiety of them, I am 
sure, would fail in telling what turf is or what is a bog. 

As regards the Irish language, then, Ireland may be 
divided into two districts — the first comprising all the 
localities in which the language is still spoken, and the 
other, all those where the language has died out. The 
former district may be roughly taken as the sea-board and 
islands already described. In this district the greater 
portion of the people are more or less bilingual, though in 
many parts of it they are exclusively Irish-speaking, or 
nearly so, as, for instance, the thirty thousand in Donegal 
already mentioned, the people to the west of Dingle, in 
Kerry, and the great majority of the inhaljitants of Con- 
nemara. Perhaps the best idea of what kind the exclu- 
sively Irish-speaking jieople are, may be formed from the 
" Report of the Medical Commission of the Mansion 
House Committee," by George Sigerson, M.D.* Speak- 
ing of Camus, a locality in the west of the County Gal- 
way, Mr. Tuke, as quoted at p. 31 of the Report, says : — 

'• There you see, peering above the rocks, little dark 
heads of men, women and children, attracted by the un- 
wonted sight, come out of their cabins to reconnoitre. As 
you walk among them on landing, they watch you with 
curious eyes : they do not beg, and cannot answer 
your inquiries, for most of them do not understand, and 
few can talk English," &c. 

On this passage Dr. Sigerson remarks : " The reference 
which Mr. Tuke makes to the prevalence of the Irish 
language here, may also be applied to other districts. 
Indeed, in almost all the localities we visited, a know- 
ledge of the Gaelic language must be requisite for the full 
performance of their duties, by all who, like clergymen, 
physicians and others, have to deal closely with the peo- 
ple. Medical terms are not, for instance, well under- 
t .0 1 c\ en by those peasants who speak English, and 
ueish.ave been given {e.g., tending to con- 
/ « ith typhus], as was ascertained by ques- 
I akers in their native tongue. Then they 
Lvi iL I iciuseUes with correctness, and often with 

* Browne and Nolan : Dublin, : 



Not much more literate than these little Celts were some 
of the parents of the children in the mountainous parts of 
• the County of \\'aterford fifty years ago, when Dr. Abram 
found the little mountaineers such as he describes them ; 
and such the dark-headed children of Camus would be 
found by an examiner like Dr. Abram, who knew how to 
question them in their native tongue. In the three loca- 
lities enumerated there are at least 100,000 souls, and 
there arc many other similar localities along the sea-board 


Now it is to the promoters of the Gael 
prehensible how educationists should p-r 
these poor children of the Irish-spo ikn 
the irrational fashion they are followm-. 
group at Camus, for instance, been a l 
banks of the Seine, lately introduced into 
on some industrial manufacture, would the children r 
them, in the fir^t instance, be taught through the K 
language as a medium and by a teacher ignoraiil 
other 1,1 nguage? No one in Ireland would rc> ■ - 
such a course, llut the Irish-speaking children ■ 1 ' 
and of such other localities, are as ignorant of iIil- I 
langu.ige as so m.iiiy French children ; why then nu 
them as French children in li" 

id be 

'I'lie 7Vwi-J goes on to say : " The Gaelic Union, how- 
ever, is not at all satisfied to devote itself to an archieological 
inquiry. Its purpose is to recall the common employment 
of Iriah as a medium of comnmnication .... But 
a language as a national instrument cannot be kept in life 
because its heirs, many or few, desire to preserve it. If it 
be requisite for the general purposes of national existence, 
it will survive as Welsh and Breton has survived. . . . 
The British connexion . . . . has reconstructed Irish exist- 
ence and nationality on a model to which the ancient Irish 
language is alien. Gaelic does not express modern Irish 
wants and ideas. They are expressed in English. . . . 
Mad Irishmen continued to speak Irish, a majority of them 
would have learnt English .also, as a majority of Welshmen 
leani English, and a majority of Bretons French. . . . 
Had there been purely Irish thoughts for which Irish 
the sole vehicle, the language would never have become 
obsolete. As it is, the resumed use of Irish wouM be 
simply for the translation of thoughts from the Engli>h. in 
which they are born, into a dialect as foreign to Irishmen 
. . . . as English was to the men of Connaught in 
the days of Queen Elizabeth. . . . To lavish ardoiir 
in bribing teachers and school-children to learn a langu.age 
which can teach them nothing, and by which they can 
teach nothing, is like endowing a day labourer with a 

machine to test gold 

Irishmen are shrewd enough not to be tempted in large 
numbers to the unremunerative outl.iy of brain power 
.... Many creatures .... arc in ' 1 iri 1 .-i m; .i^ 
specimens which are neither desirable 11"! • 1^ 

of cultivation .... It is a pii\- : ■ , 1 

its very real antiquarian riches (/.c, of til: li: li ì,',;'-) 
should waste on the vain effort to force back upon their 
countryman a piece of furniture they had already turned 
out of doors, labour which might be fruitfully spent in 
fitting it for safe and honourable deposit among the trea- 
sures of the National Museum." 

The writer appears to tliink that the Irish language is 
actually dead, and that nothing remains but to lay it out 
decently, and to fit it for a lesiiectable place in the National 
Museum, where archaeological inquiries can be held over 
"its very real antiquarian riches." These antiquarian 
riches, if printed, would fill, on the authority of the late 
Professor O'Curry, over 30,000 quarto pages of letter- 

press ; they are now in manuscriiit, unpublished, unedited, 
untranslated, /aid out in the Royal Irish Academy, in 
Trinity College, Dublin, &c., &c. And how many 
scholars in the world now really capable of editing these 
manuscript riches? Could the number be counted on the 
fingers of two hands? There are. I knoiv, two natives of 
Ireland among them, Mr. ^\ hitlcy .Stokes and Mr. W. 
M. Hennessy. We have had in Ireland for nearly a 
century archaeological and antiquarian societies, and 
valuable work they have done in editing and publishing 
many of our manuscripts ; but those who have done this 
w -il, li i \ . ■ ,iliii> 1-1 ,: ;1 li ti U-, .Hid 1(1 this pass we have now 
I : iiirse antiquaiian richesbe 
:, I , 1 lie people of the globe in 

J, ij iii.\) e- Y -•-'-'■■•• • '-' '-''■-■ '■'-'■ i'.igeof them issue from the 
press, but nut in a vei)' correct shape, for when the Irish 
language is in its winding sheet, no one can understand 
its idioms. Those who would preserve the Irish 
l:in';;unge are altogether concerned about the people in 
!ii,h-speaking districts. They will, of course, gladly 
iiiage and help all who desire to study the language 

iL- country, but they would prefer seeing the little 

.i.iik-lieaded children of Camus taught Irish at first in the 
schools, and next taught English through it as a medium, 
to seeing ten times as many in the non-Irish localities 
leain it as a dead language. That the Breton and the 
Welsh have suivived is not due to any fitness of things 
in either language ; the Breton is still the spoken language 
of Bretagne, though the French Government have used 
every means to extinguish it, even to the forbidding of its 
being taught in the schools. A gentleman from Scotland 
who had made a tour in the province about four years 
since, in a paper published in the Transactions of the 
Gaelic Society of Inverness, explained the reasons 
why it is still alive. The Bretons are as devoted to 
their priests as any people on earth, and their priests 
love the old language of their country, and hence its 

As to the language of Wales and its people, " the 
whole country was in a most deplorable state with regard 
to the acquisition of religious knowledge " previous to the 
year 1730, when the Rev. Griffith Jones, of Llandower, 
made the first attempt of any importance, on an extensive 
scale, to erect schools for the instruction of the people to 
read their native language. He, in allusion to the en- 
deavours of those who would banish Welsh by teaching 
linglish, asks in one of his letters : — " Should all our 
Welsh books, and our excellent version of the Holy Bible, 
and Welsh preaching ... be taken away to bring us to 
a disuse of our tongue ? So they are in a manner in some 
pkaces, and yet the people are no more better scholars 
than they are better Christians for it." This good man 
lived for thirty years after this date, and during these 
vears he laboured unceasingly to preserve his native 
tongue, and, as a matter of course, he was able to bring 
many others to his own way of thinking, and to engage 
them zealously in his wuik. Aiiimig these was a pious 
lady of fortune, .Mrs. Bcxaii. w!;m ni-ived him several 
years, and by will left A/ ' wa/i, the interest 

of which was to be app.i , : . . ihe use of the 
schools founded by him. I li w 11 a disputed by her 
niece, who got the case into «, hanccry, where it continued 
for thirty years ; but it was at last declared valid, and the 
accumulated interest was then applied to the .support of 
circìdaímg charity schools throughout the whole prin- 
cipality. The number of Mr. Jones' schools, it may 
be mentioned, amounted to two hinidrri and twenty 
during his Ifeiime ; yet there were many mountainous 
districts without any schools, and to one of these districts 



the Rev. Mr. Charles, of Bala, on whom the mantle of 
Mr. Jones had fallen, was appointed. 

This excellent clergj'man tried every means to have the 
people of these districts instructed in Welsh. He asked 
for subscriptions, employed teachers, trained them him- 
self, wrote catechisms and other elementaiy works in that 
language. His zeal and unselfishness soon brought him 
subscriptions, and enabled him to found more schools. 
On introducing one to any place, he previously visited the 
place, called upon the influential inhabitants, and upon 
the parents of the future scholars, he spoke kindly to the 
children, showed the parents the blessings of education 
for their children, promised /a assist them zoith books if they 
were too poor to Ijuy them ; the teacher was to take no 
eiurance money ; not to encroach on the people, nor intrude 
upon them unless specially invited into their houses. 
Surely it was no wonder that the language of Wales should 
rn'i-'i. The people after a time became so interested in 
it that the necessity of these day schools was superseded 
by the increase of -Sunday schools, and these have brought 
Welsh to have a flourishing literature of its own. 

The term "revive" above has been used designedly, 
for the same baleful influences had been at work in Wales 
that proved so disastrous in Ireland. The Rev. Mr. 
Charles says: "At first the strong prejudice which 
nnivrrsally prevailed against teaching them to read 
Welsli first, and the idea assumed that they could not 
learn English so well \i previously instructed in the Welsh 
language— this, I say, proved a great stumbling-block in 
the way of parents to send children to the Welsh schools, 
together with another conceit they had, that if they could 
re.rd English they would soon leain of themselves to read 
Welsh; but now these idle and groundless conceits are 
universally scouted. This change has been produced not 
so much by disputing as by the evident salutary effects of 
the schools, the great delight with which the children 
attended them, and the progress they made in the acqui- 
sition of knowledge. The school continues usually at one 
■ time in the same place six or nine months, &c." This is 
the way^that the language of Wales was saved from be- 
coming obsolete. 

These extracts awaken thoughts of a painful nature. On 
the .-ame year that saw the Rev. GritiSth Jones entermg on 
his life-long mission for the instruction of the Welsh in 
their own language, an Irishman, equally patriotic, Hugh 
M.icCurtin, a native of Clare, had prep.iredfor publication 
an English-Irish dictionary, which, with the brief Irish 
grammar appended to it, contains 700 pages. But it was 
m exile in Paris he compiled this work. It was published 
there through the friendly exertions of a patriotic priest, 
the Rev. Conor O'Begley. MacCurtin was an ardent 
lover of his native language, which he said is "copious and 
elegant in expression .... though it has been declining 
these five hundred years past, whereas all the modern 
tongues of Europe have been polishing and refining all 
that time." In an introductory Irish poem he calls on the 
•' nobles of Ireland, the heirs of affisctionate generations, 
to forsake their lethargy and [help him] to urge on the 
earnest publication of their books." He complains of this 
long fit of torpor which had come upon them all, "even 
on their wives and children," causing them to "forget the 
ancient tongue of their ance-t'ivs, ihi- enl'ghtened dis- 
courses of their fathers." Hehid in prc]iaiation an Irish- 
English dictionary ; it never saw tli.j ii;^lit, any more than 
the other works he had compiled for puMicalion. 

Of the nobles of Erin, the Venerable Charles O'Connor, 
of Belenagar, only gave heed to his appeal, and Irish was 
then a proscribed tongue ; it was but a few years before 
that Dean Swift said : "It would be a noble achievement | 

to abolish the Irish language ... so far at least as 
to oblige all the natives to speak only English on every 
occasion of business, in shops, markets, fairs" . . . 
and this he believed might be done in half an age . . . 
and at a cost of six thousand pounds a-year, or three hun- 
dred thousand pounds in all. Fashion naturally was 
equally against the proscribed tongue. "I have heard 
many gentlemen among us talk much of the great con- 
venience to those who live in this country that they should 
speak Irish. It may possibly be so ; but I think they 
should be such as never intend to visit England, upon pain 
of being ridiculous." (Hardy's Life of Lord Charlemont.) 
The proscription fell into abeyance, but the cursed fashion 
flourished. Those- who intended to visit England were 
heard to speak disparagingly of the Irish tongue; their 
underlings took up the same tone ; from these it went down 
to the tenants and cottiers. The natural parental affection 
of the Irish peasant gave way to his desire for his child's 
welf\ire. He directed the brutal hedge school abecederian 
to put a tally under his child's neck, and should the child 
speak a word of the only language he could articulate 
there was a notch inserted in the tally, and veiy often the 
child's back was cut with the cat-o'-nine-tails. 

No wonder the fitness of things made the Irish die out 
altogether in the greater part of the central plain of Ire- 
land. And what have the inhabitants of this central plain 
gained by the extirpation of their native tongue from 
amongst them ? Have they become more intelligent ? 
Have their children become more intelligent ? It is 
well knowm to all that in the National Schools of 
Ireland there is a system of results' paymenls— that is, a 
pupil that passes in any branch of school learning earns a 
fee for the teacher. The test questions are the same for 
all schools, and, of course, the most intelligent child earns 
most results' fees. In the English-speaking plain the 
children have never yet heard a word of Irish ; their 
fathers heard none ; the grandfathers may have heard a 
few words when children. Outside the plain and in the 
islands the majnri'v -f th.- p-^-iplc -rí^ Ml!nç;iiil : -nnie are, 
as was said, exi 1 : ■ '■. li-li; i !'■ -iu'' .Ui ii\ in:; to for- 
get Irish and to I- I , ' :. 1 . I ■ li Mi.nare, 
saysthe highest 1 \ :,/, i:i;:i 1 ,iv, lii,- m -1 -iii; ni cniliireii he 
ever met ; they cnn-i.qiieii!Ìy can earn scarcely any results' 
fees. The exclusively Irish-speaking, though intelligent, 
can earn but very little, because the Inspectors, as a rule, 
being ignorant of the language, cannot draw out the in- 
telligence of the pupils. These two classes of Irish- 
speaking children reduce the amount of average results' 
fees earned by the pupils who are bilingual. In the 
English-speaking counties the teachers are as good as in 
the other counties, and all the appliances are more favour- 
able. In which, then, are the highest results' fees earned 
by the pupils ? Underneath is a contrasted table of the 
average amounts earned in some of the best districts of 
both classes — it tells its own tale. 


Eit<rlish-speaking Counties. 

Carlow, Queen's Co. Wicklow, Kildare, Oow.i, 




S/6 S/4 4/9 

Irish-speaking Counties. 
Kerry, Waterfnrd, Cork, 
6/6 6/4 6/8 

English-speaking Counties. 
Antrim, Dublin, 

5/10 4/S 

Irish -speaking Cou nties. 

Sligo, Leitrim, 

7/- 6/7 






Why are the Irisli-speakhig pupils so much in advance? 
And would it be generous or lair to put an end to the 
nitelligence Ünt emblem them to be thus in advante' 

\s for this m rl 1 j 11 1 intelligence m the childien 
the f-ict IS 1 I pel hips just now in 

Mdious t I at the chil Iilu «ho nie 

tu ng to fu 1 FnHish shrul I be tht 

d llest, IS Si 1 i I 1 

III the mtm lüunl 
agieed tD by the Nit 

1&74 it IS stited th t 1 I 

di trcls hi\e not E ^ c ^1 i 1 

except uch as relite to the ineLliincal bus ness ot tliLir 
occupation Hence the} aie nut al le in any degree t 
cultivate or inf:)rm the mm Is of their ch 1 Iren (thDugh 
cfteu very intelligent themselves), who consequently giow 
u| dull and stupid if they ha\p been suffered to lose the 
In h language, or to diop out of the constant practice 
of It 

It may be added heie that Clue where the highe=it re 
suits' fees in Ireland have been earned, is the most bi- 
lingual county in Ireland, /.■'., the county where the 
teachers, pupils, and parents speak and understand both 
languages best, and ithat to this fact, their superior in- 
telligence has been attributed by th^se most competent 
to form a correct judgment on the subject. It may also 
be stated that, as a rule, the best Irish speaker amongst 
the pupils is the best and most intelligent of them. 

How many Irish-speaking children in the schools of 
Ireland I cannot say. Certainly there are more than were 
in all Wales when the Rev. Griffith Jones began his 
mission. It will not injure a single pupil of all these to 
learn to read Irish, and to those who speak Irish only, to 
induce them to try to forget it will be certain to render 
them dull and stupid. It takes a long time to forget 
Irish. In Donegal they were trying to do so for a quarter 
of a century, when Sir Patrick Keenan found them "the 
most stupid children he had ever met ; " and after another 
quarter of a century, these children cannot tell what tuil 
is and what is a bog. How many keen Celtic intellects 
have been left fallow in fhat half century ! At any rate, 
as Dr. Johnson said on a like occasion : " The efficacy of 
ignorance has long been tried . . . Let knowledge 
therefore take its turn." As to bribing teachers and 
children to learn Irish, it is a practice of old standing. 
Nineteen centuries ago the pupils were bribed with cnisiida 
just as they are in this present year with higher premiums. 
In the next issue of the Journal will be given the opinions 
of the most philosophical edncationists on the question 
" How should bilingual children be educated ?" 
I am, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 


©pinions of tljc iPrrss. 

"The Times," London, i,th October, 1SS2. 

A new movement is proceeding for the revival of Irish 
national spirit in a very extensive and permanent fashion. 
Some years since a few gentlemen combined to encourage 
the preservation and cultivation of the Irish language. 
They intended to pursue their object by issuing cheap 
Gaelic publications, and by distributing prizes among 
teachers and pupils. Very 'soon they felt the need of an 

organ to explain their views, and a couple of years ago 

prospectuses were circulated Calls upon the leisure of 

the nnst active associate compelled a postponement of 

the scheme Now the membeis of the Un on have re 

s hel both ti co stiti te them elves a regular society 

VMth aftilnte 1 bjlies thi u^hout the country and also to 

, Hi h h with ut fuller deli) a ninnthlj ma azine 

II II nl parti) lush th 1 h 1 lal 

1 01 1 on of the 1 I -if 

be poetry an 1 ] elf 

anj oti ti \ai 1 is 



; shillii 

b el 

f \ 3r m re | Ciol e of 

Lashel is the [ atr n a it) Tf,iin i tlie 1 lentihcation 

of a natnna! and patiiotic endeavour with distinctions 
of creel and party is afifoided by the presidency of the 
O Conor Don A\ith much self lestramt the committee 
has even refrained from ihe national coloui Its hand 
book positively has a blue cover. Whether the pro- 
gramme is to be fulfilled and The Gaelic Union Journal 
to appear depends henceforth wholly on the amoimt of 
countenance the design receives from without. Before 
the loth of October the Honorary Secretary must have 
sufficient answers to his invitations to enable the first 
number to be published on the 1st of November, "the 
great feast of Samhain among the ancient Irish." The 
projectors, who bestow all iheir laljour gratuitously, very 
reasonably refuse to be put off with cheap expressions of 
good-will. With all their economy, ili.-v nre already 
somewhat in debt; "it is support i';- -"< 1 w i.'jiiires, 
not sympathy alone." Before laun' ■; ;,.' ■ |iiit it 

insists upon having " such a numbfi . i ; .d as 

will allow of considerable p....iM- . 1 Our 

sincere admiration of so reiii-ii M. i, ■ n 1'; :, .1 cau- 
tion is only qualified' by^an ;i| ;•; .1, :' ' :: ; . mely 
consistent with the fire and \\'..<- 1, . .,; n : ,.i 1 ^ < u luiMasm 
necessary to enlist popular Irisli eu-u|>ei,iUoii. 

All, Saxons or Celts, will concur with the Gaelic Union 
in wishing that the Irish language may be preserved. No 
Ii.4Mr cil iclic^ can approach in dignity and value an in- 

dl. 1, - n j;-. All the ancient monuments over which 

:--.i I ^,, 1., Mc has been watching are worth little in 
( : .11, ..I :i a distinct variety of human speech. Irish 
ill i.iiiii III, 11 1, in want of care. Englishmen who explored 
the remoter districts of Ireland half a century back often 
found themselves where they could neither understand 
nor be understood. An experience still possible for them 
ill Wales, and for Frenchmen in Brittany, has almost 
ceased to be possible in Ireland. Schools and the habit 
of wandering, and, perhaps, an addilion of intellectual in- 
dolence, have made Irishmen no longer bilingual. With- 
out attention and vigilance Irish might perish as Cornish 
has perished. Irish antiquarians have to exert their 
utmost zeal to maintain the philological tradition and 
vitality of a very important type of Gaelic. They would 
be grateful to any association like the Gaelic Union which 
seconded their learned efforts. The Gaelic Union, how- 
ever, is not at all satisfied to devote itself to an arch;eo- 
logical inquiry. Its purpose is to recall the common em- 
ployment of Irish as a medium of communication. Without 
interdicting English it would prefer to find Irish spoken 
when the company was simply Irish. Sensible and 
prudent people, as the promoters of the Gaelic Union 
have shown themselves in the preliminaries of the-r under- 
taking, are not likely to believe they will ever succeed in 
banishing English. They hope to restore Irish for use in 
the inner circle to which they would reserve liberty for 



f r 1 . h 

M ei \\el 1 1 Lr i hi 

e il n I If 

ni t ) 1 I 

CO n tl 1 

Ir I n lisi 

Thty 1 e 1 e 1 1 > Lngl h \ 
tl gl I to si^e 1 1 f re n e i 

ti gh o 1 1 P 1 I I e f 

of 1 1 1 I 

^\ 11 1 nrn E 1 1 1 I i 1 W 

Ir h n no V toleir I i h 11 

solel) nmong then ehes a) 1 f 1 

Hi 1 tl e e been p irely Ir h tl ^1 f III 

the sole \ eh cl tl e I ng ig 11 c la e hero e 

nlsolete As n i tl e res n e 1 sc f Ir sh o II 1 

s iipl) f r the tnn 1 t on of tho h s fro i tl e F gl sh 

\ 1 h tl e) ire horn n i 1 ilect is f re gn to I i 1 en 

notn 111 ml 1 stoi) isEighl m t 

the 1 nofe ni j,l I 1 li)soi()ee El z I h 

I 1 precit g tl e f 1 cul i ati n f Ir h is tl e 
mt onil h igu ge \ e ar act iite 1 1 y no liei t rj lo 
of ts po ver t ri se p fre h ob i les to pol c 1 a al 
gimit on I shn e i ^ e 1 c 1 1 1 occis o i it otl e 
til es to ol cr e lo 1 \ itl i tl e prison of a toig e 
I n ntell g I le t le v o 1 1 ha e n i ch 1 st engtl t 
ig t e igi t 1 L t h conne\ n tl in 1 is o 
tl e ig 1 c e n 1 hrises hiU th 1 1 cin ter 

p I ' 1 e 1 I in tl e Engl sh li ^ ige 1 is j_ 

I 1 N n 1 Hon e V ler in 1 Li 1 Leig er 

t nths of tl e 1 i ol t cil le ratre 

II tolh bclti of tl Lni 1 f 1 the 
] I h lin<T ige IS not s ch tl it t 

1,1 ell thit t 11 n t icceed To 

li 1 h 11 lo r 1 1 1 r 1 ig leich rs in 1 scl ool chil Iren 
t 1 irn 1 linj, ig h cl ci teich ihei noth t. 

and b> «hich tl 

e\ tin teic 

1 nothing is like endowing 

1 diy labourer 

«nil 1 m 

ichine t t t goll Irih 

men ire shrew 

eno gh r 

ot t le tt itei in hr^e 

numbers to an 

nrem ntri 

i\e th) of Inn j ow 

P t the pie I t 1 

) of tl e enttiiri e will not 

the It 1 

1 1 

1 1 ointment ind \e\ition 

Mil ) c 

1 inimil are no t i t t 

ingi I 

thtr des ril le n p 11 

sljct 1 

1 nguage whi h his 1 t it 

h U 

t nitsemblesthem Living 

'inSlrt 1 


1 elopme t ii d lefinement 
n the sel e the] over 

ofi 1 


1 t 1 

I pon th 

1 1 

I t> tl It 1 I I II 

lien a pi ct of I r it re tl ey hi 1 ilrci 1) turne lot f 
lüor liboi r v h ch i ight 1 e fiuitfi lly spent n fitt ng it 
for safe and honourable deposit among the treasures of 
the national 

TuF Ter f\ Observer," S/. HcUci-s, Jersey, 

O tober/^h, 1882. 


For tie preservation and cultivation of the Irish lan- 
g Ige was e tibl hed some years since, to encourage 
the 1 reser it on f tl 1 great branch of the Celtic language, 
the &wy 1 lelim or Gaelic, and to which belong also the 
Ir sh an 1 Min\ o that spoken in the Isle of Man, and in 
Brittiiy '\\ e hi\e on our library table the rules of this 
1 itr ot c IS ociati n forwarded by the Honorary Secre- 

) lei John Nolan, O.D.C., to whom we offer our 
1 1 1 m 1 best wishes for the success of this 

1 111 1 tal ing Ireland is very dear to us, and it 

II 1 

Tl e C 1 1 c Ln on association are preparing to issue a 
I mil h ch 11 1] pear iiiiinthly, partly English, partly 
I 1 hich w 11 V ntirely devoted to the one object — 
tl f r 1 e ince f the Gaelic movement. 

\t n eirly lij we will revert to this interesting ques- 
j^i ng full pirticulars to our readers. 

J. S. 

E I) r © a e 1 1 c Êí ui o n , 


rrESEr\ATio\ \xd cultivation of the 



Recent Meetings of Council. 

An impoitant Meeting of the Council of 
tlic Gaelic Union for the Preservation and 
Cultnation of the Irish Language was 
held on \\ ednesday, i ith October, at 4 p.m. 

Rev. J. J. O'CarroU, S.J., occupied the 

There were also present the following 
Members of Council :— Rev. John E. Nolan, 
O.D.C., Hon. Sec. ; Mr. Michael Cusack, 
Hon. Treasurer ; Mr. Thomas L. Synnott, 
Secretary Home Rule League ; Mr. R. J. 
O'Mulrenin, Mr. Michael Corcoran, Mr. 
John Fleming, Mr. John Morrin, and Mr. 
David Comyn. 

The following resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted in accordance with notice — ■ 

Proposed by Rev. John E. Nolan ; se- 
conded by Mr. John Fleming ; and 

Resolved — "That a Provisional Com- 
mittee be appointed to make arrangements 
for the publication of the proposed Irish 



Language Journal. The Committee to 
consist çf Messrs. Cusack, Comyn, and 

Proposed by Mr. John Fleming ; seconded 
by Mr. R. J. O'Mulrenin ; and 

Resolved — " That the Irish LaiK^uage 
Journal, to be published by the Gaelic 
Union, be known as the Gaelic Union 
Joitrnal;" and 

Resolved — " That Mr. David Comyn, a 
Member of this Council, be appointed 
Editor of the said Journal." 

Several considerable donations were 
handed in for the "Journal " Fund, amongst 
others : — Rev. Euseby D. Cleaver, M.A., 
i^io; Michael Cusack, Esq., ^5; D. 
C. O'Keeffe, Esq., £6. 

The Council being anxious to have as 
many subscribers enrolled as possible 
before issuing the first number, has ex- 
tended the time for distributing the circu- 
lars, and filling up the accompanying forms 
to the 30th inst. 

pointed last week, viz. : — Messrs. Cusack, 
Morrin, and Comyn. 

It was also decided to keep all transac- 
tions relative to the journal entirely separate 
from the funds of the Gaelic Union, and 
the Committee was empowered, during the 
ensuing week, to receive estimates in accor- 
dance with the arrangements already 
agreed upon, and was requested to present 
its report on the subject to the Council at 
next meeting. 

Besides the encouragement recently re- 
ceived, the Council feels confident of the 
success of the Gaelic Union Jon i-nal,dLríà of its 
vast utility to the movement. Members of 
the Council have for some years past con- 
ducted " Gaelic departments " in several 
important weekly journals with excellent 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met 
on Wednesday, iSth October. 

Mr. John MacPhilpin presiding. 

There were also present the following 
Members of the Council : — Rev. Maxwell 
H. Close, M.A., Vice-President ; Mr. 
Michael Cusack, Hon. Treasurer ; Rev. 
John E. Nolan, O.D.C., Hon. Secretary ; 
Rev. J. J. O'CarroU, S.J. ; Messrs. Thomas 
L. Synnott, John Fleming, John Morrin, 
M. Corcoran, and David Comyn. 

After important correspondence had 
been read relative to the progress of the 
branches and local associations connected 
with the Gaelic Union, the following 
resolution was proposed by Mr. John 
Morrin ; seconded by Rev. John E. Nolan ; 
and unanimously 

Resolved — " That a Literarj- Committee 
be appointed to conduct the Gaelic Union 
Journal, said Committee to consist of the 
Editor, Mr. David Comyn ; the Rev. J. J 
O'Carroll, S.J., Examiner R.U.I. ; and the 
Rev. M. H. Close, MA., M.R.I.A.,F.R.G.S." 
Several donations and subscriptions for 
the journal were handed in, which were re- 
ferred to the Provisional Committee for the 
business management of the journal ap- 

A Meeting of the Council of the Gaelic 
Union was held on 25th October. 

John Fleming, Esq., in the Chair. 

There were also present — Messrs. Cusack, 
Comyn, Morrin, Synnott, the Rev. J. J. 
O'Carroll, S J. : Rev. M. H. Close, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. ; and Rev. J. E. Nolan, Hon. Sec. 

Donations for the contemplated Gaelic 
Journal were received from the Very Rev. 
the President of the Carmelite College, 
Terenure ; Michael Kennedy, Castlederg, 
&c. Amongst the many subscribers an- 
nounced were — ^His Grace the Archbishop 
of Cashel ; their Lordships the Bishops of 
Ross, Cloyne, and Cork ; the Earl of Gains- 
borough ; Lord and Lady Clermont ; Lady 
Constance Bellingham ; Miss E. Skeffing- 
ton Thompson, London ; Miss Thomson, 
Ravensdale ; the Superiors of the Monas- 
ter}' of St. Patrick, Galway ; the Carmelite 
College, Terenure ; Rockwell College, 
Cahir ; Very Rev. Dean Ouirke, and many 
other of the clergy of the Archdiocese of 

The Journal Committee received instruc- 
tions to report to next Meeting of Council 
the exact number of subscribers, and the 
amount of donations to defray the prelimi- 
narj-' expenses of the journal. About 
13,000 circulars have already been distri- 
buted by post and otherwise. The Report 
I of the Gaelic Union Journal Provisional 



Committee having been read and adopted 
(see below), the following resolution was 
proposed and carried : — 

Proposed by the Rev. M. H. Close ; 
seconded by Rev. J. E. Nolan, and 

Resolved — " That the title of the journal 
to be published by the Gaelic Union be 
changed from the Gaelic Union Journal 
to T/ie Gaelic Journal." 

On account of the numerous applications 
for circulars and subscribers' forms con- 
tinuing to be received, the time for such 
applications is further prolonged to the 
first of next month. 

The meeting adjourned to Wednesday 
next, at four o'clock. 


To THE Council of the G.\elic Union. 

Gentlemen, — Your Provisional Committee appointed 
at the meeting of the Council, held on Wednesday, the 
iSth instant, beg to submit their Report as follows : — 

In accordance with theinstriictionswhich they received, 
your Committee duly made the necessary arrangements to 
invite from the various printing establishments (in a posi- 
tion to do so) estimates for Printing the Gaelic Union 
JimvnaL The Members met at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, 
at eight o'clock, p.m., on the 24th instant, foi the trans- 
action of business; present, Messrs. Cusack, Comyn, and 
Morrin. Rev. Father Nolan, O.D.C., was also present, 
and gave us the benefit of his sound advice and experience. 

Having compared and carefully considered the several 
estimates submitted, your Committee unanimously decided 
tf) recommend to the Council that the estimate of Mr. 
Dullard, Dame-street, be adopted. 

The question of the supply of paper for the Gallic Union 
Journal having also come up in connection with the esti- 
mates, your Committee decided upon strongly recommend- 
ing to the Council that home manufactured paper be used 
in preference to paper not made in Ireland ; and to further 
recommend that the firm of Messrs. Browne and Nolan, 
Nassau street, be asked to supply the paper for printing 
the journal, provided that they can supply such home- 
made paper upon equal terms with any English or Scotch 
firm both as regards quality and price. 

Lastly, your Committee decided to recommend to tlie 
Council the advisability of having the new journal pub- 
lished by the Gaelic Union itself. 

John Morrin, Hon. Sec. to Committee. 
Michael Cusack. Hon. Treasurer, G.U. 
David Comyn, Editor G. J. 

The usual weekly meeting of the Council 
of the Gaelic Union was held at 24 D'Olier- 
strect, on Wednesday, ist Novemlier. 

John Fleming, Esq., in the Chair. 

There were also present^A. K. O'Farrell, 
Central Secretary National Teachers' Asso- 
ciation ; John Morrin, Thomas Synnott, 

Michael Cusack, and Rev. J. E. Nolan, 
Hon. Sec. 

A letter was received from R. Guiton, 
Esq., Cork, giving an account of a lecture 
on "The Irish Language, and why Irishmen 
should study it," delivered under the 
auspices of the Cork Branch of the Gaelic 
Union, by Rev. J. Hayde, St. Patrick's Re- 
formatory, Upton. A large and apprecia- 
tive audience attended, and frequently 
applauded the rev. lecturer. 

The Gaelic Journal Committee reported 
444subscriberstothejournal,and;6^35 2s. 6d. 
received for Reserve Fund. Rev. R.. Sladen, 
P.P., Modeligo, Cappoquin, contributed £\, 
and Rev. P. Moriarty, Brosna, £2. In con- 
sequence of the foregoing and further pro- 
mises of support, the Journal Committee 
have decided on going to press on the 6th 
instant. Application for subscribers' forms 
is extended to the lOth of this month. 
Literary communications for the journal 
should be at once addressed to the Editor. 

After having expressed their warm thanks 
to Eugene O'Sullivan, Esq., Abridge, Eng- 
land, for his successful canvass for the jour- 
nal, the meeting adjourned to the 8th 
November, at 4 p.m. 

His Grace the Archbishop of Cashel, 
Patron of the Gaelic Union, has addressed 
to Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., Hon. Sec, 
the following letter in reference to this 
journal : — ■ 

" The Palace, 

"Thurles, 19th Oct., 1SS2. 
" My dear Father Nolan, — I wish to be- 
coirie a subscriber to the Gaelic Union 
Journal, which I am glad to learn is soon to 
make its appearance amongst us. I trust, 
and indeed, I feel assured, that it will be a 
great success. May I take the liberty of 
suggesting that instead of the Gaelic Union 
Journal you would call it simply the Gaelic 
Journal. The reason is obvious. 
" I am, my dear Father Nolan, 
" Your very faithful servant, 
"ft T. W. Croke, 

" Archbishop of Cashel." 

DoLLARD, Printer, Dame-street, Dublin. 

iniste<\tJAfi tM 5<\eT)it5e. 



-Vol. I.] 


[Price Sixpence. 

<\liU\nCv\ CleaSACvV: llnii. 2. 
ü|\K\n Doiioiiiie Ajii]' a vXhaiiicajuv 


lllAol-inirAin. — gom-beAnmn jiw "Oi aüiiic, 

50 -o-cujAi-o ye iiA aoütẃicce i]- veÁjiji ■ouir, 
50 ni-beTO ye yém 'tux cúiÌK\cc aju]- 'iia 


IIÓ1Ì1AC Aii-tini ! 1]' nión, nAoiiicA An obAi)> 
<\rÁi]i A üéAtiAT) Aiji A fon Atin^'o. 
ÜÁ jTiic Anoif niuincip Á]\fA tia 1i-éi]íeAnn : 
111 AoncuJAu beiü iia Cni'oitiAi-óce iiileciiiii- 


Ill ỳinbeotijAit) 'noi]' ah cóigcni'oc jDÁjÁnAc 
tJeic nK\]-Ui JA-ó cijie pÁ-ojiAic bcAnnuijce. 
-A <\)]\-oi\i5 bjnAin cjíém, cÁ ■oóccAf oiitn, 
"OóccAi' Aii-iiión, 50 b-iruil Am tniA'ó be ceAcc, 
LÁn ■o'aoitoacc aju]' ]"íoccÁin, cnei"oeAiii, 

üeAf-cA)icAnnAcc ]:ío]\-c]u\ibceAcc, qió- 

CAi]\e ; 
50 tii-bei-ü A1H j^blAib 'n--oéif aii caca-]-o 
GajIa a']' uiiibuJAt) ]ioiiiAinne 50 bjiAc ; 
■^5"r 50 tii-bei-òCbAiinAJAe-òib ha h-éipeAnii 
50 i-ocAineAC le céibe qiit) An ci'n, 
Le ■oócAin, jAn Aon choit) no cnúc aj AiC]\eAb 
1n]'e nA nAoiii, nA n-eobAc Af "a ni-bÁ]ro. 

OniAn. — -cX AnAiiicA]iA -oil, 1ilAoil]-úcAin 
Saoi ! 

'S niAic tiom An--oiii beir éifreACC be -oo jiic 
'S TtiAic biotii beic Aj éi|-ceAcc be ■oo ]"mu- 

<.\'Y iretiCAin ai]\ tdo cuonie. ÜÁ po]" 111 aic 

A'f AjAC-i'A AiiiÁm AnieAj-j nA n-üAoineAÓ 
Aì]\ jAC Aon piAn i]- jéine in mo c|ioióe ; 
ÜÁ pOf IIIAIC AgAC Al]\ An AiciiiéAb üub 

1vo cK\iiiAi]i cÁ 'nA cótiinui je \'ó]- m iii'AnAni. 
Co-irAT) A)" beiü An Anu-jieini ni 1110 bÁnii 
üeiü ]"e jeijibeAnAriiAin jac bÁ 1110 cunime 
v\']' ■oibipc i'UAin 'i'An oi-óce Af mo fúibib. 

inA0b]'ÚCAin. -á btllAin pj, A CAJIA -òib 

mo c|\oi-óe, 
■O'ninj-eAi' An yijimne 1 j-cómnmje -óuic. 
"OéAiiyA-D 1 j-cómnuije An nm ceuuiiA beAr. 
ni yeifOAnii HÁ-Ó juj; ceA^c 5AC ]\ot) a jimni)', 
Ace CÁ me cm nee m]" An Aniipji I'o 
gup 'OUAb 'ouic -pAnAcc At)' Ái]rai\i j Ó]- 6i]\inn. 

II1 CI5 beAC CAbAipC Al]\ Alf All lÌlélD UO 

ni C15 beoc cu]\ lilAoibfeAcbAnin Aip An 


t.\i|TO]ii jeAiiiAib 111Ó1H Ani)\ DeiTJeAt) x>o bncc 

"Oo j-iob, uo line, 'nA AJATO, At)' AJAiTJ ]:éin 

UuicyeA-fA ].-étn 'juf lllAoibfeAcbAinn aü' 

Ajuf Ann]'in ■oo cuir-peAt) Ci]>o uibe. 

5ac neA|\c, jAC mbe -oocca]' ]-íce no ùítitn, 
1]- beAC-j-A AiiiÁm é. 'S yéiDin beAC beic 
I 't) Aiirojuj, 



ni niAic le eipe -0111116 eilo ai]i bic 

Of cionn iiióiwuÁile no. 1115. ÜÁyio]- i\o-iiu\ic 


Cía1i-ia-o iiA-OAtinie eile A^nf cti. 

\\ bjuAin ỳl.AiceAiiu\il, 111Á rÁ yío]i-jHA-ò 


^ij; éi]\iiin no niAOilfeAclAinn yéin aiioi]- 
CongbAij 50 ceAiin ŵn cúiìiacccá m x)0 LÁiiii 
A!y rATiAjiyAin ■óúinn, le conjnA-ô "Oé, An-t)ni 
SíoccAin íe ^ AOi)ii-eAcc a']' be fonAf, cbú. 

'b|iiAii. — "OúbnAii- 50 ceA)ic. "OúbiiAi]- 
iiiAji ]-in 1 5-coiiiniiije : 
II1' cói]i tuMii beic 111AH yo aj iAH]\An!) ojic 
5ac bÁ All cóiiu\i|ibe ceiiT)nA. 111 aic, a cajia, 
^ii biiAi-ô]ieA-ó ]'in -00 cmneA-]' 0)^ 50 niinic. 
11Í b-yuib irio]' A15 'oiiine eibe cia ino b]\ón, 
Acr 111 x>o beub cÁ fóbÁ]- ai)i, in AniAnnAib, 

Le CAlllAbb beAJ AIÌIÁIII. tie IIAC l1AcbÁ]-AC 

^n ceu]^^ é An r-AiriiicAb 'oiib ! 1]" iiió 
An c|iÁ-ó é I'm 'nÁ i^iaii ah jai '^v^" 5-cohi3, 
^ju]' 'nÁ |-iiAè iiA n-T)AoineA-ù ni]- aii 

Hi' ó Aon nAiiuMt) cÁinic ]'e, nÁ yóy 
Ó 'óiiine cÁi]TOeAiiiAib acc ó'n incmn yéìn. 
"Oo inijA-ò é Ann)-in ; Annpn a "o' ]:ái' ]-e, 
tìeAcuijce be bcArA |'éin An AnAniA, 
Ŵ511]' ACÁ 'nA cóiiimiije Ann 50 b]iÁr. 
Sin i:uAct)iiine Ainyéin. Ilí èij beif eAbiiJAti 
Ó'n nAiiiAit» i'in, óì]\ 'ye An nAiiiAi-o ym é yém. 
^y mmic nuAiji a bi-ocA]- tnAHcinjeAcc 
50 CA]Dui-óe c]\í-o All ri)!, a']" -OAoine c|uiin- 

^1]A yeAX) nA iii-bocA]i ^aua ai]\ 1110 fon, 
tlibe 50 béi)\ A5 CAbAi^ic ].-Áibre •ÓAiii, 
CuAbAf Aon juc nio]' Ám-oe 'nÁ a njbAoi-ó 
1 5-cbuA]'Aib iii'innnne inA)i èói)ineAc obAnn 
A^ goijieA-ò 'óAiii "A D]iiAin, DpiAin ctonn- 

Hi yni rn, a 0|\iAin, ]-in ; i)'cionncAC cionn- 

CAC cu !'' 
Aju]' An UAi)! A rÁnn aiii' j'lnjo A111' aoiia]! 
Cbuimni Atmj'in ah 511c I'ln yein 50 b]\Ác. 

inAolj-úcAin. — A bjiiAin, Y 111Ó nA neice 
]\oiiiAC All 01 1' 

HA 111AHC111 jeAcc r]M't) An ci'n no ]nii je at)' 


So Am An liieii'nij Ay nA n^nioiiiAjWA ! 
-dnoif, A Ái]\-o]ii5 cAbniA, ni ]:ubÁi)i 
Ai)! yon nA b-Ci]ieAnn Ay a ciiÁibceAccA, 
Jaii ciniiAcc A beijeAn -00 nA ]-iiiuAincib 

11eAiiicAi|\beACA, nAC b-].niib acc biiAit)neA-ò 


tD]iiAin. — HA bío-ó Aon eAjbA oi\c. 11 í h-é 

lliiAiji i-cA^-Ann Ó]- mo cóiiiAin nA tocbAn- 

^Vgu]' rÁ iiibe 1" jce iia feAn-^Ae-oeAb 
Am' cniiciobb be n-A 5-cbAnnAib ]ioim An 


111 1i-é Alii Am 50 ni-beiweAT) rjieAii Anoii", 
Acc iniAi|i A iii-biueAiin me Ag i~uibAb no 

mA]lCll1 JCACC, 

A5 CAI11C be ■OAOinib no A5 eij-ceAcc boo. 
bi-óeAiiii 1110 f-i'nb 1 g-cóiiimiije cunn a')- 

\\jii)- jAC irocAb cmceAiin a]- mo beiib 
biueAnn ye jujeAiiiAib mA)i bAi) cói]i üo 'n 

Ill b-fiiib inij-e '5 1AHHA1-Ó i-obAi]' ai]! nA 

A CÁ Ain' cimciobb aj ].-)iiocóbAt) •ÔAiii. 
Tlí C15 biom pn A •óéAnAü ; cÁ yìoy ajahi 
11ac b-|.-ewoAnn fiAt) cnijfinc me -0* 

vAgu]' ACÁ |.-io)' All -111 AIC A5A111 yóy, 
"OÁ b-pciiupAuAoi)" 1110 cmji'inc, ni beiweA-o 

11 i beiúoAÙ AOii conjiiAD be yÁJAib ai'ca 

ẂAiii ; 
11i b-ynib 101111CA Aoii Áiro-iiiciiiii, no A011 

An Am iiioji. 
Ctoiiii 50 bun a g-cnoi-óceA-ó ; ni b-yinb 

lonncA ACC 

SlDIOllAlT) All ■0A]1A Ó1]lt), CÚlÌl AllJ-bcAJA, 

Ojic-j-A Alii Am biueAim me '5 lAiijiAit» coiii- 
I ÓY ■oinc AiiiÁm ■o'ỳAn ].-o]'5Aibce mo cjioi-ue. 





Ha I'niUAin aihaiii jiip ]v\ j-caoi ceuuiiA 

Am' iomcA|i le Tjuine eile ni]' ah tionKMi. 

11lAot]'iicAin. — Ace yoy tioiii yéìn Agiij' 

Ó)' cóiiuMH c\n Ü1 jeA]itiA 
Da-ò cói)\ ■oinc, a \\i]\t)|\i j, jaii AicriieAl ■onb, 
Deic cunn a']- ]\\]"rAC, lÁii •oe ■óóccAi'tnón. 
Di iiiij-e yóy aih peACAC. Di-óeA]' ni'o]' 

50 mó]\ '11Á rii A]iiAn'i, niÁ rÁ ]-e p'oji 
50 ]\AbAi]' cioiincAc niAji cÁ cajIa oi\r. 
éipc lioiii Anoi]"; nineofAT) loiiir 1110 

•don oit)ce in 1110 fniAn ]\o cotinA)\CAi' 
uinun iiiAC-letjin -o'^-As me a']- |-uaii 

Y'.w Ó, 
•ájii)" A b-jTAt) A]- eijiinn. bi-ôeAT3Ai\ 

-t\')' ■o'iincijeAüAH m oiterneACC ]\ó-nAOiiicA 
Ay A ■o-ci'n ■OÚCCA1)' 50 li-lA|ui]'Abeni. 
•cViini'in x)o CAilleAt) lAt), •o'a-óIaca'ó le céile, 
A-^uy 'n-t)éi]- pn rÁimc An cpiiin o'n 

Am' lonnj'uTOe in]' ah onice ]'in a ■oúbA]\c, 
-Aj bAjAijic -OAni in Ainini "Oe, a veAi\5. 
Agu)- A 'oúbiiAT)A]\ 50 beAcc 50 b-]:An]:Ainn 
In 1110 r]iom-peACAi-óib 50 1i-uai]\ mo bÁif, 
-iVgii]- 'nA biAi-o fin 50 m-bAt) 1 n--oÁn -OAm 
piAiicA nA n-X)ÁmAncA in ipjiionn pio)\uni)e ! 
-c\cc 111]' An UAi)i ]-iii yéìn but) cunime I10111 
An cACAi]i'Hinibe, aju]' An c]iócAi)ie 
"Oo iiijne "OiA ui]i)ie in]' An Am 
"Oo bi A pÁit) A5 CAnAT) ■oi'ojaIcai]'. 
bu-ò cuniine biom An qiócAijie ni'o]' mo 
A'y jeAÍb Á]\ •o-üi5eA]inA a'j- Á]\ SlÁnuij- 

ceoi]i ; 
A-^uy le conjnA-ô a']- le 51u\)-a "Oé 
■0'ei]\ijeA]- Ann]-in 50 li-obAiiii I'ua]- a']' 

" Ha cjii oibc ]-in A rÁ a5Aiii-]'a 
-(\n-t)iu, ní beibin ajahi-j-a An-t)iu ' 
üiiéi5]reA-o-]-A nA h-oilc ]'in : lojpAib "Oia 


-c\iiiAil jio jeAlb Se yéui An rAn a ■oúbAi]ic 
' lm]3iecA]- 1111)311 in quAciiiiique 1io]ia 

Coniien]ni]' ]:ue]iic non nocebir ei.' " 
AzÁ y\oy ajaiti 'noif 511]! Ay An uaiji ]-iii 
üjiéigeA]' nA peACAit) lìt) ai]! yATi iiia)i 

jeAllA]- ; 
•<\cÁ y\oy A5A111 yóy, co niAic iiia)i ]-in, 
CoiiigeobAi-ó "OiA i'ém a jeAllrAiiA]-. — • 
-ArÁ y\oy A5Am-]-A mA]i ajaf-i-a yéuì 
50 b-piiil -00 c]ioit)e ■oeAJ-iomiDntjre aiioi]- ; 
50 b-|'uili]i ]iei-ò 5AC nit) 1]- peÁ]i]i a •ùéAiiAii ; 
50 m-bAü 111AIC leAr teij^PAii l"ío]- Áj\-n-|\éiiii 

iiA 1i-6i)\eAnii, 
An c-iu\Iac rÁi]i ioiiica]\ 'nmy iiia)i ühaL 

AiiiÁiii : 
ÜA-ó cói]i An -oóccA]- Agn]- 5Ái]\t)eACA]-, 
pío]i-ciuineA]" Ajii]- imniiijin T)PA]\brA 
Deic oiir-]'A niA)! ArÁ 1 j^-cüiiimnje dihii. 

DjiiAii. — 1]' 111AIC A iiij;ni|-, a']- 1]" beAil- 
An c-i'lije beACA, ai]i a b-].niilii\ ]-uibAl. 
Ill b-]:iiiL ceAü A15 D|iK\n leAiiAniAin üo 


Ko cui)i rii uo j'eAn-beACA pAOi no co]"Aib ; 

llo CAici]" AT)' -óiAij í 50 bjiÁc ; 

üiiéiji]- •DO cÌAnn ŵ']' jnócui-òe ]'AoJAlrA, 

1X511]' Al]1 CeACC AlllAC -OIIIC A]' ÜO bjlllj 

Siiijce Ai]\ b]iUACAib Aoibne "Loca Léiii, 
Léimip A]T:eAc 1 5-co]1]iac caoL, a']' lomjiAi]' 
50 li-1ni]'-pAicben a']' a cIoca]i caoiìi ; 
A'y x>-éì]»py iiia]i acái]\ ad' liiAnAC iiAOiiifA. 
îlí C15 liom, ní b-]:uib ceAt) ajahi, ]-in a 

CAicpib me i'AnAcc ai|\ aii ]-eAn-cA]'Áii 
CAièpi-ò mé piiineAC yóy AnieA]-5 iia iieireAÒ 
"Oob' peÁi\|\ -OAtii ceiljeAii aj- 1110 ciniKM)! 50 

ÜA ru Ann]'o An-'oni ai)i leA]' nA n-AiiAm : 
ÜA iiii]-e 1 j-córhnui-òe 111 ŵ]i vo biẃeA]' ccaiia, 
A^uy ni Ai]\i5iin A]iiAm -oo f'óLÁ]-, 
50 -o-rnéigi]- iiile neice ai)\ )-on "Ot'. 

^y beAnniiijce cu ! Oc beAiiinn jre iia 

LeijeATDA)! ]i'oi' 5AC ciìiiiAcr a')- oi]n'ieAHCA]' 
A'y •o'imcijeAüA]! 50 borc aiiiac j;o ciaii ! 
Oc beAnnnijce jac pÌAic iia b-éi]ieAiin 

Á|\]-An!)e ; 



^Aig A i\Ait) COAT) T>iil 50 1i-1-Coliinii-ciLLe 
<\v,uY Auni'in yAgAil bcACA <\y VÁ5A1I hAiy. 
[Cl;iiiireAi\ co]iti : 
Ü15IIIACL1A15 A]-ceAc.] 
Cat) é ? 

IIIacLumj. — ÜÁ ucAcrAipe ha iiJaII 
Aiiim j, 
<\5 1 A]\)\Ai-ó lAbAi]\c le vAipunij n A 1i-éineAnn. 

1x0 CAII 

eoin SéAiimi' 11a CeAiibAiU, 


No. II. 

Brian Boroimhe and his Anamchara 
OR Counsellor, Calvus.* 

By Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. 


Calvus. — May the Almighty bless thee, 
Sovereign King ! 
May He bestow His choicest gifts upon thee. 
And be Himself both power and victory 

* This personage is the subject of some interesting pages 
in O'Curry's MS. Materials of Ancient Irish History. 
His Irish name was Maelsuthain Ua Chearbhaill, the fi;st 
portion of which he himself Latinized as Calvus Perennis. 
U'Cuny (iiji. 65 Í, 654) quotes from the Book of Armagh 
(f<,l. II., 1., 1.), "ilic f.illowing entry made by him in Latin, 
with mention of his own name and his royal master's : — 

ejo TC|Mpfi 1T> epu CaUui]- pepentup in cotippeccu 

biMAiii impe]\j.üoyvii- Scoconinn. 
ltd Ceapliûibl, orO'Carroll, in the case of this Maelsuthain 
is of course only a patronymic, not a family name. Our 
Calvus Perennis, or Maelsuthain, was Maelsuthain 
O'Carroll, jilst as Brian Boroimhe Brian Mac 
Kennedy ; and Calvus no more belonged to the family of 
O'Carroll than the ancestor of the house of O'Biien 
belonged to the clan of Kenned>. CaKus was m fact, we 
are told e\piessly, one of the Eoghannacht. and he was 
consequently not of tlit ( lin Knn ()t_uii\ tells us 
furthci thit Lahu, \ i II I , i k 11 iii ), 

iL hr 

regard to his Liter connection with the lung, remarks 
positively (p. 76)— 

" We find him named the Anmchara or Counsellor of 
that great Dalcassian chief when monarch of Krinn." 

In fine we are reminded that — 

" He is styled the chief Saoi or Doctor of the western 

Before thy face to-day ! The work is great 
And holy thou art doing for Him here. 
The ancient clans of Erin gather round thee, 
And in their union must the Christians be 
Invincible. They will not suffer now 
The pagan to insult the land of Patrick. 
Oh ! King supreme and valiant, I have 

hope — 
Hope deep and mighty — that a new age 

Rich with true union, peace and amity, 
Faith and devotion, charity and mercy ; 
When after this one war, the stranger foe 
Shall feel for ever fear and awe of Erin ; 
And, when in this fair land itself, its clans 
Shall dwell in quiet on its plenteous soil, 
And without strife or evil will, inhabit 
This isle of saints, of sages, and of bards. 

Brian. — My one beloved counsellor ! my 

Calvus ! 
It sootheth me to-day to hear thy voice ; 
It sootheth me to listen to thy thoughts. 
And gaze upon thy opened heart. Thou 

And thou alone, among all men on earth, 
Each fiercest pang that prej-s upon my soul. 
Thou knowest well the terrible remorse 
That dwells in the recesses of my heart, 
And that, each day that power is in my 

Must persecute me with its memories, 
And in the night drive slumber from my 


Calvus. — Brian, High-king and master ot 

my heart, 
I have at all times told to thee the truth. 
And will for ever speak it to thy cars. 
I cannot say that all thou didst was just, 
But say I can, and must, that in this hour 
It is th)' duty to maintain thy crown. 
Thou canst not now restore what thou hast 

taken ; 
Thou canst not now place Malachy again 
Upon the sovereign throne. Thy own allies, 

world in the noiicc of h 

the Annals of Ihr I'mui ^ 

It is of course 'iiiU 1 \ 

,1th under the year 1009 in 

|iM. M,- licence that Calvus can be 
In nine of the battle of Clontarf. 
O'Donovanin.kcd iclls us ihui the year 1009, assigned for 
his death by the Eour Masters, is "recte loio." But it 
would be necessary to add four additional years to bring 
down the date to the period of the battle. 



Thy very clan, thy sons would rise against it, 
Would rise against thyself; and thouwouldst 

And in thy fall drag down both Malachyand 

All strength, all hope of peace and of 

Is thine alone. Thou canst be king su- 
preme ; 
But Erin will endure no other man 
Above her commonwealth of princes now. 
Too well she knows what others are and 

Oh ! royal Brian, if thou hast regard 
To Erin or to Malachy himself, 
Hold fast the power that now is in thy 

Till, with God's help, our land through thee 

shall claim 
Freedom with peace, and, with all plent\', 


Brian. — Thou speakest sooth, and thus 
hast ever spoken. 
I have no right to trouble thee each day. 
The same old counsel to repeat. Forgive 

That I so often thus do tr}- th}' friendship. 
No other knows my woe. From thee alone 
Can I find solace now and then. Alas ! 
It lasteth but short time. Oh ! what a tor- 
It is to feel remorse ! Its pain is worse 
Than that of deadly arrow in the flesh. 
Or hatred of mankind within the heart. 
It Cometh not from enemies, nor yet 
From friends, but springeth from the soul 

There is it born, and there it waxeth big. 
Fed with the life eternal of the mind, 
And there it dwelleth in its seat for ever. 
'Tis the dread hate of man unto himself. 
The foe he ne'er can leave, but must un- 
ceasing be. 
Often and often, as I swiftly rode 
In progress through the land, and saw the 

Gather in crowds along tlic endless paths. 
And all together join to bid me hail, 
I heard a voice yet louder than their shouts 
Within myself, that shook like sudden 
thunder ; 

And it cried, " Guilty, guilty Brian ! Thou 
Art here unworthy ; thou art guilty, Brian !" 
And when I sit in silent loneliness 
I hear the same voice crying on for ever. 

CrtA'^j-.— King Brian, thou hast more be- 
fore thee now 
Than progress through the land or lonely 

musing — 
This is the day of courage and of deeds. 
High-king of Erin ! it is needful now 
For Erin's sake, for Erin's piety. 
To give no room unto the melancholy. 
That helps in nought, and worketh but 

Brian. — Be thou not troubled. 'Tis not 
only now — 
When I must stand in presence of the 

While all the kings of the old Gaelic race 
Surround me with their clans, before the 

fray — 
It is not only now I shall be firm, 
But at all times, whether I walk or ride, 
Or talk with men, or listen to their speeches. 
My eye is ever calm and masterful. 
And every word that falleth from my lips 
Is royal, as befitteth a high-king. 
I do not seek for comfort from the men 
Around me, who must wait upon my plea- 
It is impossible : I know full well 
They cannot read or understand me truly. 
Calvus! I know still more. Even if they were 
Able to comprehend me, there would be 
For me no comfort and no help in them. 
There is no mighty mind, no lofty spirit 

I see them to the bottom of their hearts : 
Spirits of second order, mean and narrow ! 
To thee alone I turn to seek for counsel ; 
For thee alone my heart remains unshut; 
Deem not that I can ever bear me so 
With any other mortal in the world. 

Calviis. — But e'en with me, and e'en be- 
fore the Lord, 

Thou shouldst be, Brian, now without re- 

Calm and contented, full of glorious hope. 

I, too, have been a sinner, and more 



Bv far than ever thou, if it be true 

That thou art guilty of the things thou 

List to me no\\', and thou shalt hear my 
One night in slumber there appeared to me 
Three of my scholars, who had long been 

And died afar from Erin. Pious youths ! 
They had gone forth in blessed pilgrimage 
From their own country to Jerusalem. 
There they all died, and there together lay 
In sepulture their ashes. But their souls 
Came down from heaven to visit me that 

And threatened me, in God's name, with 

His wrath. 
Clear spoke the\', saying that I should re- 
In m\- iniquity until my death, 
And then, that my eternal destiny 
Must be the tortures of the lost in hell. 
But I remembered Niniveh, and how 
The Lord showed mercy to the guilty city, 
Even in the very period when His seer 
Proclaimed the days of vengeance were at 

I did remember too the greater mercy 
Which our dear Lord and Saviour pro- 
mised ; 
And with the help and grace of God above 
I sprang up quickly, and I cried aloud : 
" Lo ! the three vices that are mine to-day 
Shall e'en to-day belong not unto me ; 
p"or I will quit them all, and God will 

According to His promise, where he saith : 
' Impietas impii in quacumque hora 
Conversus fucrit non nocebit ei.' " * 
I know full well that from the hour I tell you 
I have abandoned vices as I promised ; 
And I know too, with no less certainty. 
That God is faithful to His promises. 
Now I know also, even as thyself, 
That thou hast turned thy heart to Him 
indeed ; 

pp. 77. 7i). E\tn Ihc ia\. lA the iiarr.iti.m given heie, 
w ith the exception of the allusion to Niniveh, will be found 
to follow very closely the original. 

That thou art ready for each noblest work ; 
That thou wouldst fain lay down that 

sovereign power 
■Which thou here wieldest but for duty's 

sake : 
'Twere surely right that hope and gentle 

True peace and much assuring confidence, 
Should be with thee as the}- do dwell with 

Brian.— \Nc\\ hast thou done and happy 

is the path 
Of life that thou hast chosen. But, alas ! 
Brian is not allowed to choose the same. 
Thy old life thou hast wholly trampled 

And cast behind thee far away for ever ! 
Thou didst leave sons and every earthly 

To go forth from thy palace and thy home, 
Seated beside the fair Killarncy waters. 
And dash alone into the skiff that bore 

To silent Inisfallen's island abbey. 
To dwell thenceforth Christ's consecrated 

For me, I cannot, may not, follow thee. 
I must remain upon the trodden path, 
I must here linger on amid the things 
That it were best for me to cast away. 
I see thee here to-day for sake of souls ; 
But I must live as in the olden time. 
And never feel thy consolation, Calvus ! 
That thou hast left all things for love of 

Full happy thou 1 Full happy they,— the 

Who laid down all their power and majesty. 
And in the weeds of poverty went forth : 
Oh ! blessed every prince of ancient Erin 
To whom it was allowed to journey unto 
The isle of Columbkille, to end his days : 

[A horn is heard. Enter MacLiag] 
What now ? 

MacLiag.*—A Danish messenger awaits, 
And fain would speak with the High-king 
of Erin. 

* Mac Liag, the baid. unlike Calvus, suivived Brian. 
But it cannot" be hisloncally maintained tliat he was pre- 
I sent at the battle of Clontarf, thouyh O'Curry tells us he 
visited the field before the burial of the slam was over. 



By Rev. JOHN JamES O'CarROLL, S.J. 


Dr. Joyce is entitled to the praise of having, 
as we have remarked, taken the second and 
final step required to secure appreciation of 
old Irish literature. Where Macpherson 
created belief in ciiriosa felicitas, Dr. Joyce 
fi.xes literary attention favourably on whole 
works. W'e believe that this will never be 
forgotten. It remains for us in our humble 
sphere to endeavour to extend a little wider 
the circles in which Irish literature has 
already begun to be valued, by pointing out, 
in our own way, the snatches of grand 
poetry it contains, as Macpherson acknow- 
ledged, and the admirable general tenor of 
its compositions — the point that Dr. Joyce 
has brought before the public* 

In the three volumes of the Ossianic 
Societ}-, which we have undertaken to con- 
sider in some degree, we have three most 
interesting Ossianic poems. The first is 
" Oisin in Tirnanog," where the aged and 
feeble Oisin-f is represented giving an ac- 
count to St. Patrick of how, centuries 
before, he passed into fair}--land, leaving 
his father, Fionn, on earth ; how his days 
passed uncounted in fairy-land, justly called 
Tirnanog — the Countr>' of the Young ; how 
he returned lately to visit his old hunting 
haunts, unfortunately lost his fairy gift of 
youth, and suddenly found himself a 
wretched, lonely old man, with the decre- 

* Great attention has of late been paid to the traditional 
literature of the Marvellous — to the fairy tales, to the folk- 
lore of various nations. But that attention has not been 
rewarded universally, as in Celtic, by finding master- 
pieces, which great literary artists fall sliort of when they 
try to imitate. Thus we read in the A'indetnth Century 
for December, 1S78, at the second page of the article on 
" Beauty and the Beast." 

"The story of 'Beauty and the Beast' was not in- 
vented by Madame de Villeneuve But the 

French version of the story .... has certain merits, 
of which the originals which she and Perrault followed 
cannot boast, whether those originals are to be sought for 
in literature or in unwritten rustic tradition." 

t We prefer much the spelling Oisin to Ossian. The 
latter is a coiTuption, and does not show the root of the 
word-OS, a fawn ; oisin, a little fawn. The Scotch (in 
Gaelic) write Oisean, as they more generally use the form 
an for the diminutive than in. — Ed. C. J. 

pitude of centuries upon him. The second 
poem is entitled, " The Dialogue of Oisin 
and Patrick," and contains many narrations 
made by Oisin to the saint, of the exploits 
of old Fenian days, long centuries before. 
The third poem is, " The Lament of Oisin 
for the Fenians " — the joj-ous comrades of 
his former life on earth, whom he now finds 
replaced by monks, whose fasts, whose 
prayers, whose psalmody, whose church- 
bell-ringing, is wholl}' distasteful to him, the 
son of Fionn ; and this poem ends with his 
death, preceded by his conversion. 

It must be noted that all these poems are 
really dialogues with St. Patrick : Oisin, 
indeed, is always the principal narrator, but 
St. Patrick is introduced speaking to him 
in them all ; and the anonymous author 
sometimes introduces a statement of his 
own amidst the dialogue. Oisin does not, 
therefore, in our Irish poems, appear as the 
ostensible composer of the whole, as is the 
case in the pieces which Macpherson pub- 
lished. Our poems have, on the contrary, 
a sort of dramatic form, and every now and 
then we find in them a dramatic spirit, 
livelily displayed. Though Oisin is gene- 
rally found narrating at great length, yet, 
from time to time, he pointedly breaks off 
the narration to address the saint, or the saint 
interrupts him, and both, in all they say, are 
true to character. Nay, even when Oisin 
becomes a convert before he dies, he does 
not become one like Sir Samuel Ferguson's 
ecstatic Dermid ; even the converted Oisin 
is a very earthy Oisin still. As for the 
long narrations of our Oisin, even there, 
too, we find the dramatic taste of the Irish 
writers breaking out. Where Oisin has a 
conversation to relate to Patrick, he loves 
to give him animated speeches, without the 
chilling introduction of " He said," and 
" She said," or " Him answering, the king 
of men addressed." The names of the 
speakers are printed for our guidance, in 
the margin, as in a play, and we come to 
ha\-e before, us the dramatis pcrsoncB of 
play within play, almost as Burleigh and 
Whiskerandos appear to be speaking along 
with Dangle, and Puff, and Sneer. To be 
serious, some of the ver\- finest passages in 
•the great Vondel's dramas, where one per- 



son narrates, at such great length, as for 
example in his famous " Gijsbert van 
Aamstel," do not differ very strikingly, in 
dramatic form, from certain parts of our 
Ossianic poems* We proceed now to deal 
with our three pieces singly. 

Even at the commencement of Tirnanog, 
we meet at once with the peculiar Ossianic 
style of writing which Macpherson made 
so well known, and which Europe, with 
such unanimity, admired. It will be inter- 
esting to compare a parallel passage in 
Macpherson's Ossian. We read in his 
" Temora," near the end of the Second 
Book, in an address to the sun : 

" Pleasant is thy beam to the hunter, 
sitting by the rock in a storm, when thou 
lookest from thy parted cloud and bright- 
enest his dewy locks ; he looks down the 
streamy vale and beholds the descent of 

The fourth stanza of Tirnanog, and the 
first line of the fifth, are as follows in Mr. 
O'Looney's literal translation, published by 
the Ossianic Society : 

" We were hunting on a misty morning, 
nigh the bordering shores of Loch Lein, 
where, through fragrant trees of sweetest 
blossoms, and the mellow music of birds 
at all times, we aroused the hornless deer."f 

The reader will, of course, notice how 
much less bleak is the Killarney scenery — 
for Loch Lein is Killarney — than the 
Caledonian landscape which Macpherson 

* We may certainly hold that Irish literature would have 
embraced the drama, if its natural development had not 
been checked by national misfortunes. Eren as thinyswere, 
we learn from the Ilighlatid Committee, already quoted 
by us more than once, that the poems of Ossian were nr.t 
merely recited, but acted. The Committee piilili-l,, m 
their report, a letter from Mr. Donald MacLeod. .Minister 
of Glenelg, in which the following passage occurs : — 

"The Highlanders, at their festivals and other public 
meetings, acted the poems of Ossian. Rude and simple 
as their manner of acting was, yet any brave or generous 
action, any injury .or distress, exhibited in their repre- 
sentation, had a surprising effect towards raising the 
corresponding passions and sentiments." 

+ There is no equivalent for the word "/Z;,)»;'//," in 
the ori.diial. As i)nnterl in tlie vnlmiM- in the 


the origiiial and the translation. This construction, of 
course, still bears out the interesting comparison instituted 
above.— £i/. G. J. 

brings before our view. But the style in 
both passages is plainly what critics call 
Ossianic. The same address to the sun in 
Macpherson's Ossian, furnishes us with a 
storm scene, which we subjoin : 

" The waves crowd away for fear ; they 
hear the sound of thy coming forth, O Sun ! 
— Terrible is thy beauty. Son of heaven, 
when death is folded in thy locks ; when 
thou rollest thy vapours before thee over 
the blasted host." We find, later on, in 
Tirnanog : " Ere long the sky darkened 
and the wind arose in every point ; the great 
sea lit up strongly, and sight of the sun was 
not to be found ! We gazed awhile on the 
clouds, and on the stars that were under 

The Irish passage is less strained, less 
vehemently figurative than what Macpher- 
son gives us. But the romantic spirit of 
almost friendly admiration of nature in its 
" terrible beauty," as well as when the sun's 
beam is " pleasant," is really the same in 
both, and such lofty warmth of feeling is 
truly the boasted " sublime" of Ossian. 

It is, we think, needless to multiply ex- 
amples here, in order to show the resem- 
blance between the two kinds of Ossianic 
poetry. "Tirnanog" has a place in Dr. 
Joyce's collection, a new literal translation 
of it has also been issued in a separate 
form,* and the English reader will 
find, beyond question, that it possesses 
grand snatches of poetry, at any rate after 
what is known as the Ossianic manner. 
The general resemblance, in spite of parti- 
cular differences, to Macpherson's ideal of 
sentiment, is very striking. Thus, though 
the Irish poet does not call admired 
heroines sunbeams ; he makes Oisin give to 
his chosen, or rather his accepted, fairy 
bride the title of a star. 

" I took her hand in mine, and said in 
speech of sweetest tone, ' A true gentle 
welcome before thee, O young princess, to 
this country ! 'Tis thou that art the 
brightest and the loveliest of form, 'tis 
thou I prefer as wife ; thou art my choice 
beyond the women of the world, O gentle 
star of the fair countenance.' " 

* Gaelic Union publications : Dublin : A. E. Chamney 



But let us pass on to the consideration of 
the piece as a regular composition. Oisin 
having accepted, as we have seen, the fair)' 
bride who presented herself to him, rode off 
with her to fairy-land, after taking an aftec- 
tionate farewell of his father, Fionn, and 
his comrades. On his journey he fights 
with a giant, and sets an imprisoned maiden 
free, who was detained by the strange 
monster, unharmed, in a magnificent castle, 
with the vain hope she would one day be 
his spouse. At last Oisin arrives with his 
fairy wife, in her country, the Land of the 
Young, and dwells there with her, golden- 
headed Niamh, for three hundred years, 
without noticing how time is passing. After 
the three centuries, however, he declares he 
feels a very strong wish to revisit Ireland 
for a little, and Niamh, who is all through 
most gentle and submissive to him, gives 
him a wonderful horse to ride on through- 
out his journey. She warns him, at the 
same time, that if he ever gets down from 
the steed, while away, he never can return to 
her and their children, in the Land of Youth. 

All this is verypleasingly told : the parting 
from Fionn is of almost idyllic softness, and 
there are varied bird's-eye views of the fair 
scenes of earth, as Oisin and Niamh sweep 
by, on their way to the better delights of 
fairy-land, where they are splendidly wel- 
comed. Ever}-thing is, be}-ond question, 
poetically related. There is never any 
descent to the prosaic narration of the early 
part of the prose tales. The difference 
between prose and poetry appears to have 
been perfectly understood. It would be 
very interesting, had we time, to compare 
Niamh's courtship of Oisin with Grainne's 
courtship of Diarmuid. In the whole prose 
tale, magnificent as it becomes, nobody is 
ever called a " star." 

On the other hand, there is an amusing 
piece of witlessness, or what the French 
call iiiie naivete, in the narration of the 
encounter with the giant. We find in the 
literal translation, Oisin saying to St. 
Patrick, " During three nights and three 
da\-swe were in the great contest," and im- 
mediately gravely adding, "Though power- 
ful was he, the valiant giant, I beheaded 
him without delay." This is equal to the 

account of Tydeus, put by Homer into the 
mouth of Agamemnon, " All of them he 
slew, and he let only one of them go home." 
The Irish passage is, of course, perfectly 
smoothed down in Dr. Joyce's agreeable 
translation ; the " 'witliout delay " refers 
there to one most critical moment of the 
combat, when the giant, Dr. Joyce tells us, 
ivas felled to earth, and Oisin-like, Dr. Joyce 
was equal to the occasion. Dr. Joyce may 
always be depended on for arranging such 
difficulties nicely. 

{7o be continued^ 

Le Tomas OFlanxaoile. 


In gach uile h-aois ba ghnath leis na 
daoinibh samhailt a cheile leis na h-ainmh- 
idhthibh — le beathachaibh, le h-eunaibh, 
agus le h-iascaibh — go minic in onoir 
agus i moladh, acht air uairibh fos in 
easonoir agus i bh-fonomhaid. Ag 

deanadh samhalta mar so dhoibh ni raibh 
aon chaoi chomh reidh na chomh direach 
agus annianna na n-aininhidheadh do thabli- 
airt air na daoinibh. Is amhlaidh do 
ghnidis ; agus is minic do tharla gur leana- 
dar na h-anmanna so do mhuintreachaibh 
airighthe o gheinealach go geinealach no 
go n-dearnadh sloinnte dhiobh. 

Do chimid an gnas so aig gach uile 
chineadh. Ba choitcheann an t-ainm Leon 
leis na Greugachaibh mar ainm fir, agus is 
feas duinn gur ba ro choitcheann Leo — 
ainm as ionann brigh — leis na Romhana- 
chaibh, chor air bith in aimsir na Crios- 
taidheachta. Alaireann an t-ainm ccudna 
ameasc na g-cineadh Laidionda gus andiu 
mar Leone, Leon agus Leon. Ba ghnathach 
'san Roimh fos anmanna mar l^erres 
("cullach"), Z?//7/j("faolchu" no"mac-tire"), 
Jureiicus ("ogmhart"), Cí?ẁ//í.f ("coilean"), — 
(ainm nach ionann agus Catullus), — Corvus 
(" bran," " fiach "), ^ ŷ«//« (" iolar ") agus moran 

* Do cuireacjh amach beagan do na h-airtioglaibli so 
cheana ins an g-cuid Ghaedhilge do'n Sireannacli. paipeur 
seaclitmhaineamhail Atha-cliath. Do h-iarradh air an 
ughdar cur a g-clo do leigean go niiadh dhoibh i g-colum- 
hn-iibh do'n " Gaelic Journal," mar a leanfaidh se ortha 
no go g-criochnochar iad. — T. O. F. 



eile do'n chineul so. I d-taoibh urmhoir 
dhiobh so ta fliios againn go n-dearnadh 
sloinnte dhiobh leis na ciantaibh. Leis na 
Franncahaibh do gheibhimid coitcheann go 
leor sloinnte mar ta Le Boeiif {'' an mart," 
" an damh "), Poulain (" scarrach "), Loiivai 
. (" faolan," " faolchu eg "), Lapiit (" coinin "), 
Renard ("sionnach"} agus cuid eile don 
leithid sin. 

Bhi meas mor aig na sean-Shasanachaibh 
air an bli-faokhoiii (no, mac-tire), mar is 
follus as anmannaibh-fear amhail Etìielwnlý 
("uasal-fhaolchu " " noble wolf"), T/ioiszi'iilf, 
Theodiviilf, Acividf, Beowulf agus tuillcadh 
maille leo .Is iomdha muintir Shasanach d'a 
d-tug an beathach so sloinne go d-ti an la 
'ndiu — air n-a litriughadh go h-iolardha mar 
"Wolf," "Wolfe," "Wolff," "Woulffe," etc. 
Ann a cheann sin ta anmanna eile do'n 
t-samhail so go h-anchoitcheann leis na 
Sasanachaibh mar shloinntibh — amhail ata 
Bull agus Bullock, Hogg agus Fox, Latiib 
agus Kidd, Szuan agus Peacock, Duck agus 
Drake, agus tuilleadh d' anmannaibh deasa 
eile do'n t-sort ceudna. Cia shloinne do'n 
Mhuintir Rioghdha fein a riaghluigheas os 
na tirthibh so ins an am so i lathair? 
Guelph. Agus cad e sin ? Deirthear nach 
bh-fuil ann acht an t-ainm Allmanach 
Guelfe no Welfe is ionann agus Welf, se 
sin le radh " coilean," i Sacsbheurla "whelp " 
no "cub." Sin bunadh an anmama's uasal 
no iseal do. 

Leis na Gaedhealaibh ba ro choitcheann 
an gnas ceudna. Do gheibhimid ins na 
" h-Annala Rioghachta Eireann " leis na 
Ceithre Maighistribh anmanna-fear mar 
ataid annso sios : Brocan, Coilean, Coinin, 
Dobharchu, Faolan, Faolchu, Mac-tire, Ma- 
dadkan (no MadudJian), Marcan, Math- 
gkainhain, Oisin, Scarrach, Sionnach (no 
Seannacli), Seannachan, agus tuilleadh 
maille leo 'san t-saothar ceudna agus i 
saotharaibh Gaedhilge eile. Is follus gur 
ba h-anmanna beathach iad so uile air 
d-tus. Acht is ro bheagan diobh a mhaireas 
in Eirinn andiu mar praenoinina no an- 
manna-baistidh. Cia go bh-faghmaid in 
ar seanchas go raibh sagairt agus easpoig 
agus naoimh Chriostaidhe fein ann d'a 
ngoirthi a leithide so d'anmannaibh in 
Eirinn in allod, ni fhuil siad maith go 

Icor dhuinn anois. Nach mor a theastuigh- 
heas siad uainn ? Nach bh-fuil Seoinin 
agus Seiiuiii agus Paidin agus Ristin againn, 
agus nach breagh na h-anmanna iad ? 

Ni'l fhios agam an bh-fuil Coilean 'ga 
chleachtadh mar ainm-baistidh i d-tuais- 
ceart na h-Eireann no in ait air bith eile 
in ar d-tir fein ; acht saoilim go bh-fuil se 
ro choitcheann le Gaedhealaibh nah-Albann 
fos. Muna bh-fuilim air seachran canann 
siad mar " Cailean " e, agus is mar sin a 
scriobhaid e ; do ghni siad " Collinus " agus 
" Cornelius " i Laidin de, agus " Colin " i 
m-Beurla ; gidheadh is cinnte gur fior- 
Ghaedhealach an t-ainm e. I d-taoibh 
" Jiiatlighanihain" — bhi se le faghail mar 
ainm-baistidh a g-criochaibh eigin ar d-tire 
go deidheanach, acht is eagla liom go bh-fuil 
se ag dul air g-cul anois roimh Maitin agus 
Maitias, agus go n-abair na daoine " Mat- 
thew" air a shon gach ait a labharthar 
Beurla. Nil amhras agam air cheill bhun- 
aidh don ainm Âlathghanihain : is cinnte 
liom, mar deir na h-ughdair uile, gur ba 
h-e an sean-ainm Gaedhilge don bheathach 
d'a ngoireann na Breatanaigh " arth " agus 
na Sasanaigh " bear." In Gaedhealtacht 
na h-Albann go deimhin is mathghainhain a 
bheireas siad do ghnath air an " bear " go 
d-ti an la 'ndiu. Deir na h-eolaigh — mar 
Sir William Wilde agus fir eile — gur mhair 
an t-ainmhidh so in Eirinn air d-tus, mar 
is follus go deimhin as na cnamhaibh agus 
as an bh-fuidhleach eile do fuaradh o am 
go h-am 'san tir air d-tochailt na talmhan. 
Is minic fhanas leis na saoghaltaibh an 
t-ainm agus an chuimhne iar n-dul i n-eug 
do'n ni fein agus iar bh-fior-mhuchadh 
cineil uile ; agus is amhlaidhsin do'nmhath- 
ghamhain in Eirinn agus i m-Briotain 
araon o chiantaibh. Ni soillcir 'nna dhiaidh 
sin cad iad na focail da bh-fuil an t-ainm 
so cumtha ; ni cosamhail gur " gamhain an 
mhaighe" a chóir-mhiniughadh, o nach 
" magh " a ta ins an t-sioUa tosaigh acht 
math. Acht b'fheidir gur truailliughadh 
do " magh " ata ann ? 

Cia gur bcagan diobh ata againn anois 
mar anmannaibh-baistidh, ta urmhor dhiobh 
air marthain fos 'na sloinntibh ; e.g. 
O Coileain o a d-tig "O'CuUane," " Collins " 
agus is doigh cuid do na muintreachaibh 



da ngoirthear " Cullen " anois ; Coinin o a 
bh-fuil " Cuneen " agus " Rabbit ;" O Faolaiii 
da n-dearnadh " Phclan " agus " Whelan," 
" Fielden " air uairibh.agus air choraibh eigin 
" Wolfe " mar a Sacsain ; O Madathain o a 
bh-fuil na"]\Iaddens""Maddyns" agus "Ma- 
dans ;" Mac Mathÿ;haiiihii(i o a d-tig "Mac 
Mahon," agus 3ídí/i:;iiíVii/niaio-h d'a n- 
deantar"OMahony;" C>//-(^«/« d'a n-dearn- 
adh " Hessian " (!) amhail da m-badh sliocht 
na saighdiur nGearmanach do mhalluigh 
an tir a '98 na h-Oisinigh — do bhi airdcaspog 
don t-sloinne so (reir na n-Annaladh) Aod/i 
Uali-Oisin id-Tuaim'san m-bliadhainio85 ; 
— Mac Searraigli o a d-tig "Mac Sherry " 
agus cuid do na " Foleys ;" O Seannachain 
d'a ndearnadh " Shanahan," " Shannon " 
agus air uairibh " Fox." 

Ni dhearna me tracht fos air " Cu," na 
air na h-anmannaibh in a d-teidh an focal 
so, cia gur b'iad mo phriomh-chuis. Acht 
ba dheacair trachtadh ortha-san gan tosugh- 
adh eigin do dheanadh mar do rinne me 
shuas, agus, ma's fiu e beagan do shuim do 
chur ann ni bheidh se gan maith air fad. 
Ins an airtiogal so chugainn laibheoraidh 
me gan moill is mo uim na " Cu-anman- 

bei.\üv\ sévVjvMn line liéil, 

CiUenióii\e 1 D-üu 

llileoj 1. Ue biipc, CAnóii.M: n.\ 

.An UjieA)' CAibi-Dil. 

Ó If Álumn jenieAlẃc cÁi-ó ]:<\oi clú. 
Le^bA]! nA h-GAjnA. Cvib. 4, IxAnn. I. 

ÜÁ I'e giiÁCAC A15 luce ]-5]n'binne po|i- 
TcÁipe, AitucACA Aju)' i-eAn-AicpeACA, aju]- 
nA I'mripp a bi nónipA pn — ó a ■o-cÁmic 
I'liocc onó]iAC, — A cu)! flop '00 feip A n- 
uiiiiipe Ajup A n-u]\iiAiiiAip. 1llAp pin -oé, 
ni b-puil ]'e A]- beAlAC 50 5-cut]\pi-ùe pi'o]- 
Ainiiine ua n-AitpeAc Ajup nA iiiAicpeAC 
Ó A ■0-cÁniic SeÁJAn 111ac lléil, niAc 
pÁ-o]iAic, 1111c TÌlAoiliiiui]ie, 1111c SéAiiiuip, 

tine 1xicAi]ir), 1111c SeAiunn, 1111c lilAoibiiiui^ie 
puA)" -oo'ti cent) pcAp tje'n c-plomne 
A cAniic nip All uAjiA AOip üeug ó 
Anii]-1)\ Áp -o-UijeApnA ó tJneACAm 50 
li-eipiiiii. 'Saii Aiii pm cAnjAuA]! 50 leop 
bpeACAiiAije Aip lo]i5 nA n-uAccA]iÁn nió]\ 
■oo'n r.i'p po. 1p leo, Ajup ie n-A linn 
cÁinic clAnn îléil, 1 T)-t:iip 50 "OAilpiAuA 1 
j-Cuije-lllAu, Aju]' A]- I'ln 50 ConnACC. 
Ili'l piop iiiAir, ciA h-é An ceut) peA]i ue'n 
c-]-loiiine A rÁmic Aiionn Annpo, acc AtiiÁin 
50 b-puil pio]" 111AIC AjAinn x^\\\\ peolAüAp 
leo Ann beAlAij ó "bpcACAin au cpÁc pn ; 
jup AU-coicceAn An c-Ainiii bAq'De "Hod" 
wo " Hoiuel" <M-x>\\.\ péin AincApj minncipe 
nA DneACAine 1 SAC]VMiin. So li-i An caoi 

A ]"5piobA1in piAT) All pocAl, "Hjivcl!' 

A^-ay CÁ pio]- A5Ainn 50 pAib inp au cip 
pm A.D. 940, ppionj'A •d'a]! b'Ainm " Hyii-el 
dda " 'pe pm, " ■oeAJ-Z/orci/," no ■ooAJ-peAji 
plAiceAiiiAil Aip A ]\Aib Ainiii h.\^~oe /lozue/. 
"Oo C05 luce 5A01I "ClAiiine lléil" a 

■o'pAII 'j-AU lll-bAlle 1 111-bpeACAin All 

plomne ]\Iab-Hyzvel, 'pe pin iiiac lléil 
AjAinne. "Oo i-cuip CAp éip peAl Airiipi]ie 
All pocAl " Mab " ■oo beic 'iia " ab," Ajup Ap 
pm u'eipij " ab-Hyivel" no " ap-Hyiüel" — 

AgUp pAOl ■Òei]ie CÁplA UAIÛ All C-AIIIIII 

" Pozi'd" 1 SAC]-beu)ilA. 111 Ap ]"0 ue, 
peicceA)i Anoi]' ju)! ó'n b-p)ieutii ceuiDUA 
Hoel wo Hozuel, cÁAjAinn "Pozucl" a']' clAnn 
lloeil no lléil, no lllAclléil, in ^^-'^otdiIij. 
" Ca-o é All liiAic A cÁ 111 Aiiim " — ueip aii pile 
— "CÁ bAlA-ó Aip po)-, jit) 50 iijlAOi-òceAp 
Ainni eile Aip." tllAp po bi ]-e leij- An 
leAub 05 po. J'^o Ji-'P Ó bunAÚ nA DpeA- 
TAine tinnncip a aca]! Agup a peAn-pinnj-eAp, 
■o'éi]ii5 50 nA-oúp-ÓA 111 A cpoiwe puiAC ai]1 

nA ■OAOinib AJUp Aip ah cip a']1 b'A]- lAX), T3e 

^1"5 5° liièneAüAp •oiojaIca]- aiji a cip 
■oiiccAi)- péin. 

"Oe CAOlb A lÌlÁCAp, tlO bi A1C1 111A)1 ACAip 

ÜAẂj Ha 11lA0ilciApÁin, iiiac DpiAin, 1111c 
l'eAn-b]\iAin a cÁinic péin •oe pl.occ 
lilAoilciAjiAin noc üo bi 'nA g-coiimuije 
cpi céAü bliATDAin Ó pm 1 g-ContiAe 



•Ouin-iiAnjAlt. "Oo tahIa ^-o i IÁ)\ iu\ 
•peAcciiiA-ó Aoi]'e 'oeuj 'n-Dei j gemce Cpioj'r, 
in <Mm]"t]i C)ionuiiLL, no b'ý'éiüin noniie ]-iii 
'iniẃi]i cinjieAu c]\iK\-óCv\n <\1]\ iu\ Cv\coi- 
licijib, cum <\ ii-t)ibi]\ce a)- 'Oiiii-nAnjAll. 

An CeAri>Aiiu\-ó CAibiüil. 

Graiovum rivuli, celant Romolidum fontes, 
En ibi salubrior longe, scaluriciis unda, 
Qu.-e uvam sanitare superaiis, nomen indidit agro 
Ex quo earn hausere inclyd Fiannorum Heroes. 

<Mp fpuic tiA nóitiie 'guf na n5peu5, 

beip " C-obAp n& b-p Ann " pop-bÁpp 50 li-eiig ; 
biŵe&)- ■o' pop-mi-ge 1 s-córinitiije LÁn, 

'S CÁ map fnij CAop-yionu, pLÁn, 
t)o cuj no'n bAile Ainni &']• CÁ1I 

O ■o' 61 Aj- ViAnnA mpe V'aiI. 

'Se Ainin An bAile in a -hujao An tcAnb 
Ai)\ A b--|:uitiiiit) Aj rjiAcc " üobA]\-nA-b- 
pAnn," bAile beAj in 01]! ó bun Ctioic 
tlenii-pnn. Uajaiih An c-Aintii ]-o lleiiii- 
■pmn AiiUAf cugAinn ó Aiin]'i|\ j-'iAnii eincAim, 
'nuAip no bi pionii IIIac CiniiAill, aju]- a 
fluAJCA Ai]\ni beo. "Oeip nA fCAn-uAoine 
gup Af An cobA]\ tit) A CÁ Anoif 1 lÁn An 
jÁifTOi'n A CÁ yAoi bun An cije in a jatjAb 
SeÁJAn, A ■o'ói pAnnA ConnAcc, aju]' gu]! 
b'uinie ]"in 130 jlAoiweAU UobAii-nA-b-piAim 
TiiA]( Ainni Ai|i. "Oeip ■oAoine eile ju]! b'é 
An cobA]i A CÁ 1 LÁH An bAile, nio)- yc^me 
■puA]', An cobA]i A-)' Aji' ói ponn Aguj' a 
■ptiiAJ. 'Se 1)' 'oóijce ju]! ah'iIaiu -[-uaih 
üobA|i-iK\-b-piAnn a Aintii, ó tajiIa 50 
ngbAoi-óceA]! 11eim-pnn ai)i An j-cnoc a cá 
'nA feAi'Aü Ó)' A cionn, 'ye ym le ]iÁ-ô, 
" plAiceA]- pnn," no " Speuji pnn." JIaoi- 
■ocAnn An P)ibi]'eAc neniicinn ai]a An 5-cnoc 
■po, Accni'lAon -oinne Ann nAcb-].'eiceAnn 50 
glinn 5U]i ■oul-A-nniJA An Iict]!, "c " a cuji 1 
5-ceA)iclÁn An yocAit y\n — ajuj' ■oo ]\éi'|\ 
bÌAi]' A5U)'T)o ]\éi]i yuAinie jup cói)\ An liciji 
"y" A beic inA h-Áic, — 'ye pn ^y nenii-pnn 
An ]:<on-ýocAb, m^y -oiibtiA-o fuAf, A5 cuji a 
n-iiib ■oúinn ]'pcu]\ Ajuf Áic AjTO-iieinie pnn 
Í1A I'eilge Agu)' tiA I't-UAJ. CÁ Cnoc-'pinn 
ÒAC cpŵcnónA Ag cacax) in ia]i a T5ÁC ó 

iieiiii A1Í1A1I bjiAr, iiiA)\ no -oeApi-Ai-oe ó]- cionn 
All bAiLe big, — üobA)i-nA-b-pAniì. 1]' a]- co- 
bAji ACA ]-o To'ól Vionn, no Joll hiac HIoiuia, 
Ajup nA y^]\ a bi in AompeAcc leo in aiiii)-ih 
"M"r*-V ^^b"r stẁoi-òeA-ó 11eiiii-pinn ai|i An 
r-]-léib in onotn ■o'ponn itiah biiu é ■oob' 
Ái|\T)e 1 5-cUì Agu]- no b' Ápu-iiéimije. ÜÁ 
l-jeulcA Aju)- ]-cÁncA 50 yoil '5A UiA-ó 
Ó beul 50 beul in]- nA gleAnncAib, 
I'AO) ponn niAc CuniAill A-^uy a cÍAinn 
iiiAc, Ajup niAC A line; 'ye pn pAOi Oip'n 
Ajii]- Oi'CAn, Ajui' VA01 VeAHsuf pnnbéil 

AgU)- A peAll-JAOll, CaOiLuC 111AC lloiiAiii ; 

}-A0i Co]miAC 111AC Aiyr, Aguf CAi)ib]\e ; 
"OiAnimii-o Ajtif 5]iÁinne, ajuj- yóy y<so^ 
jolt iiu\c 1Ìló]inA, Á)ro-ceAnn}.-A]\c pAnn 

5m 5U]i 1 S-Cinge ÌAijeAn no bi ponn 
■DO jnÁc, Ajuf gun Á]i-o-ceAnnỳAiit a bi Ann 
Ai]i pAnnAib An cúije ]"in, bi ye ai]i AiiiAib 

1 ■0-ül)1-pAC]lAC AgU)- 1 •O-ülll-álÌlAÌJAI-Ò. 

"O'óL pAiinA ConnAcc ai|i ah Iaja-o, A15 An 
roliA)!, — Agu]- i|- noij, A111 n-Aiin, 50 ]w\:h 
ponn Aju)- l-'iAnnA LAijcAn aiji hÁyy An 
cnoic Áiiro úv. ÜÁ a Ainni ai]\ 50 iroiL, Aijt 
leAcc CÁ Aiji bÁ)\]i All cnoic, Agu]' ai)i pceitp 
AilLe eite mA]i ah j-ceunnA aiji a njlAOit)- 
reA|i iiieu|iÓ5 ITinn. ÜÁ cÁil joiLl inic 
1Ì1ó]inA 1 ü-üìii-c\iìiaIjai-ó 50 D-ri ah lÁ 
An-uni,— 5otb ÁjTO-ceAnn pAiicpAnn ConiiAcc. 
niop ]:Aine j'iA]i in 1a]ihu]" bi aca a n-Áic 
cóiiinuije no JnÁc aihoaj-j I'liocc Agup 
pobuil nA b-pcAU ■OoiiiiiAinn Agu)- yuijil 
ÜUAC "Oe "O All Ann. 

'nuAi]i no bi SeÁgAii IIIac lléil 'iia 
-diimeAfpoginj- An iii-bLiAbAin iS34,bi ]-e ai]\ 
cuAinc 1 n-cij A ACA]!, Aju)' cÁimc yonn ai|i, 
leAcc A cu]\ ]'UA]- lecAipbeAnAX) no'n notiiAii 
Tiió]\ Aj nul cA]\c, jup yyut A15 ai\' ól nA 
PAI111A 111]" All c-i-eAn Aiiii]-in An cobAp úx> 
111 jÁiiinin A ACA]». IIIa)! pin né, no nijne pe 
All pAtm 1 LAiniii Agiip 111 gAenilij a 



po, Agup no 

]'c)\iob pe tici)i puibLi je o]' aijto pAoi All 
njleAiin Ajup a cum uipge. Cinnce, nip 
An Atn pn, bi fonn aiji, aii leAcc a cuh 



y\.u\y Ajiij' biinrobAi\ meA]-AiíK\iL -oo'ti ci'n a 
■oeAiKvo -óé. I]- iiiinic <\i|i ]:a-o ]xóp bliA-ó- 
Ain -oiibcMnc ]'e ah iiiü ceuniiA, acc "oo beij 
]-e cAjic Ain A ■óéAiiuA, Aju]' CÁ ]'e yóf jati a 
■óéAnATÍ) : t)ubAinc ye, Am n-Ann, tiac iiAib 
com jiobt Ai]i All ■o-caIaiíi Aije aju]' guji b'e 
]'in All c-AX)bA|i iiÁ'|i cóiiiilíon ]'e a ]u'in. 

•An cingeA-ó CAibi-oii. 

ÜA yioji-i-geul HA ri)\e ^juiobcA ai|\ cIáh 
11 A rAbiiuxn.* 

If beAj -o'Áicib 111 éi|\iiiii iiAc b-|.niil fAOi 
clú a'i' cÁib éigin ó Aiiii]'!)! tu\i-eAn-i-iiini-eAH 
A cÁinic Aniij'o le ha ciaiiua. ÜÁ Uiji- 
^liiAbJAiw Aju]' 1a]i]ui]' téi 'iiA Áic yeitimeA- 

TÍlAlb Ó'n A111 'nUAl]! '00 ■|'eo'LA'OA]l IIA Pji- 

*Ooiiiiu\iin, Ajii]' ^■^]\ éìy pn, j'eAl jeÁ]!)! 
eile, 11A ÜUACA-X)é-'OAnAnn go 1i-1iii)--&äI5A 
yo, iiiAji ü'Ainnini5eAt)A)i Cijie i ■o-ru]'. 

<\5 i'jiojinA'ô AiiUA|' ó'n Ani pn 50 ceAcc 
CbAiiine lililit), A511)" A)!!]' "1 A ■óéij pn 

50 ll-Allll]'1]1 C]lÍ0]T, 110 "Oo'll 11A1]1 A cÁmic 

pÁ-DiiAic 50 1i-Gi|iiiin le beAiiiiAcc ó "Óia 
Aju]- bij-eAc A biioiiiiATi) wyyì, 1]- beAg aii áic 

111]' All 1ni]" lOllJAllCAlj l'O 11Á')1 CÁntAUA)! 

eAcrjiA iniiieA]'CA uob' ÿni a 5-011)1 1 i-geuÌAib 
ninre. S111 cugAib Ui'n-vXiiiAÍJAni) ; îiac in- 
liieAj-CA An cine i ! Cia ti-é ^itiAbJAit) ? 
Ixij ConiiAcc 111 Aiiiipn pATiiiAic, An ceu-Q 
]ii j in éijnnn ü' Aüiinii j Cjn'oi'c Á)i ■o-üije- 
A]\nA, •oeA]ib|iÁCAin "OÁci <\i]TO]\ij iia h-éi- 
lieAnn, aii l-'eAii but) j]iniiie, aju)' but) 
ciìiiiAcrAije AiiieArs pij a Imii, a pAiji 
buAiü Ai)i 'bneAüAin Agii]- ai]i -AlbAinn, aju]- 
A üuj bei]' A i'luAJ Ai)iiii 50 bun ua n-<\ilp 
111]- An lotiÁile. bu-ó b-é"OÁri ]\i5 t)éi5ioiiAC 
iiA b-eijieAnii iDÁjÁiiCA. but) h-é <\iìiaI- 
JAit) 111 AC line All 1x1 j néilb n aoi-jioLIai j, 
A ruj pÁti]iAie 50 1i-éi]iinn, aju]" i]- i'aoi 

^lÌlAlJAIt) AJU]' A clAllin lllAC t)0 C]lAOb- 

]'5A0ib pÁt)HAic -dp]XAb i'oii'jeub Á]i ü-üije- 
A]'nA A15 ■po]i]tAc-iiiAC-<\TÌiAbJAit), cnocÁn 
iÁiiii be CibbAÌAit), Agu]' it)i]\ é Aju]' Deub- 
ÁcA-An-ýeÁt)A.* ^i]i An aih ym t)' aüiìiuij 
-áiiiAbjAi-ô Aju]' Ttiói]i]-ei]-eA]\ t) A clAinn niAc 
A n-AoinỳeAcc be t)Á-iiiíLe-t)eu5 üuine t>'Á 
r]ieib All ýi'o]ic]ieiT)eAiii. 

1]' 1 ■o-üí]i-áriiAb5Ait) CA An Á1C i'it) '"Ço- 
cbur," All coibL in a]i' connAi)ic pÁü]iAic, 
'iniAi]i t)o bí ]'e 'nA iiiAC-béi jin 'y<\ b-PiiAmc, 
bei]\c beAub a iii-b]ioinn a itiácah, aj cu]\ 
]'UA]- A bÁiii in iiii]Dit)e Aju]' in Aécuinge aj 

jbAO-ÓAC A1]l An niACAOIÌl UAOlilCA ceAcc in A 

iiieA]^5 A-^vy lAt) A f-oibbi'uijAt) be bonn]iAt) 
nA ■pijunne, aju]' iaü a jbAiiAü in uìy^e nA 

ÜÁ AjAinn cí]i cibe ó -ôeA]' 50 Uiji- 
-AiiiAbJAiu ; An ceA]ic ah nit) 1 a beijCAn 
CA]\c jAU bjieArnuJAt) ui]i]u, 'ye ]-iii üi]i- 

PaC]\AC. UujAt. ri]l-PAC|lAC Al]l AU g-ClUC 

Aju]' An ]iiAn Ó SbijeAc 50 CunjA aju]- yu^y 
50 ConcAe nA 5<Mbbiiiie in onói]\ ■piAcjiAC, 

ACA1]1 ^lilAbJAIT) AJU]- "OÁCI, AJU]' t)eA]\b- 
b]lÁCA1]l Hélbb llAOI-jl'obbAlj, ^1]TO-Ixlj nA 

b-éi]ieAnn. "O'^An Uiii-piAcjiAC ai]i au bA- 
]iúncA Anoi]' ACÁ Ó cuaic vo'r\ IÌIuai-ô. 'Peic- 
ceA]i TiiA]! ]in vé, ju]! iniiieAfDA vo ]\éi]i 
]:ío]\-]T:Ái]ie nA c]ii'ce, An Áic m a ]ui5At) An 
bcAnb SeÁjAn niAc lléib, 1 in-bAibe üobA]i- 
UA-b-piAnn, 1 Tii-bA]\únrA Ui'ii-uiiiAb^Ait), in]' 

An C1]l A1]l AJl' glAOI-OeAt) Ü1]1-]1'k\CHAC, AgU]' 

Aiioi]- 111]- An 5-ceA)roA ó cuaic t)e ConcAe 

* " If the Irish language were to perish as a living 
language, the topography of Ireland, if understood, would 
be a lasting monument of its significance, its copiousness, 
its flexibility, and its force." — Mac Hale s Letters, p. 358. 


Seo 1 5- 

■CUKO Con 11 ACC. 

■c\n Sei]-eA-ò Cv\ibit>iu 

1]- niinic A tiúbAi)ic All c-v\iiit)eA]-]305 'iniAi]i 
t)0 biTJeAt) ]-e Ag innj-eACC ]'5eub 1 t)-CAOib 
All pÁ]DA ]-Á]i-iiiobcA piu)' IX. 50 ]iAib |-e 
■ÒÁ bbiAt)Ain nio]- ]-iiie n a bi ]-5]uobcA ].-aoi in]' 
UA pApeu]iAib Aju]- in]- ua beAb]iAib -oeAnA-p 

CJIACC Aljl AbcACA. "OO CUAbAlt) AM C-dlJIt)- 

eA]-]D05 An I'geub ]'in ó beub An pÁ]DA yé\r\, 

* i.e., Ballina : mouth of the ford of the wood. See 
' Tribes and Customs of Ui Fiachrach," p. 424. 



'nu<M)\ bi ]'e Ai)! cuAi]\c i g-CACAi)! iiA llótme. 
ITlAp An j-ceu-otiA ^y ■0015 511)1 ei^ij An mt) 
ceiiuiiA leif fern, aju]- ^u]\ h' é ah ýiinnne 
A ]u\t) 50 ^Aib SeÁJAii 111 AC 1léil, 
•ÁiiTOeA]-po5 Ü11A111A, •ÓÁ bliAÒAin nio)- i-itie 
'niuMH t)0 rÁiinc cin)\e<MJ ó'n iii-bÁ|- cuige 
lonÁ mibpAü in]' n a -pjeulcAib a •o'inni]'eA]- n a 
pÁipéi)i pmblije 'pAn d'n po. ÜÁ ye ciiince, 
•oeAiibcA, 50 )K\ib pe Aon bLu\-ÔAin tieiij ai^ 
ceicne yiciü. -i\cr aii juxib pe bliAt)Ain Aip 
bic rn'op pne? "OeipiT) uAoine A15 a ^iAib 
eolApniAic AiiA, 50 HAib, i'e pin, 50 jiAib fe 
q\í bliA-òiiA ■oeug Ajui' ceicpe picit). -Ajuf 111 
^Aii A-ôbA)\, óì]\ •ot'ibAii\r ye yéìn 'nA g-ceiforA 
iiAine ^u]\ but) 511ÁCAC lei]- beic aj y]\iocó- 
ÌA-ô A15 di).-|iiotin -óÁ bliAtìAiii )ioiiii reAcc 
riA b-P]iAnncAC 50 CiIIaIai-ó : — i'e pni bí pe 
A5 i'hiocóIaò A15 •ái):|-iionn mp aii m-bliA-ÓAin 
1796. -Anoi]', ni i'émì]\ t)0 leAiib aijv bic 1 
m-bAile 1110)1 110 'y-.\n u-cuai-o, a beic Aim, 

fjHOCÓlAt) X)0 -ÓéAllA-Ó A1)l VA5A)1C A5 beij- 

eAW ^i).-)iinn, ó)- Á)to 110 o)- iyìol, pAoi occ 
m-bbiAtiAnAib •o'aoi)-. 111 a)i )-iii vé, bi An 

riAb|lAC 05 )'0 OCC lll-bllAÜAIIA A1)l An ÌAJAÜ 

An CAn )-in. Ili' 1i-é AiiiÁin pm, acc ■oiibAi)ic 
^e 50 initiic 50 jiAib eoÌA)' iiiaic A51.1)' cnniine 
jlinn Aije ai)i jac )-eAiiiiiói)i a ■oiibAi)ic An 
^AjAjic pA)iÁi)-oe le n-A JDobAl, aj )iá-ò 
ieo jAn bAinc no pÁi)ic a beic aca lei]- nA 
P)iAnncAi5ib ; 50 )iAib nA SAC)-AnnAi5e t)onA 
50 1,60)1, Acc 50 m-bAu nieA)-A 50 111 ó)i 
muinci)! nA 'PiiAince, a bi 5A11 ceA)\c, jaii 
cói]i, jAn c)ieit)eAiTi, jaii cóin)-iA)\ 'OúbAi)ir 
ye leo jAn a beic aj tduI a iiiúja ).-aoi 
minnijin bAoiè ai)i bic 50 n-T)éAn).-A-ó 11 a 
'P)iAnncAi5e inAiceA)' ai)i bic -óóib : «0 -ùeA)!- 
iuig pe -òóib 50 ]iAib CACoilcije nA irjiAince 
■pAOi cío]AAncAcc Ajti]- bojib-ülige nío)- iiie a)-a 
lonÁ üo cui)i nA SAC^-AnnAije ai)i ■óAOinib 
riA li-éi]ieAnn. "Oo bi' cuniine ceA)ic Aije 
50 1i-UAi)i A bÁi)- Ai)i 5AC )-eAnniói)i a T)úbAi)ic 
All c-i.\cAi]i ŵin-o|iiA)- 11 A 11lAoilconAi)ie ó'n 
a1cói]i ')v^" T3-reAC-JDobAiL lom Aim a )iaV)a- 
t3A)i, )'e yém A511)- a c]ieii-o bocc, aj CAbAi)ic 

AlcUJAt) AJU)' A'Ó)1A-Ô -00 *ÓlA. •<\l)l llHCeACC 

T)o T1A "PiiAnncAijib a]- An cí)i yo, ca|i éi]- An 

coT^Ait), "00 ciii)ieA'OA]i nA SAC)'AnnAi5e cum 
bÁi)' An )'A5A)ic )'o A •oúbAi)ic An oi)ieAt) 
]"in Ai)i A )"on. C)iocAT)A)i Ai)\ c)iAnn e ! 

CtA At)i bic bliA-ÔAin in a )ui5At) An 
pÁi)-oe ):])iÁni)iiieAC )-o, ca )-e cinnce ju)! ai)i 
An "OoiiinAc )ioiiii Inm «0 connAi)ic ye 
yóluy An l,Ae ; aju)' 50 b-iruAi)! )'e bAipDeAt) 
Ai)i 1Ì1Á)\c1ni-oe 'nuAi)! ■00 cÁmic An )'A5A)ic 
iiiA)i buú jnÁcAc, A15 All cij. CájiLa An 
iiieu-o )-o 1 1111 11 A inÁ|\rA no b' ỳéi'Di)i 

Ill cói)i longiiA-ò Ai)i biü A beic ai)i Aon 
neAC A5 leijeA-ò nA neiceAt) )-o, 'nuAi)\ 



All CA01 bí An cléin, 

Aju)' CACoilicije 50 léi)i, céA-ó bliA-ÓAin ó 
j-oin. 11Í ]iAib ceAt) aca 50 T)-cí An c-Atii i'in, 
no jA)! "òó, A 5-c)iei'oeAiii AtdiiÁib 6y Áyo óy 
cóiiiAijv An -ooitiAin, gAn 50, jAn bajIa. Hi 
)iAib )'e in A 5-cuniA)- leAb)iA a beic aca be 
Ainmne luóc bAifüe ■oyÁJAil )-5)iíobcA niA)A 
cÁ A15 An g-cléin 1 Iacai)! 111 jac cill. 
'lUiAiji -00 bi An lcAnb jeAnAiiiAil yo acc 

An-Ój, ■00 CU1)ieA'Ó Al)l -pCOll é AI5 IllAljqXl)! 

A bí A5 ceAjA)^^ nA niAl)iAc a m-bAile a bí 
niíle ó C15 A ACA)i. ní )iAib ceAC i-coibe A15 
An peA)i )-o, Aju)" inA)i )'in •oé 'nuAi)i no 
bei-óeA-ó lÁ b)ieÁ5Ann, ')-e Aiinnj )--aoi ]yeu\\ 
neitiie bí SeÁJAn 05 aj itájaiI oiw)- ; A5 
b)ieAcnu5At), iiia)i ■oiibAi)ic fe yem, ai)i a 

lÌlÁCAI]!— An CaIaiÍ! A bí Ó]' A CÓlÌlAl)!, AJU]' 

Ai)i A ACAi)i — A bi fuA]' o)' cionn )-péiii 
joi)\iii iieniie. 

(Le blieith air waiiaiiihain.) 


L— Introductory. 

Every language, while possessing sounds 
common to it with other tongues, has also 
sounds peculiar to itself. These latter can- 
not to foreigners, who have never heard 
them pronounced, be adequately represented 
to the mind by any visible symbols or letters, 
but must, if learned at all, be acquired 



through the sense of hearing. Afterwards 
the symbol or letter used for representing 
such a sound to the eye becomes intelligible, 
but not till then ; previously, it leaves a 
false impression on the mind. Accordingly, 
although certain letters may, in different 
languages, be the same in form, they may, 
and often do, represent totally different 
sounds. Thus, the English, Spanish, Ger- 
man, Italian, and Irish d is a letter which 
represents a different articulation in each of 
these languages ; nay, it changes its pro- 
nunciation in the dialects of several of them. 
Any person therefore who aims at a good 
pronunciation of a language which he has 
learned after growing up must, besides pos- 
sessing a good ear for the niceties of articu- 
late sounds, pay close attention to these 
sounds as spoken by natives, and make an 
effort, frequently repeated, to imitate their 
pronunciation. It will moreover assist him 
much if along with this practice, he learns 
the rules which have been deduced by 
writers on orthoepy for what is regarded 
as the standard pronunciation of the lan- 
guage. The want of a good ear, the un- 
willingness to make serious and persevering 
efforts, and the neglect of the rules of pro- 
nunciation, are the three causes why persons 
residing for a long time in a country, and 
hearing its language daily, yet speak it 
badly and imperfectly. 

In order to assist persons willing to follow 
the lines we have indicated in endeavouring 
to acquire a good pronunciation of Irish, 
we propose to furnish, in considerable detail, 
directions and rules as to the articulation of 
the sounds represented by the letters or 
combinations of letters of the Irish alphabet. 
But we desire to place first on record our 
conviction that these rules and directions 
will be of no use whatever unless the ear 
has an opportunity of exemplifying them 
from the pronunciation of a good Irish 
speaker. A native of one of the counties, 
Wayo, Galway, Clare, or Kerry, should, by 
preference, be chosen, and in imitating his 
pronunciation all previous preposessions 
derived from the constant hearing of the 
English language must be cast aside. The 
two languages differ not only in words, con- 
struction, idioms, and genius, but also in 

accent, inflection, articulation, and in all 
the various ways in which their pronuncia- 
tion may be regarded, as much, if not more 
than any two other Indo-European tongues, 
so that what is affirmed of the one may be 
quite wrong if supposed to apply to the 
other. Some of the sounds, which are by no 
means disagreeable to the English ear, are 
harsh and uneuphonious to that of a person 
accustomed to speaking Irish, and several 
of the Celtic sounds do not seem to please 
English-speaking people. The prejudices 
born of custom and habit must therefore be 
got rid of by the English speaker learning 
Irish, as they were by the Norman and 
Saxon colonists of Henry II., who soon 
discarded English in favour of the sweeter 
and more musical Celtic tongue. 

For the sake of system and clearness it 
will be necessary, before proceeding farther, 
to give a definition, or at least a partial ex- 
planation of certain terms we shall have to 
use in the course of our dissertations on the 
sounds of the letters of the Irish alphabet, 
and of articulate sounds in general ; and 
first, as to general terms, viz., key, inflection, 
stress, and articulation. 

The key is the higher or lower musical 
pitch of the voice used in speaking. Some 
persons speak in a higher, others in a lower 
ke\', habitually, while the same person 
changes his key according to circumstances. 
The mflection is the change of key up or 
down, or both up and down in a s\'llable, 
word, or phrase, and differs in difterent 
languages and dialects, and in different 
sentences in the same language. For in- 
stance, the inflection of the voice at the end 
of a question is very different from that in 
an affirmation or an expression of astonish- 
ment. Stress is a more forcible utterance 
of a syllable in a word or of a word in a 
sentence. In the case of a syllable it is 
called by English writers accent, in that of 
a word, emphasis ; but French writers give 
the term " accent " to the more open or 
close pronunciation of certain vowels, and 
use the word in a more general way to 
indicate what is otherwise called inflection. 
In this sense also is generally understood 
what is called a Scotch, Irish, or foreign 
accent. We see therefore that the word 


accent is used very loosely. The Greek 
accents partook more of the nature of in- 
flection than of stress, while the Chinese 
and Siamese accents are indications of both 
combined. In Irish the written accent is 
used only to indicate length of vowel, iwt 
stress. Articulation is concerned with the 
different positions of the organs of speech 
in pronouncing vowels and consonants. 
Pronunciation includes all the above, but is 
generally referred solely to articulation. 
Let the reader now fi.x in his mind well the 
meanings of the terms, key, inflection, stress, 
articulation, and length and shortness of 
vowels. Forthepresent howeverwe shallcon- 
fine ourselves to the subject of articulation. 
All the letters of the English and Irish 
alphabets represent vowels and consonants, 
with the exception perhaps of Ii, which is 
doubtful. The breath emitted being made 
vocal or audible in the larynx or top of the 
windpipe by the constriction of that organ, 
the vocal sound thus emitted is further 
modified by the position of other organs, or 
by the shape assumed by the mouth, and 
thus becomes what is called articulate. 
Both vowels and consonants, including the 
h, are therefore articulate sounds, as dis- 
tinguished from mere inarticulate noises or 
cries. A vowel is an articulate sound formed 
by the emission of the breath, the lips, teeth, 
and tongue being so kept as not to check 
such emission. The tongue may come very 
near the palate, but as long as it does not 
touch it we still hear a vowel ; as soon how- 
ever as there is actual contact a consonant 
is produced, as in the case of the j' in ye. 
The following may be considered a fair 
classification of the English and some other 
vowels : — 

Lingual. Labiolingual. Labial. 

Close ee (1) ü oo(ze) 

Medial -^^'"•^' i"' >(•'" 

((th)e(re) (o io(.-e) 

Open a(l.) e(n) a(ll) 

The above are but approximations, most 
of the English vowel sounds not being pure 
vowels, but partaking of the nature of a 
diphthong. On the other hand, the Irish 
vowels as pronounced in Con naught are 
pure. No vowel is pronounced pure before 
r in English. 

As for the consonants, various classifi- 
cations have been made of them. There 
is first the division into mutes and liquids, 
the latter being /, in, n, r; the rest, with the 
exception of s and h, being called mutes. 
The liquids are so called from their easily 
joining with (or melting into) the mutes. 
Then according to the organs of speech 
principally used in articulating the conso- 
nants, they have been divided into labials, 
Unguals, and gutturals. The lips are em- 
ployed to articulate the labials, the tongue 
for the Unguals, and the soft palate at the 
entrance of the larynx for the gutturals. 
If the tongue comes in contact with the 
teeth, the sound produced is called a lingua- 
dental ; if with the front palate, a palatal. 
If the sound can be continued, it is said to 
be open or vocalised ; if it is stopped short, 
it is called explosive, shut, or mute ; if the 
air is sent through the nostrils, it is said 
to be nasal. Thus we have the following 
classification of the consonants : — 

3. Guttui- 

Sharp Flat Sharp 


. . K if 


■ ' P •' \wh 






_ (t d J sh 


^ -(c T> i rh W. 


W W. 



, ,. ^ (c (broad) 

S broad 

''^ '^ 2 (c (slender) % slender 

ngh W. ng 

The letter W_ stands for Welsh, and the 
Irish letters indicate Irish sounds. Some 
peculiar Irish sounds have not been intro- 
duced in order not to render the table too 
complicated. For those who would wish to 
pursue this subject further we would recom- 
mend the works of Mr. Ellis, Mr. Melville 
Bell, and the second volume of Ala.x Müller's 
Lectures on the Science of Language. 

The Irish divide their vowels into broad 
and slender ; a, o, and vi being broad, and 
e and 1 slender. The consonants are divided 
into aspirable and aspirated, excepting n 
and I1. All the aspirated consonants, ex- 
cept L and n, are known by a dot over them, 
or by h immediately following them. All 
the consonants, whether aspirated or not 



have each a broad sound and a slender 
sound, depending generally, except in the 
case of i\, on the kind of vowel accompany- 
ing them. The consonants were arranged 
b)- the bards as follow : — 

y, the queen of the consonants. 

p, c, r, soft consonants. 

b, 5, -o, hard do. 

y, c, c, rough do. 

II, 111, 1111, 115, y]\, strong consonants. 

b, t), j, 111, i, n, ]i, light do. 

No place was assigned to li, which was 
not reckoned a consonant. Leaving it out, 
the twelve consonants, in their simple or 
aspirated state, represented thirt)--nine 
sounds. The five simple vowels, each being 
capable of a long or a short sound, and any 
one of them of an obscure sound, represented 
eleven sounds. There being six long un- 
accented diphthongs, seven either long or 
short, according to the presence or absence 
of an accent, and six triphthongs, we have 
twenty-six sounds represented by these ; 
adding the euphonic h, we have seventy- 
seven different sounds, represented by the 
eighteen letters of the Irish alphabet alone 
or in combination. The English sounds of 
iVi, d,g in engine, gii, r initial and final, i, 
z in zeal, z in azure, tli in think, th in 
though, and some combinations of conso- 
nants, such as hn in helm, are wanting in 
the Irish language. On the whole, euphony 
is more powerful in modifying the forms of 
words in Irish than in English, and this is 
one of the reasons why Irish words can be 
so easily set to music. 

ClAtin ConcobAin. 
( To be continued.) 

coiiin^vmre ■oeijbeiis^vcvV: iinii. 1. 

&\\\ n-i fjiAÌobi-D 1 S.\ci-beiii\tA lei)' an <lc<M|\ pAnpAic 

U J Cioirii, O vVp-o-f-iipce CAii'il : 

-lib"!" -"roi^'Sfe 50 5..\eẁli5 le SeAJin pLéiniioti. 

"Oon b>.\i]-X)eA-ò. 
^Xjup t>'ýK\].-|\ui5eAt)AH -oé, aju)' AT)úb]u\- 
t>A]i leij- : c]ieAt) ].-Á n-TDéAiiAi)i-i-e t)Ai]-\)eA-ó. 
(llAoiii eoin, i. 25.) 

"Oo iiijne Á)! 5-ceu-o auai)! -AtSaiìi peACcvó 
Ag ice co]\Ait) CpAinn iia 1i-\Vfne i njAintiin 
pAp^icAif, Ajtif -00 cuir A cLaiiii iiiLe '\m\ 
b-peACA-ô \o •Á-ÓAiiii Acr An c-Aon ii-üume 
^fji^m. — " ^Vjuf 1 b-peACAt) .Á-ÓAHÍi ■oo peAC- 
injeAiiiA)! iiile." i^y\\ An At)bA|i pn, jac 
LeAub ■o'Á njemreA]» ^\\\ An ]-aoj;aI ]-o, 
jeinreA]! é 'luv iu\iiiAi-o Atg "Oia, Le ^aI 
iiniieAiiiAil An pcACAit) fm Aji pnti]-eA]i 50 
yói]\leArAn aju]' 50 •ooiiiim in a AUAtii. -An 
ýAi-o ACÁ fe Yah ]iiocc \o, ni yeitnn teif ah 
AHAiii -oul 50 l-'lAireAi- "Oé, ó\\\ ní 05 le 
li-AOii m-ó riiuAillijre tiiil A]-reAC 1 b-ylAi- 
ceAiiniAp. Ace -00 jiigne "Oia tlibecúniACCAC, 
'nA iiió]i-c)iócAi]ie T)o'n nutne, locj'LÁince 
HioJAitiuil t)0 ctin Ai)! bun 1 i-AC]u\itiiinc Ati 
IJai]-oi-ó le A iiiAirceA]\ peACAt) ah c-pnin]'i)i. 
Aju)- iiiA]\ I'o leip AH ni-bAij-ueAiL), Airjem- 
reA)\ I'lnn 1 iniAu-beAtA m Ioj-a Chioit ; 
0511111-0 cuin A lieic 'nÁ]! j-CnioiXAiuib, 'nÁ]i 
5-clAinn A15 "Oia, Aguf 'nA]! n-oijuijib Aip 
HioJACC iieiiiie. " t-Vju]" -D'yiAyjiuijeAuAH 
■oé, Aju)' At)ub]\A-OAi\ lei]- : c|\eA-o yÁ ii-ueA- 
nAi]i-pe bAi|n)eA-ó ?" II1 b-i.-uiL plÁnuJAu 
le yÁJAil jAU bAipDeAt) ; óip Auein An 
UijeAjmA inunA njeinccAU ■ouine 6.\\\\ le 
h-uifgeAjufleip An SpioiiAuriAoiii ni ].-éix)i]\ 
Uniie fin, ni cei-óit) ua leinli a jeibeAf bÁf 
5An bAi]"oeA-ò 50 i.-lAièeAiiinA]-, Ajup ni 
ýeicfi-ó ]iAt) jnúip'Oé 50 b|iÁc. II1 b-yuijiTj 
fiA-o iiiAji feilb Acr An céitii i]- Aiiine -oe'n 
c-j-eun nÁt)ú]icA. 5''o<^'^'o, ■oeAUAnn iiiaih- 
ri]ieACC in Áic An po|i-bAifOi-ó An uai]i nAC 
b-fuil yÁJAil Ai]! An pAC]iAiminc. 111 a]\ au 
j-ceuunA tieAnAnn niiAn An bAij-oiu niAille 
le yio]\-AiriieACApin Áic au c-fAciiAitiimc -do 11 
ce rÁinic cum Aoipe céille riÁ jeib bÁ|- Agup 

JAn A1]1 5-CinilA]- -00 An pAC)1Al1l111lC -DO 


"Oo cuiji iopA Ci\ioi-c SACiUMimnr An 

bAq-ul-Ò AIJI bun. J'^O "'■^C fAlb ]\1ACCAnAp 

Aije péin leip, -00 injne ]-e, iiiAji ]-oiiiplA 
■ouinne, bAipüeAÚ v,o jIacaü ó llAoin eoin 
i A15 AbAinn 1o]it)An. " i\nii]-iii -oo rij Ioj-a 
ó'n njAlilcA jup AU 1o]TOAn cum 60111 50 



iii-bAiftip-cie lei]- é. . . . aju]- iaji n-A 
bAi]-oeA-ó t3'ío]-A cÁmic ^e jaii liioill aiiiac 
Af An ini'je: ajii]- i:eiic ■oo Ii-oi-jIau ha 
ylAirif •oó : Ajti]' no conAi]>c ]-e SpionA-o "Oé 
Ag ci'iii\lin5 111 AH coiutn Ajuf aj reAcc Aiji 
■\-]n. ^^ju]' -peuc 511c Ó neAiii Ag ]\áx) : ìy é 
I'o 1110 liiAc ■oil-i'i in A "b-irint iiió]\-)'Á]"aiíi 
AgAiii " (11. lllÁrA iii. 13, kc.) 

"Oo j-eAnmóip nA li-Apj-coil -(roinceATìAl An 
■bAij-Di-o : Tio tujAuA]! te n-A lAiiiAib féni, An 
]-AciiAiiiiinc I'o ■oo 5AC Aon neAC, 05 Ajuf 
<\oi'T)A, ■00 li-ioiiipoijeAu cinii ah CneiTiiiii 
CHioj-CAiiniiL, jAn cv\\ ]'UAp «'Aon-tinine. 
'but) -ooniiin leo 50 tii-btiu cin-o iiiACCAnAC -o 'Á 
■o-ceAccAi)ieAcc ó "ÒiA bAij'üeAt) -00 -óéAnA-ó. 
" <\ì]\ An AWlJA]! ]"ni, Ai)\ n-niiceAcc üi'b, nnnni'ò 
nA li-inLe c"in'ocA, A15 a iii-bAifoeA-o in ^inm 

All -tVcAJl AJU]- An IÌI1C Agll]' An SpioHAi-o 

llAonii" (n. IIIACA xxvui.19}. ÜÁ All CajIaip 
CACOiticeAc, X)0 cojbAu Ai]! bunuuAp nA 
n-Appcol, jAn Ai]n3]iui5A'ò ai)1 bic, yóy aj 
reAjAfj niACüAnAip An 'bAip-oib, hiah jteup 
l-lÁnmjce nAC pei-oi]\ -oeAnw-o in a OAjniuip, 
Ajup iiiA]i cobA]i Ó n-Ati-nj jac uite j]iÁ]'a 
Agnp beAnnACC. 

CoriicAcmjeAnn An t)Ai)"oeA-ò ]-iiin le 
coiip pu)rôo|icA C]\io]-c, lonnop 50 n-'oéAncA]! 
bAitb uinn uile le céibe, Ajup C|\i'opc 'ha 
ceAnn 0]i)iAinn. ü)\é n-A-ji ;5-ceAnn, Cjiiopc, 
cijimi'-o jAn liioill cmn a belt 'nÁ]\ niACAib 
Ajup'nÁ]! n-oijinjib aijuia AjupnA)! 5-00111- 
nA UjiencA : " X)o jiigneA-o pnn -d'acaji^uija-o 
te poijceAC ni jeACÁm An AicjineAiiinA ó'n 
I11QCC m A jiujA-o ]-inn 'nÁp 5-clAinn A15 aii 
5-ceuT3 -Á-ÓAn'i, 50 ]'CÁi-o nA njnÁp, 'nÁp iiia- 
cAib cnlJAbcA A15 "OiA, c]\ep An *oẃ)ia ^XUAiii, 
iopA C]iio]-c, A)! SlÁnui^ceoin." Ó i]' 
netiiiceoHAnAc Ajup ip -oo-coiiiAipce An jHÁt) 
A CAipbeAnrA]\ 1 )\\c|iaiiiiiiic ah bAijTJit) le a 
n-Á)i-oui5ceAH ■ounie AnToeip ó n-A ]\iocc 'oi- 
liiCAiTA 50 pénii A beic 'ha iíiac A15 "Oia, 'nA 
bAll Aju]' 'nA •óeA]\bpÁCAi]\ A15 Cjiiopc, Agup 
'nA ceAni)Jiill beo A15 An SpiojiAt) IIaoiii. 
-cVig All iii-bAi]-oeAü iiijceA]! á]\ ti-AnniiiA 6 

gAC pAÌjDCACAlt): ÜÁ]-1A-0 jlAnCA,!!! A]\ A ■DC1]\ 

llAoiii pób, "iepoijceAC nijeAcÁni ah inpje 
A iii-bpéicip nA beACA " (6pep. v. 26). 1p lAt) 
tiA bpiAcpA Ajup An c-tnpje po cóiiiApcAi-óe 
poipiiiiiobocA HA njpÁ]- iniiieÁt)onAC le a 
n-t)éAncAp An c-AnAin -00 glAnAt) ^x^i^" "oo 

nAOlilUJATD, Ajnp ip CUIT) piO)l-piACCAnAC üe 

pAcpAniiinc All bAi]T)i-ô lAt). UiijAiin ah 
GAglAi]' nj-OA)iAp v'<\ pA5A]irAib bAii'-oeAÙ 
■00 -oeAnAb. 1]' leip An pAjA^ic ip jnÁcAC 
bAip'oeA'ó ■00 •ôéAnA'ô, Ajup ip -oo ip cóip a 
■ôéAnAü ; jibeAb le linn ]\iACCAnAip, 'pé pin, 
'niiAip ACÁ An leAiib 1 m-bAoJAl bÁip, s-^vy 
jAn pAjAjic le pÁJAil, 1)' péi-ot]i le b-Aon 
cuACA, peAp no beAn, bAi]~oe uo ueAn a-ò, Ajup 
ACÁ ye tj'piACAib oppA A "óéAnATÌ). Ip Aip 
bAi]~oeA-ò TDe'n cineul po a joijiceAp bAi]-DeAü 
u]\lÁi]i. 1]' 1011TOA An All! Anoip 1 iiioJAcc "Oé 
00 puAi]i ]'eAlb All pA-ÓAijic beAiinin jce cpé 
bAi]''oeAt) 'ouine cuacaij. pAppócAit) pib, 
iiiA]i pin, cionnop ip cóip -oo cuaca bAii'-oeAU 
no ■óéAnAt). îîlAppo: tlipje ■oo •óójica'ó Aip 
ceAnn An re a rÁ le bAij'TieA-ó, aj pÁ-ô ']-An 
Atn ceviunA, Ajup le b-incinn ah iini ceutiiiA 

■00 ■ÓÓAnATD A 'ÓéAllA]' All P I'op-CAjlA))", 

'■ bAii'tiiiii rú 111 <,\iniii All -AcA]!, Ajup An 

IÍI1C, Agll]- All SlJlOpAlt) llAOIlll." "OeAnpAU 

Aon AipopniJAt) no eApbA 1 b-poipm nA 
b-pocAl An bAipoeA-o jAn éipeACC. llime 
pn, ip cói)i A beic pó-AipeAc aj •oéŵnA-ò 
u]-ÁiT)e •o'poipiTi beACC nA iii-b)iiACAp po : 
" bAii~oitii cu in ^inm An ^CAp, Ajiip An 
tllic, ^^^vy An SpiopAit) HAOiiii." Hi cin-o 
TDe'n poipm An pocAl "-diiien." 1p éijm -oo'ii 
cé üo jniü An bAipneAÓ n a pocAil a pÁb aju)' 
1A-0 -00 ]iÁ-ó An peAb biweAp Ag -ooiirAt) ah 
iii]'50 Ai]i ceAiin An cé bAipüceAp. 

AnOl]-, CAbA1]l pÁ TieAHA lllAlCeAp AgU]' 

cAjiiA Á]i "o-üíjeApnA beAiinuijee 1 g-cii]! 
Aip bun, Ajnp 1 b-ppiocólAiii An c-pACiiAiiiiinc 

]'0,ACÁ COlil]llACCAllAC AgUp pill, ^^ì\\ b-peiC]-in 

An ]iiACCAnAip le bAij-oeA-o acá ajaiiih cuni 
■oul ApcoAC 1 iii-beAtAi-^DiopA-oAlrA nAnjpÁp, 
■00 pijne ye jac ni-ò beAnAp pip piiiipline, 
poi-üéAncA. 111 Ap A-óbA]\ -oo'n r-]'AcpAiiiiinr, 
■ooroj pe All nit) i)- coircinne Ajn]- ip ii]-a 
ü'pÁJAil 111 jAc Air, iiiAp ACÁ uipge — wy-^e 11 a 



neul, 11A li-Ab^nn, iia ciobiuiiue, ha nu\n<.\. 
1 5-ciìifniAccAnAifii'i:éit)in'LeciiACA Aijibtc, 
\'0A]\ no bcAn, CACoiliceAC 110 ■oume iiac 
li-yiiil 'ha CACoiliceAC, lutiAijeAc, Ciiuccac 
110 -dinciiioi-cAnJe, bAij'üeA-ó ■00 •òéAiiAt), acc 
AiiiÁm 50 iii-bAii-TDeAiin fe rriAH -oo riiimj 
me, Aguf 50 b-i-'uil incinn Aije An niu a 
•óÓAnAf A]\ p'on-eAjlAif -00 •óéAnAü. -Ajuf 
!)• 1 An ýoiiuii 1|' |'iiii]3lni)e aiji bic 1 : " Oai]-- 
■onii CÚ ni Amni An AcAji, A511]- An lilic, Agiif 
All SpionAi-o nAonii." 

\\i5 An iii-bAi]'t)eA'ó buAibrcAU Aiji ah AnAni 
ctóü, no cóniA]icA i'idiohauaIca iiac -peiuin a 

]-5HI0|' AlllAC 50 bnAC. CuiUCeA]! ah CÓ1Ì1A]ICA 

]-o iiiAH j-eulA cuin b]\eii-e gloipe tio'n aiiaiii 
111Á -|'lÁniii5ceAi\ é, no cum b^eife nÁi]ie -òó 
mÁ cAillccAn é. 1f cómA]\CA é be a n-Aicm- 
reAji An C]\ioi'üAi-óe ó'n g-ciiit) eibe tie 'n 
cineA-ó ■OAoiiA. 

<\i5 An m-bAi)-oe ciiii\ceAH uibipc Aqi An 

T)H0C-1']D10HAt) A]' An An Am. " I1IICI5 IIAITJ A 

fpio|iAi-o neAiiigbAin," -oeiii An pAgAiic, A5 
p)\iocóbAm All bAip-01-ó, "Ajii]' •oéAii I'lije 
■oo'n Spio]u\TinAom." "OóiiiceA]! AfceAC 'iv^" 
AiiAtii HA r]ii SubAibci-óe "Ouwa, CjiemeAiii, 
"OóccAp, Ajiij' Sl'^^'ó. <''5^'r cuijiceAiv I'llAf 
X)o ciouAb Ai)\ jjiApAib 5ni0lilA]\CACA bé'ji 
■j-'ei-oin ■oo'n cé bAifceA]\ a riioiue bAifoi-ó 
■00 comieAT), Ajup A beACA cAiceAiii 1 ixÁi-o 
nA njiuv]-. 

■dec, Jit) 50 5-ciii]\ceAn A111AC 50 b-iombÁn 
A15 An m-bAifoeAt) jac uite f'AÍ peACAiù Ap 
All AnAm pAnAnn po]- AiniiiiAn •oúccu)-ac Ann, 
A bi-òeAp X)0 jnÁc "d'a jpíoiwò cum ah 
JDCACAlb. Ill pcACA-ó A11 r-AiniiiiAii ]"o ; Ajup 
ni b-piiil A jpiopuijce nA a oibpi jce peA- 
CAiiuiib, iininA -o-cngcAp coil Tioib 50 li-iom- 
lÁn A511]' 50 léi]m"ieA]'T)A. -cVtiei]! CoiiiAiple 
nA ü]iencA : " Hi peACAb An c-AiniiiiAii Aim 
pern." Î1Í piilÁip biiAib X)0 bpeic Aip ah 
AiniiiiAti po Le li-iqiiniige. lliiiie ]-in, AT)ei]i 
llAoiii üoniÁp: " "O'ét]- bAij-oib acá )-io|\-u]i- 
11111 je ]\iAccAnAc uo'ii ■ouiiie loniio]' 50 pACAb 
pe Aj-ceAC 1 b-plAiceAiiinAp, óip jib 50111AIC- 
reA]i Á]i b-peAcinbe beip An iii-bAip-oeAb, 
pAnAnii po)- All c-AinriiiAn be CAbAijic pninn 

o'n leic Aj'nj, ajii]' An pAogAb Agup An 
•ouxbAb cnm j-mn ts'ionnpuije Aip ah CAob 
Am 11 15." 

-i\n JAipm Cpio]TAibe a rujcAp T)iiinn 
A15 All m-ÜAipt>eAb 1]' 5At|uii onó]\A, móp- 
bAccA, Ajiip Aipt>-cémie 1. -dcÁ pi 'nA 
jAipm 1 b-pA-o Ó]' cionn jac mbejApiiiA caI- 
liuiiue. " 1 5-coiiiieAp be b-Áp-o-JAipm An 
Cnio)-CAibe 1)- neiiiini-ójAjmiA AguponópAcA 
iiibe All c-i-A05Aib,"An All c-imiDipeUeouOj-iii)'. 

An b-puib iiieA]' iiiAji ip pill é AjAinn Aip 
Á]i ii5Ai]\m Cpio]'CAibe ? <\ii ii-neAiiAmAoiT) 
All r-Ainm no liiAoibeAiii 50 niópbÁlAc ? -An 
m-bnJeAiin biicJAip oi\]u\iiiii pA ]'iiin ■00 
5Ai]\m 1 ii-t>iAib C]iio)'c ? -cVii g-coiigbAijmit) 
]niAp cbii All Cjii'opcAibe x)' Aüiinii jmio a 
beic 'iiA JAipiii AgAiiin ? \\n b-piiib Á)i 
m-bcArA piop-C]iio]'rAmAib ? An b-piiib pi 
copAiiiAib be beACA C]n'opc, bÁn ■oe ceAiiii- 
]-Acc Ajiij-u'i'iipipbeAcc? "Vójbuimib iiAiiii]-e, 
ói]\ CÁ iiié ceAimpA, tiiiiAb-ci\oibeAC " 
(n.HIÁCA, xi. 29.) An b-piiib pi bÁn -oe 
CApcAiniAcc : " "Oo jpÁbiiij "OiA pnii Ajiip 
■00 C115 pe piiA]- é péin <\]\ Áp ]'on " (11. Coin 
iii. IG.) An b-puib Áp 111-beACA 'nA beACA 
beo-cpei-oiiii ? Óip, " i]- niApb cpei-ocAtii jAn 
oibpeACAib " (II.SeAiiui)' ii. 26). An b-piiib 
Áp 111-beACA t>o péip Áp iiióiüeAb bAi]'t)ib ? 
<\ii b-piiibmi'-o Aj cpoit) 50 cpo-OA ill AJAlb 


h-eAglAii'e ? A]i ceiceAiiiA]! ó n-Áp piiAi- 

CeAtlCA)- Aip 1-011 All TilAbAll, An C-pAOJAlb 

Agii)- IIA coLiiA ? An b-puibtiu't) aj bpeic 
bniii 50 CACAoi]! b]ietceAiiinAip iopA C)iiopc 
cnbAib bÁii Áp in-bAipiDib jAn pAb, 50 jbAn, 
gle-jcAl. A C]ii'o]XAib loniiuiin, congbAij 
]-obitp All C]iciT)im Aip bAj'Ab At)' cpoibc 1 
j-cóiiiiuii je ; coiijbA! j no bAi)'t)eAb jAn 
iiiibleÁii ; coinieÁt) AiceAiiCA "Oé, Agiij- iiiiAip 
ciocpAib All UijcApnA, t)0 buAibeAb bcAC A15 
All m-bAi]-t)eAb, cum a pó]'CA, iiAcpAib cú 50 
búcJAipeAC tio ceAgbÁib ai|i, 1 b-pocAip llA 
nAoiii uibe ']■ All 5-ciii]ic iieAiiibA, Ajup 
bbAij'pib cu t)e liiibpeAcc pbAiceAiiiiiAip, n'Á 
búcjÁip Ajup T)'Á jbóijie, nAc b-puib Aon 
jloipe iiiAp 1 ; Ajtip cuippit) ci'i x>o ceAim 



cum niilii'-fuAin in ucc "Oé, aj mocugAt) An 
CuoiTJe llAOiiiCA Ag buwlAt) le liìcjÁip AgUf 
te sliAw iieiiii-iiini]xe ■òinc, ^s^]\ ireA-o via 
^-ioimijeACCA tiilc. 

CopcAig ! 
"OiA bcArA 50 CopcAij cÚ5Ainn,üi5-ini|-lcA- 


"OiA beACAÍét)' j-jéAlA, iu\)\ éuj An h-jIaii- 

^]\ •o-ceAiigA boj 111 dt) Alii 11 lb n'lili]' j*-^*^" 

■pÁilro jAU l-'eA]!^, 5AC nojiA]- jau tiiinAt) ! — 
JeAÌbAim ■ouic -pÁibce' Aii]- jac áijto, ni-ó 

nÁc loiijiiA-ó 
Óigỳm iiA 1i-éineAiiii 'y<\ bétre A5 coiijnAt), 
'S Aj léigeA-ó leAbAi]! miAi-ú Á]\ n.-oil-jAe- 

Léi5|.-eA-o 5AC yibLcAt) 111]- jAC 10111116 50 


a:\iii I'-iiitie coij- iiA renie, 50 i-onieAiirA 

5ac bio-óbA Ain luAic-5]\íoi-Ac, iió j-io]' lei]- 

ì'Aii iiiüiMÌniin 
IIÁH' bpiojiiiA]! lei]- I--11A1111 n'iili]- jAéüilje. 

CAOine Ai)! ^i]\t)eA]"po5 ühaiiia : 

VUA11\bÁl-, S.MÌUMll. 1S8I. 

ÜA b)\ón Ai|i cnoi-óe iia cléi|ie 111 éiniiin be 

cnéitiii'e seÁnn, 

ÜA ContiACCA 11A binii-JAe-ùibje yAoi setiji- 

jom o bini 50 bÁnii, 
ÜA IILai-ù a']- l/Aijiii boj-biiAonAC be céibe 

'gu]- lìU'itiiAii iiA n-uAii, 
O CAibbeAt) beoTÌiAii iiA cbéi)\e, jCAb iiaüiìica 

All c-c\i]roeA]'po5 SeÁJAn. 

1]- b]\Ó11AC A51I]- bllAl-ÓeAHCA CÁ üllAlll A1101]- 

CAH éij- A bÁi)-, 

1]- TieoiiAc boicc HA ruACA A3 c|iuATÒ-5ob be 

neA]ic •oóbÁip, 
1]' cói)i 5ti)\ beuniiiA]!, UAijtieAC, jac ciuiAigbe 

All-Tllll Aljl pAll, 

Ó ■o'euj cobuiiiAii 11A cbéi]\e, yion-iiAotiicA, 
A11 c-v\int)eA]-po5 SeÁgAti. 

"Oob' Ai]icAc a']- iieAiii-ùiii)ii'eAc bi' Á]i 

b-p|\1Ü11]'A JAC AIII a']' CjlAC, 

11iu\i)\ bi Á)\ n-CAgbAip biiAt)A]icA 511)- 

]U1ArAH A1]\ A cbél)! JAC bÁ ; 

•c\cc iiiíbe iiiobcA ']' biu-óeACAp be 111 ac "Oé 

jib t)0 cuj pinn ì*bÁn 
t.\']' bjitp iu\ pbAbnAiüe t)AOn-b|\ui-oe pub 

•o'eiij All c-i\i]\t)eA]-po5 SeÁgAn. 

"OóiiiiiAb Ua Loiiijpij, 


We have only to point to the Opinions of 
the Press quoted in this and the previous 
number, for evidence of the kindly interest 
our project has evoked. Our friends may 
be allowed to speak for us. They speak 

Since the appearance of our First Num- 
ber, we have seen and heard nothing but 
congratulation — warm, hearty and honest. 
Not a single unfriendly sign has been 

Our space does not admit in this number 
of our transferring to its pages any but a 
few of the numerous Opinions of the Press 
with which we have been favoured. We 
shall continue these in our next issue. Our 
anxiety to test and know the Public Opinion 
in relation to our venture was great, and it 
would be folly on our part to pretend that 
we are not proud of as well as grateful for, 
such clear evidence that the Country is with 
us, and approves and will support our work. 

Though our expectations of sympathy 
and encouragement were great, they have 
been far more than realized. We did not 
venture even to hope that we would have 
found such a hearty welcome from all 
quarters. In a practical way, too, the sym- 
pathy of lovers of Ireland's language and 



literature has been tried and not found 
wanting. Our subscription list has swelled 
to close on seven hundred names, embrac- 
ing all classes, ranks and degrees. Better 
still, there are now, comparatively, ver\' 
few who have not backed their words by 
their purse. We have been induced to 
defer till next number the commencement 
of the publication of our list of subscribers, 
so as to afford to the few who have not yet 
come forward an opportunity of having 
their names enrolled on this truly Irish 
literary Legion of Honour. 

We are requested to state, in connection 
with this subject, that membership of the 
Gaelic Union is now within the reach of all. 
By a reference to the reports of the Council's 
transactions in this number, it will be seen 
that the annual subscription of los. entitles 
anyone to become a member of the Gaelic 
Union, and to receive the Gaelic Journal 
free monthly. 

An almost overwhelming mass of corres- 
pondence has reached us, to but a very small 
portion of which are we able to give atten- 
tion at present. We must beg the indul- 
gence of our friends till the third number, 
when we hope to clear off all arrears. 
Besides our Answers to Correspondents, 
our column for Folk-lore, and for Notes 
and Queries, has had likewise to be deferred. 
We have received many contributions for 
these departments. 

We much regret that in the " paring- 
down" necessary to keep this number within 
its proper limits, we have liad, amongst 
other important matter, to hold over the con- 
tinuation of Mr. Fleming's valuable letter in 
reference to the comments of The Times on 
our movement ; as also the translation of 
his article in Irish on the " Gaelic in the 
Nineteenth Century," both of which will 
appear in our next. It was not intended 
at first to give a translation, but as many 
admirers of that classic piece of Gaelic 
prose were anxious to place it within the 
reach of learners by a close translation, Mr. 
Fleming has himself undertaken, at our 
request, to do this work, which cannot fail 
to prove useful. 

\\^e have received for review, from the 
Cambridge University Press, a copy of the 

translation of Professor Ernst Windisch's 
Irish Grammar, by Dr. Norman Moore, of 
St. Catherine's College, Cambridge. We 
will shortly review in detail this most 
interesting work which, since its appearance, 
we have longed to see in an English dress. 
It goes without saying that it is well 
brought out. Some of Dr. Windisch's 
lectures have appeared in English in our 
valuable contemporary. The Scottish Celtic 
Rcvieio (the third number of which has just 
reached us). We should be very anxious 
to have the " Irisch Texte mit Wortcrbuch" 
of the same author, reproduced in such a 
way as to suit the numerous class of 
Celtists whose vernacular is English. We 
are informed that another English version 
of the Grammar by the learned F"ather 
MacSweeny, S.J., has been for some time 
passing through Messrs. Gill's press in 
Dublin. All these great undertakings 
furnish additional proof that the Irish 
language, ancient and modern, is now 
meeting with greater attention than was 
ever known before at any period of its 
long history. 

We have also received from j\lr. Cham- 
ney a copy of the School Edition of the 
" Lay of Oisin in Tir-na-n-og," on which, 
for obvious reasons, we refrain from making 
any comment. We are in fact relieved 
entirely from the necessity of doing so by 
Rev. Father O'CarroU's second paper on 
the " Ossianic Poems," in this number, in 
which this beautiful poesn (one of the most 
modern of those written in the spirit of 
Oisin), is learnedly analysed and compared 
with others of its class. 

Again apologizing to our many kind 
friends and correspondents for our tempo- 
rary neglect of their favours, we beg to 
take this opportunity of wishing them and 
all our subscribers and supporters 

IIouIaj i'éin Aju)' nuAü-bliAÚAni i''onẃ. 

Note. — We are pleased to find that we were in errot 
in stating that the Elegy by An Ghraoibhin Aoiihinit in 
our last was the only tribute to the memoiy of Arch» 
bishop MacHale. In this number will be found a owiiie 
by Mr. Daniel Lynch, which appeared in our Gaijiic De- 
partment of the Irishman. 




Royal Barracks, Dublin, 

October^, 1882. 

Sir, — As a letter from a soldier, sympathizing with 
your patriotic and praiseworthy movement, is not, I pre- 
sume, a matter of every-day oco\irr.-P''.-, I i.-ivrp \i\;m 
this communication, in 'the hop. i!i n •> mmn r.i I- lü-n- 
teresting, and that it may be an . in 

the amount of encouragement w u,. ., , i, ■ .. n . 1 
that you maybe enabled succe^^iull) i,, i.uii .lui \mui 
generous intentions with regard to the picseivatiuu and 
the restoration to its rightful position of our mother tongue. 

About two months ago, I became the possessor of the 
First Book, published for your Society, and, having an 
elemental), but veiy limited, oial knowledge of the lan- 
guage, curiosity induced me to devote an houi to the 
perusal of us contents. I was so fa\ Durably mipressed 
by the e.asy grtdrtion^ by \\hu.\\ the student is led along, 
and by the gential aiiangement of the work, that I 
perse\eieil in the stud} of it, and it sui.n becime apparent 
to me that, to p^rMms ol oidiiian LapaLit),the acquisition 
of a Ian knowledge of the Irish language «as no more 
dtfhcult than that ul any other ordmaiy new study. 

I belic\e the unfamiliar fiim of the letteis deteis a good 
man> liom taking the iiist step: but I am also certain 
that this souice of discouiagim 1 1 ir m a 

very shoit time. It is surpnsii m tin, 

respect a few days' acquaintam ill niike 

1 give you as my own e\pi n I 1 t t u 1 

the Fust and becond In 1 I 1 

the Third, which I I 1 1 - 

Indeed, the only reil I _ 1 n 

the Aspirations and L 1, _ u . -_lj i L^u... „ i<ji^ 
told 111 the intioduction to that book. 

I lia\e also piocured the Irish Copy-book, Father 
Nolan s lush Prayer Book, and a copy of T/ie Gad, pub- 
lished in Brooklyn, N.Y. But in these latter two I find 
considerable difficulty, owing to the occurrence of words, 
both new and difficult, the meanings of which I have no 
means of ascertaining. Is there no Dictionary to supply 
this want ? If not, there ought to be. I find no mention 
of one in the list of Irish books appended to your publi- 

I have progressed thus far and favourably without any 
enthusiastic ari li. .iii .ii >.i • Inlnjui 1..; ■_■.._• , •, ii,.i Ii n l- 

at present, ficsti.w ujimh the Gaelic departineiU of my 
studies that time and attention to which it is entitled at 
the hands of every Irishman. 

Please accept enclosure, and enrol my name as an 
Associate of your Society. I hope early in next year to 
have the lionour of becoming a Member. 

I uiidi-istand you propose undertaking the publication 
of " The Gaelic Union Journal." In this enterprise you 
shall have my hearty symjiathy, and whatever moral and 
pccuniaiy sujiport a private soldier can afford. You may, 
at least, calculate on my being a constant subscriber. 

Before I conclude this letter, I beg to point out to you, 
and to express my astonishment at the fact, the veiy small 
number of Booksellers who can supply — or, rather, the 
very large number who cannot supply, Irish books. I 
was aware that they could be obtained of Messrs. Gill, 
but their establishment was closed before the hour at 
which I could conveniently go a-shopping. I was there- 
fore obliged to seek them elsewhere, and I tried at least a 

dn/(-n slioiis withrtut success, and only procured them at 
l:i-i !>>■ 'I I I I' ■ all'! w li'.ing for them. It would be in- 
l II I ' n\ m iny Booksellers' windows your 

; 1 ^ i' ' ' 'I lor sale. I fear the result of the uui i.e cieJitable to the patriotism of that 
section of your citizens. I feel assured that if more pub- 
licity were given to your books, they would command a 
more extensive sale, many becoming purchasers through 
curiosity, if from no other motive — the price can certainly 
never be an obstacle to anyone's possession of your ex- 
cellent publications, which only need circulation to be 

I have the honour so be, Sir, yours sincerely, 


Royal Horse Artillery. 
[Seco.nd Letter.] 

Dcciinber 4, 1S82. 
I beg thankfully to acknowledge the receipt of the First 
Number of the Gaelic jonntal, and to congratulate you 
on this successful issue of your praiseworthy enterprise. 
This IS deciledly the most important event in con- 
nection with the whole movement, whose final triumph 
is now assured, and all friends of the cause — and what 
Irishman should not be friendly — have reason to hail its 
advent with hope and gladness. 

Namur Cottage, 


s, FcaslofSt. Andrew, iS 

To the Rev. Mr. Nolan, 

Rev. Sir,— Mr. William M'Ka 
handed me your letter, bearini^ 1 
J.;n,tal. As there is a wi.h - ,| 
asceitain my opinion on tiic !■ i.i: 

any language, I consider lUc jiLi 

or in this town, 
iioposed Gaelic 
I hat letter lo 
, ..fthe Roman 
I knowleilge of 

preferable lo the angular Irish type. The Irish letter 
seems to me more distressing to the eyesight, especially 
in small pi int. It is more difficult to learn, and after 
having acquired a knowledge of speaking and reading 
Gaelic, it is then the student's troubles will begin if he 
atiLin] ts til cany on rapid correspondence in the angular 
Iri-h letter. 

In the course of the forty-one years' of my time passed 
in England, it has been my good fortune to have made 
the acquaintance of many Irish gentlemen, some of whom 
could speak, read, and write the Irish Gaelic. To the 
best of my recollection they were mostly, if not altogether, 
in favour of the Roman type. The late Rev. Jonathan 
Furlong, Catholic priest, was one of the gentlemen alluded 

111 I v.; J !a |i;,i 1, li •', i:i 1 la'! ii ,i -inal] (.'laelic prayer- 
: a ■ la iimt. itwould 

' • ■ ■■ a ■. a. cess. In 1844 

ala ; !a |- I 1 I' ai |a 1 \ i -I - ■ ■:. a^' - a n ■ Ì 1 1 ■ a 11 the pell of the 
same autlnna lliis edition of 220 pages (l6mo) is also 
printed in bold Roman type, and published in Dublin by 
Tegg & Co. The long and most respectable list of sub- 
scribers' names prefixed to this book is headed by twenty- 
two i)f the tweniy-four Catholic archbishops and bishops 
in Ireland, and followed by the names of one hundred 
priests. After the bishops and priests we find a long list 
of names of persons of all degrees and ranks, from the peer 
to the peasant. I was present when the reverend author 
stated that he used the Roman type in obedience to the 
wishes of the majority of his subscribers. With this verdict 



f f 1 I 1 II ii 1 1 1 

1 y 1 II b ly 11 I o 1 

11 }p 

Tl 1 1 1 f 1 1 1111 1 E 1 1 

. 1 111 \ 1 LI (D bl S S) 

.If 1 1 r he 1 1 I 1 |. 

1 r 1 h I 1111 PI 

f r h 

G 11 1 d 1 

vp hE 1 h 1 by h 

I C n n U T E 1 ) !_ b bly h 

nyfi I f 1 11 1 1 1 

11 1 f 1 b 1 1 I 11 

V, nd 1 1 y f I h 1 E 1 1 Tl b 1 

111 h 1 fC 1 

a 1 1 1 1 1 p lly 1 I 1 G 1 

II 1 1 by 1 ) n 1 r 1 I h 

E h C h 1 > 1 1 

1 bl 1 i n h 1 C 1 f 11) 

1 d 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 h 

d n nly q In h d 1 n 1 f ) 

h S 

n I 1 


G 11 gl y 1 

d f ) n y ? 

In 1 If hi f 1 h p 1 1 

h > f s; 88 h C h n 1 

Ini dly n y/ > b 

p f h b I b 4 d 

e y y 

II p y py f h I 1 En 1 1 D n y by 

r I 1 t 1 lly 1 III I O D 

(T r tf D 1 1 S64) Tl h 1 f 

7 5P 4 I 1 1 1 g 

I 1 |1 1 1 11 1 I 1 1 1 1 n 

g n 1 1 1 ly I f 1 nil 

1 pldh kll plyh 

lb 1 f 11 h 1 C 1 

w d 1 h 554 p H I h 51- h 

F n ISp 

I 1> 
f H 1 

V E /I 

G F 

H I 1 f I 

1 C 1 
IH b 


of I 

) f 

PP n ' 
0/7 / 

f pi 

1 fill 

1 1 In h 

d 1 1 R man 

1 u d n m 

>p L 11 In 1 1 

Id bl k 1 1 1 

1 h h n ly 1 n 

of h I d p 1 11 

In conclusion, I beg to state that it is not my intention 
to combat the honest convictions of any man ; but I will 
take it as a favour if you can conveniently send me a copy 
of one of your best letters in favour of retaining the black- 

Wishing you and the new venture every manner of 

I am, dear Sir, youis very truly, 


Inverness, Dec. 11, 1SS2. 

Peimit me to expresss my pleasure at the appearance of 

the first number of ú\<t Gaclu Journal. It is exceedingly 

well got up, and its contents are most interesting. As a 

Scottish Gael I have had no difficulty in reading and un- 

G h 
h bl 
Ary n 

q y 


the first immigrants into Europe of the Aryan populations. 
Their language remains as one of the most valuable 
archaeological relics of western Europe. 

5. Because the very singularities of Irish grammar, 
which prove such a cru.x to beginners, ought to be re- 
garded as valuable as opening fresh fields of thought and 
modes of expression. Irish is interesiinL;, not only from a 
philulogical but even from a psychological stand-point. 

.Some European languages which a century ago seemed 
in nearly as great danger as Irish, are now wonderfully 
revi\ed: the Bohemian, for instance. I remember, at 
Plague, being at a fashionable tabic ifiwte. and hearing 
only C';tr/i spoken by the counliy gentlemen and ladies. 
I wonder at Dublin if Irish will ever be a fashionable 
medium of intercourse. 




íHtsrcUanrous Extracts. 


So far back as August 14, 1S77, or more than five 
years aço, Su- M. Hicks- IJeacli, then Chief Sec:.; iv f 1 
Ireland, said in the Hou-e of Commons (in le 
query from Mr. Sullivan), that this Ancient In li 
torical Manuscript would be translated int.. I 
under care of Rev. Dr. Reeves and Mr. II : , , :i 

three years ; and that Parliament, as an , 1 i 

Antiquarian authorities, had provide.l a 1 ' '.. 

payall costs. We will now feel much oLi-: : u\ ■■..■-.■- 
spondent, or Member of the Royal Iri^h Academy, who 
will tell us what has become of the grant ? and of the 
Book ? Perhaps it has long since been translated and 
printed, and its copies ate forgotten in some office in 

This ancient History is called the Annals of Ulster only 
because written just 400 years ago, in the Province of 
Ulster, by Cathal Maguire ; and is also often called 
" Annales Senatenses," because it was written in Senat, 
the name of the island now called Belleisle, in Upper 
Lough Erne, or "the Old Place ;" and the gables of that 
strong old house still stand included within the present 
building (see O'Donovan's Notes to year 1498, in "An- 
nals of the Four Masters "). 

The Rev. Dr. O'Conor (Libr.arian to the late Duke of 
Buckingham, and who wrote at Stowe, and published at 
his cost in four 4to volumes, his " Rerum Hibernicarum 
Scriptores Veteres ") translated part Annals fi'om 
Irish into Latin, and describes them as among the original 
materials of the better known work, the '• Annals of the 
Four .Masters" by the Brothers Clery, at Donegal. Then 
O'Conor's few pages have been translated from' Latin into 
English in the "Ulster Journal of Archa:ology ;" but the 
whole work still remains hid from public knowledge. 

Whether any delay has arisen from differences of 
opini.m as to the right English of many now obsolete 
Irish words or phrases; or whether Sir M. Hicks-Beach's 
public proinise has been simply forgotten ; or whether the 
money has been spent and devoted to .some different pur- 
pose, we think that an ample explanation is now due ; 
and we hope that the best explanation will be soon given, 
viz., the publication of this work in English, with in- 
telligible notes that will identify, so far as possible, its 
proper names with places as known in Ireland at this 
day.— Z;>A/A;7C Glizcíu; l.isbellaw, Co. Fermanagh. 

No one can be surprised to find that within the last 
census decade there has been a large decrease in our Irish- 
speaking population. In 1871 the number of persons 
returned as speaking Irish was 103,562 ; the figure now 
stands at 64,167, or 39.395 less. Further, while in the 
former period the number of persons who spoke Irish and 
English was 714,313, in the latter it was 885,765, or an 
increase of 171,452. The decrease in the number of 
Irish-speaking persons has reference to each of the four 
provinces in the following degree- i — fn T,fi"st.T, from 374 
in 1S71 to 50 in iSSi ; ill .Muii-' V ! 1 ;■ 1' -!.. 18,422 ; 
in Ulster, from 19,067 to 12,30- ; . ^ht, from 

50, 1.S4 lo 33.335- TheConini,- 1 .1-, . , . ..1,111, nation, 

report that the increase in theniouuer 01 persons leturned 
as being able to «peak English and Irish was distributed 
thus aitiongst the four provinces ; — Leinster, from 15,873 
n 1871 to 27,403 in 1881 i iMunster, from 352,527 to 


. r o 1,1 o-,.S56 to9S,i63 ; and Connaught, 
' .. Thus in irine of our thirty-two 
I 1 . i\ er 20 per cent, of the popula- 
I . h language, five of such counties 
1, , I Ml'. Cork, and Limerick) in Mun- 
sler; llir .lit (Sligo, Galwav, and Mavo) ; 

and on., 1 -al). The County of Kilkenny iiiiier of Irish-speaking people in 

il, ■ I !-. ■ • , : 1. In .Munsier Tippeiary is the 

' '. ■■ ;..! pier cent, of its population who 
1 1 ; ' : .\ntrim nor Down can one per 
^.iii -I I .J i p ;ia-. u speak Irish; and there are two 

per cent, of the population can spe.ak Irish, viz., Leitrim 
and Roscommon, in which the percentages are IO"6 and 
16-3 Tb.-s.. ti..j..|."s include all the chief 
features ..i .'■ i" i.r,: i.n 1 ' report, as they appear 
undertlie 1 11 ! -I li 1, ■ .king population. They 
indicat..- ail i.i, •,::-: .li.-lm , Í the classic language of 
the couiiliy, \s liieli, Incie is leasou to fear, will under 
ordinary cucumstances disappear in the course of a few 
generations, or at least so greatly decline that it can 
scarcely be accurately spoken of as a living tongue,— 
/riJi Tima. 

Pamphlets containing full information 
concerning the work of the Gaelic Union 
may be had on application to the Hon. 
Sec, No. 19 Kildarc-street, Dublin (by 

Concerning the most recent of these, the 
Freeman s Journal writes : — " We have re- 
ceived from the Gaelic Union a little pam- 
phlet or booklet, the principal contents of 
which appears in our advertising columns. 
It reminds us of the results which this 
Society has been quietly achieving in its 
valuable way. Besides having brought out 
some half score of publications in the Irish 
language, the Gaelic Union has already 
given in prizes £6o to successful students 
in the Celtic classes at the Intermediate 
E.Kaminations, and bestowed the entire 
stock of" O'Donovan's Irish Grammar" to 
those National School teachers who passed 
the Board's examination in Irish. We are 
glad to learn that the suggestion of an 
English gentleman to establish a " Special 
Literary Prize Fund" ishalf way carried into 
effect. A sum of ;£'ioo is required for the 
purpose, of which £\o has been subscribed 
by Dr. Croke, and a like sum by three 
Protestant clergymen. The booklet says 
that it is ' support, not sympathy alone, the 
Union requires,' and we trust the support it 
has so well earned will be speedily forth- 



©pinions of ÍÍJC iPrrss. 

"Daily News," London, 4/A October, 18S2. 
A " Union" has been formed in Ireland or preserving 
the Gaelic speech—' ' this strong, sweet tongue of warriors 
and of sages," as the poet of the Union calls Gaelic. The 
Language, unless artificially fostered, is likely to become 
extinct, like Cornish and the Dodo. Though there are still 
many western districts (as recent trials show), where some 
of the people talk Gaelic alone, the number of these Celts 
is quickly diminishing. The same phenomenon is com- 
monly seen in Scotland. Within about two hundred 
years Gaelic died out of the kiugdom of Clalloway. A 
Celtic tongue, as the names of hills, streams, and even 
pools in the Tweed show, was once spoken on the border. 
but has long been extinct. In Inverness-shire, Argyle- 
shire, and Sutherland, there is plenty of Gaelic, but many 
speakers know English as well. As in Ireland, if a man 
knows only one tongue, English is the profitable tongue 
to know. Now very few people will keep up two lan- 
guages for the sake of sentiment only, and Scotch and 
Irish neglect the speech which has only a legendary past 
for the speech which has a practical present. The Gaelic 
Union tries to resist this natural tendency by offering 
prizes to learners and teachers of Gaelic, and by promoting 
the publication of Gaelic schoolbooks. They also offer 
prizes for works written in the native tongue, and, in fact, 
make the same efforts as the Welsh to secure the fulfil- 
ment of the prophecy. "Their tongue shall they keep." 
These objects are meritorious and deserve sympathy. We 
may not expect very much from modern Celtic literature ; 
but while we seek to preserve national monuments, it 
woiild be absurd to neglect such a monument as the 
ancient Celtic language. 

"The," Zix/W», yth Octcher, i SS2, /<!^»<f 26?. 
We are glad to see that the Gaelic Union (which, it 
may be as well to premise, is not a Scottish, but an Irish 
Society) at last feel themselves justified in announcing a 
periodical to be devoted exclusively to the cultivation of 
the Irish language. It is to be a monthly, printed partly 
in English, partly in Irish, with (it is hoped) a gradually 
increasing proportion of the latter. The contents are to 
be miscellaneous— prose essays, ori^^inal poetry, notes and 
queries, proverbs, &c.— but all aiming at one end, the 
furtherance of the Gaelic movement. Surely the Irish 
can do in this matter what the Finns have done. The 
■address of the Gaelic Union is 19 Kildare-street, Dublin. 
Its patron is Archbishop Croke ; its president, the O'Conor 

"The London Figaro," -jth October, 1882. 

I am glad to learn that the Council of the Gaelic Union 
contemplate issuing a journal in the Irish language. For 
the present they only think of publishing it once a month, 
but if they meet with encouragement they will, no doubt, 
make The Gaelic Unwn Journal a weekly publicalion 
It IS very wisely determined that it shall be confined to 
one object— the furtlierance of the Gaehc movement. 

The President of the Gaelic Union, it maybe worth 
while to mention, is the O'Conor Don, and the Vice- 
President, Rev. Maxwell H. Close. The Union is in no 

sense a political body, and " the organ of the Irish lan- 
guage movement " will have the good wishes of the true 
friends of Ireland. 

"The Tablet," -jlh October, 1S82. 

The " Gaelic Union," the object of which is " to en- 
courage the preservation and cultivation of the Irish lan- 
guage." has since iSSo been giving prizes to students of 
the Celtic language and literature, the effect being a large 
increase in the number of candidates for examination in 
that subject. The " Union " has now formed itself into a 
regular society, of which the Right Hon. The O'Conor Don 
is the President, and proposes, if it receives sufficient 
encouragement, to bring out a monthly journal, "partly 
English and partly Irish, but with a gradually increasing 
lirnportion of Irish." The first number is to appear on 
tlie lit of November, "the great feast of Samhain among 
the ancient Irish." We wish The Gaelic Union Journal 
every success, although we fear that we shall be quite in- 
competent to appreciate that part of it which appears in 
the language to the cultivation of which it is to be de- 

"The Graphic," Zo«rfi««, October Tth, 1882. 

Celts and Celtic Dialects,— A journal is about to 
be started in Ireland for the purpose of fostering the study 
of Gaelic. If the object of the supporters of the scheme 
be to induce the Irish people to abandon the use of the 
English language, they must be prepared for plenty of 
ridicule, and— what will be harder to bear— complete 
failure. Whether for good or for evil, English has become 
the speech of the great m.ajority of Irishmen ; and a scheme 
for replacing it by a Celtic dialect would be almost as 
practicable as a proposal for reviving the social and poli- 
tical system of the age of St. Patrick. The aim of those 
who have planned the new journal is, however, we pre- 
sume, scarcely so unreasonable ; and if all that they intend 
is to encourage Irishmen to study the language and litera- 
ture of their Celtic forefathers, they thoroughly deserve to 
succeed. For our part, we believe that wherever a Celtic 
dialect is spoken— whether in Ireland, in Scotland, or in 
Wales— it ought to be carefidly taught in schools. There 
are still districts of the United Kingdom where English is 
never heard except from a passing visitor ; and it is hard 
that in such districts the people should not learn at least 
to read their native tongue. In these days, when every- 
body is becoming so like everybody else, one would wish 
Celtic to be preserved— if for nothing else— for the sake of 
picturesque effect ; but there are more solid reasons for 

the course we adv 

Instruction in Celtic would op 

new sources of enjoyment to a good many persons who 
have at present but few pleasures ; and everybody knows 
that it would be favourable to the progress of philological 

" The Freeman's Journal," itth October, 1882. 

The Gaelic Union is steadily shouldering its way to the 
front of the movement for the cultivation and preservation 
of the Irish language. We have from time to time noticed 
in our columns the success which has attended the labours 
of the members of this body, whether in the production of 
suitable litera:ure, or the results achieved liy their system 
of prize-awarding for success in the study of Celtic. They 
are now further launched into the literary deep, and are 



be The object of til ' 
It suouM hue a lui 
elements of success i 
pitiiotic project Th i i 
nor piity the Coum ii 
do the «hole nnm^tu 
members hn\e ihei I) SI 1 m 

jou.nil IS thtrelore not i sj 

lo\e which ciniiot fill t u i 

poit of c\ci) «l11 111 II II Ii 
sehes howeMi in i 

■ Kaol cstibhshii 
ition, but ^ hbr 

which It [IL LllUllLlltl) .ksCULS lU.l ll S,. y / ( , I 

Uinon youi nal shaW be in accomplished fact in the near 

" Irish Teachers' Journal," 30Ẅ Stj>t , 1S82 

A\ith the piesent number of the Journal we issue a 
supiplcment which we aie sure will be lend ind | 1 d 
o\ei with feelings of hope ind pi 1 in il uiui\ ni In h 
hresiile is well asm the piiluui 1 liiHin 1 in 1 ilu 
well to do chsses The Oich I n. n uli e , 1 1 u 
pation IS the pitriot Archbishop ol L i htl the \lj t kL\ 
Di Croke, lie desirous to know without delay whit the 
feclinj; of the country is with respect to the publication 
montnly (at least for the present), of a Gadu ü iiion 
Jomiuil, for the preser\ atun an I cullnation of the Irish 
languajje This woul 1 be its ^leat lnls^lon, its highest 
aspnation, and its niu t enduring fame, if the project 
suecee 1 \\ e believe tint m jniblishuig a Gaelic lournal 
only monthly at the stait the Louneil aie adopting a wise 
prceauli m, an 1 are g m^ kìw jirudent lines But they aie 
undoubte 11) u^ht i 1 til iiig the c juntry into then conli 
deuce \\. the outset, by spieiling the aecompanymg sup 
plcmeiit bioadeist oxei the lind, theieby taking the very 
best means of isceit lining the evtent to which all classes 
are [replied to go in suppiiting the undeitakmg ihe 

e\haustive, aie saved the ti 

stite, liowev I L It IS ctmcedcd on 

that such 1 J I Intel) Heeled to I 

extend the eultu 111 m . I lli 1 m ui e as it i,ht t 1 , 
and, mleed we believe the genei ll I lni_, I ll e e nintiy 
to be that it is a national leju leh lint ueli i j luiinl is 
njt in e\istence. Like ouiscKes, the eonlcmphled 
lourml will be non sectarian and nou political, its chief 
object being to gather together in one great phalanx, as 
powerful as may be, all the fnends of the Irish language, 

I we heartily 
rulj patuotic 

bi;LOND fvOTiCE, S/Zi Vo Lmbu, 1SS2 

In our columns this week aie set foith the names 

of the pimeipal doiiois and subscubers to the Gadic 

T' niiri^ 11 \v in couise of preparation The list in 

1 II iiies of dignitaries and seliolars, noblemen 

I I leir to the hearts ofilrishmen 'all the 

ml we think we may at once state thit 

1' II I the stion^est guaiinhe is t 1 tlie suece s 


ihe I 



t from 

thitahi, .1,111 til \ 111 ml 1 1 hei . I Iielin.l 
will tale I iiidc in suj 1 1 1 n i < , //, J ,1, na/ 

and from what we know I 1 we have no 

feais but that they will m I 1 the language 

anil of the country and el i 1 l « iieh they have 

stiengthened by their eneig> ind enthusiasm 

"Iribii Educational Joutnvl,' JSei/ml, 

iStó Nmimhr, 1SS2 


We aie delighted to see that the meinbeis of the Gaelic 

Union have_deteimiiied on c t ibhshin^ a ]iiuii il for the 

preservation and eultiv ilion ol the language and liteiatuie 

I I . Ill eoiiiiliv Ills wl eonsi lei, w is long a necessil), 

I 111 ii| ] 1 ted by all lovers of oui 

I 1 the preseivation of the 

11 \ I 1 ent, 

1 , 111 ^ b in 

|. p, 111,1, ol 1,1,11 Wewouiduue ui n all 
I 1 leis ol the Iiibh hnguage the necessity ol givmg 
t , the new journal, which we trust to soon see 
lully floated. 

"Tiir ncRia JouKNVi,' 25/40,/, 1SS2 


It IS no doubtful proof that interest in, and the use oi 

the Irish language are spieadmg in an assuiing degree, to 

find that a Gaelic Journal is about to be established in 



Dublin. The publication is to be under the auspices of 
the G.ielic Union, a society which has been working for 
years with unflagging energy to prevent our expressive old 
vernacular from falling into total disuse. The various 
efforts made in this matter for some time past have mani- 
festly not been without healthy results. The useful works 
issued by the Gaelic Union ; the prizes offered by that 
Association, and by the National and Intermediate Educa- 
cation Boards for successful answering in Irish ; the 
excellently instructive volumes compiled by Rev. Canon 
Bourke, Dr. Joyce, Mr. O'Hart, and other noted Celtic 
scholars ; the lessons given in some of the periodicals of 
the day ; the general and growing anxiety to become 
conversant with the language, so comprehensive and 
liquid, and in which such stores of historical and tradi- 
tionary lore are enshrined ; the attention given the subject 
by some of the most learned philologists of the Continent, 
together with several other causes, h.-ive been incentives 
which have contributed largely to bring the current move- 
ment for extending the use and study of the Gaelic to its 
present advanced position. It is to be trusted, and we 
believe that nothing will occur to mar further and long- 
continued progress on this important question. The new 
magazine, to be called the Gaelic Union Journal, will 
serve as a bond to bind together in the one common 
purpose all de.-irous of preserving and making more 
w-idely spoken the native Irish, tongue, and it is conse- 
quently to be hoped the project will have the heartiest 
possible support. A managing committee and editor 
have been appointed, subscriptions are being received, 
and we believe no time will be lost that can be avoided in 
presenting the new venture for public approval. It should 
be needless to mention that such an enterprise cannot be 
inaugurated with well-founded hopes of success unless 
practical encouragement of a financial character be forth- 
coming betimes, and as the scheme is one which so nearly 
concerns Irishmen all over the world, it needs scarcely be 
doubted that all requisite aid will be furnished without 
unnecessary delay. Those intending to subscribe will 
readily see the advisability of forwarding their contribu- 
tions at once, as in such a case he " who gives quickly 
gives twice." The address of the Gaelic Union is 19 
Kildare-street, Dublin. We wish the Gaelic Union Journal 
a long, prosperous, and useful career. 

Second Notice, Nov. 15^, 1SS2. 

We are sure the Irish reading public will learn with 
eelings of the purest gratification that the agitation in 
favour of extending the knowledge and use of the Gaelic 
language and literature is proving singularly successful. 
We commented upon this subject more than once recently, 
and then pointed out some of the testimonies forthcoining 
to indicate the success accomplished. Later still, other 
evidence has been supplied of the same tendency. The 
movement for the establishment of a journal specially 
devoted towards cultivating the native tongue of the Irish 
race is about resulting in the actual publication of the 
projected magazine. We elsewhere this morning ir 
an advertisement on this matter from the promoters-of the 
enterprise. It will be seen from the notice that the under- 
taking has already been accorded respectable support, and 
that donors also have come forward with subscriptions to aid 
in defraying the preliminar>- expenses indispensably neces- 
saiy towards launching such a work. The Gaelic Journal, 
as the new periodical is to be called, will be issued monlhlv, 
instead of weekly, as at first intended. It will be wholly 
non-political and non-religious, entirely free of class or 
party tone, and confined solely and entirely to the one 

purpose — that is, the cultivation of the Irish language. It 
will serve as a medium of general communication, and for 
the dissemination of knowledge on this important subject, 
so that those interested in the propagation and perpetu- 
ation of the old Celtic vernacular will have in The Gaelic 
Journal the means of satisfying whatever anxiety they 
may feel either to impart or obtain any information they 
may deem valuable and instructive on the question. Such 
an educational vehicle, well conducted, is ceitain to be 
eminently serviceable, and deserves, therefore, to be 
warmly encouraged. It is not like an ordinary speculation 
in the newspaper world, where a capitalist or writer starts 
a literary venture upon his own responsibility and at his 
own risk. His success is usually proportionate to his 
ability in furnishing the " latest intelligence" immediately 
and fully. In di^charging this task he encounters various 
competitors, and as a rule he who furthest out-distances 
his opponents scores the largest measure of victory. But 
nothing of this can occur in the case of The Gaelic Journal. 
It will have few, if any, rivals. It will not pander to any 
prurient taste in a section of the public, but will be strictly 
limited to treating of such topics as shall best tend to 
widen the use of, and acquaintance with, the Irish language. 
Hence, to float such a periodical is a manliest risk on the part 
of those involved in bringing it out, and it is consequently 
but natural and right that they should appeal, as it may 
be observed they do, for donations and subscriptions in 
advance. The best way to further their praiseworthy 
endeavours is to answer their appeal liberally and at once ; 
and it is therefore to be trusted the response bestowed 
them will be commensurate with the magnitude and 
importance of the issue at stake. A noble work hangs in 
the balance — will it fail or prosper? In such a case, 
there certaingly should not be in the lexicon of the Irish 
people such a word as fail. 

" Kilkenny Moderator." 
We understand that an effort is being made by the 
Gaelic Union for the presentation and cultivation of the 
Irish language, by establishing shortly a periodical de- 
voted exclusively to the cultivation of that language. 
This is a truly national and patriotic endeavour, which we 
trust will succeed and amply realize the highest expecta- 
tions of the projectors. Though the Gaelic Union has 
been from its formation con\-inced of the great value and 
importance of the project of founding a Gaelic Journal, 
their attention has been for a long time absorbed by their 
work in connection with other departments of the move- 
ment, such as introducing .and fostering the language in the 
schools, producing text-books suited to the Celtic pro- 
grammes of the educational bodies, forming a prize fund 
for the encouragement of Gaelic students, and many other 
duties arising out of the hoped-for developments of the 
work they inaugurated, w^hich it has been their good 
fortune to wiiness, and to have taken so large a part in. 
As soon as they felt that something had been done 
towards supplying the wants thus created, the Hon. Secre- 
tary sent out, in January, iSSi, a circular asking for aid 
and practical suggestions on this matter. This circular 
was merely of a tentative nature, and addressed only to a 
fewfiiends, known to be interested in the subject, and 
who have always proved willing sup; orters of the move- 
ment, yet it evoked a number of encour.iging replies ; the 
names of 150 subscribers were enrolled, and others pio- 
mised special assistance, amounting to about £10 per 
annum, as a reserve fund for the Joumal, over and above 
their subscriptions and the subscriptions they undertook 



to cûllect. We have pleasure in stating that the Gaelic 
Union has been enabled, in the face of great difficulties 
arising from the condition of the times and from other 
causes, to put into practice a large proportion of its inten- 
tions. The Gaelic Union having now received valuable 
accessions to its numbers and its strength, the Council, 
while believing that a weekly periodical of the kind here 
referred to could not at present find sufficient support, are 
yet agreed that a monthly journal can and ought to be set 
on foot. They have, therefore, decided to commence such 

ported. Tlie Cnuin il ^^iIl. «-■ uni-i'Mnd. give their 
laliour— literary an ! . and will not 

be found wanting ill I >i ■■< •■ • \ li' I i -i number of 

practical supporter, i li ii i k - ■■ ., ! i . j. ;■ , i. . I< ,| i, reiinircd 

might prove useless, it not illusory. As the will 
have to undertake the entire responsibility of this, 
they will not enter into the project as a s|ieciilation. 
neither will they be satisfied with mere security ag.iinst 
loss ; but before commencing, they must have reasonable 
hope of success, and such a number of names enrolled as 
will allow of considerable possible defections. The 
Journal must be self-supporting, li, happily, it should 
do more than cover its e.\|ienses, any .surplus shall be em- 
ployed in improving, enlarging, embellishing, and pos- 
sibly illustrating it. It shall be for the present partly 
Knglish, ]iartly Irish, with a gradually increasing propor- 
tion of Irish. The contents shall be varied — prose, 
poetry — and selected — papers, essays, notes and 
queries, an" its h. mrv^sp.iprlents, phrases, proverbs, &c. 
.Several di-ii ■ ' ' i iiy gentlemen will be among 

the contnlur i i us of the proceedings of the 

Council. ,11 I I- and classes in connection with 

the Gaelic Lmhuii, »iH .tl-.,, be given regularly. It shall 
be entirely devoted to the one object — the furtherance of 
the Gaelic movement. In addition to the prospectus which 
has been here referred to, we have been favoured with a 
copy of a nicely brought out little volume containing the 
names of the Council, a statement of the objects of the 
Union, the rules, means, associations, class rules, etc., 
which we commend to the notice of all our readers who 
feel an interest in this work. Copies may be obtained 
from the Hon. Secretary, 19 Kildare-slreet, Dublin. 

Second Notice. 


A new Monthly Journal, bearing the above title, is 
about to be published by the Gaelic Union. It will be 
e\clusi\ely desotei to the cultivation of the lush hn 
guage, and «ill be conducted b> the Council of the Gaelic 
Union, and be under the mimnement of an emint-nt 
Irish scholar, who has been a] | inR 1 I lit. 1 It will be 
pciceucd that a host of cmm I 1 tics noble 

men an! gcnti) ha^e ,, t to the 

pnpci The subscription i -n moderate 

\\e trust, too, that the appeal which is made b) the jiro 
nioters for donatioîis to meet prehmiiinij e\p uses will be 
promptly and hberall) respoiuled to. 

"The Nation," 2\st Octohtr, 1S82. 

Some six years ago we remember having heard a good 
deal about a plan for establishing a Journal in the Irish 
language, which would be exclusively devoted to the pre- 
servation and cultivation of the native tongue. The 
patriotic gentlemen who had the project in hand found it 
necessary to allow it to lie in abeyance just then, many 
other wants of more immediate importance to the cause 
to which they were devoted claiming their attention at 
the same time. Now again, however, the necessity for an 
organ to keep the movement in which they are engaged 
well before the public has made itself deeply felt, and, 
accordingly, it has at last been determined to enter at 
once on the task so long contemplated. We have before 
Us a circular concerning a proposed Gaelic Union yournai, 
to which we are glad to find appended the names of many 
of those who first began the uphill work of inducing 
Irishmen to learn their own language, and of educating 
them up to the point of thinking it worth the trouble. 
The shape they give their project seems very practical. 
A partly Irish, partly English Journal, appearing once a 
month, will surely find sufficient support among Irishmen, 
especially when they know that its promoters have already 
given such good earnest of their ability to carry out what 
they now undertake. A business-like form for enrolling 
subscribers accompanies each copy of the circular to which 
we have alluded, and any number of copies, of both the 
circular and the form, maybe by writing to the Hon. 
Secretary of the Gaelic Union, at 19 Kildare-street, 

E ÎJ c 6 a E I Í c ai n 1 n , 




Recent Meetings of Council. 

The usual weekly Meeting of the Coun- 
cil was held on the 15th November, T. 
L. Synnott, Esq., in the Chair. 

There were also present — Rev. J. J. 
O'Carroll, S.J. ; Rev. M. H. Close, M.A. ; 
D. Comyn, Esq. ; M. Cusack, Esq. ; R. J. 
O'Mulrennin, Esq. ; and Rev. J. E. Nolan, 
O.D.C., Hon. Sec. 

Minutes of last Meeting were read and 

D. Faherty, Caha, N. S., Clifden, states 
that he has over a hundred pupils on the 
school-roll, and he says, " They all speak 
the vernacular," and in the district " the 
Irish is the language generally spoken." 

Since the last Meeting, the project of 
establishing the Gaelic Jouriial has been 
fa\ojrably noticed by the Kilkenny Modcr- 



atoì', Tipperary Leader, Limerick Reporter, 
Wexford People, Deny Journal, Irish 
Sportsman, Evening Telegraph, which, 
together with those already reported and 
advertised, include the leading journals of 

The Hon. Sec. moved that — " To that 
part of the second rule of the Gaelic Union, 
which says — 'The qualification for mem- 
bership shall be an annual subscription of 
los,' the following words be added — 
' Every member so qualified shall be en- 
titled to receive the Gaelic Journal free.' " 

The motion was seconded by Mr. Cusack 
and adopted unanimously. 

The sum of £6\ 2s. 6d. has been re- 
ceived as donations to meet preliminary 
expenses, which were stated to be very 
heavy. As the Journal is all but ready for 
publication, intending subscribers should at 
once apply for forms to the Hon. Sec, 19 
Kildare-street, Dublin. 

The usual weekly Meeting of the Coun- 
cil was held on 22nd November. 

Michael Cusack, Esq., in the Chair. 

There were also present — Messrs. John 
D. Comyn, T. L. Synnott, and Rev. J. E. 
Nolan, Hon. Sec. 

The Minutes of last Meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

About 100 additional subscribers to the 
Gaelic Journal were enrolled, and some 
donations to meet expenses connected with 
the Journal were received. 

J. E. MacAndrew, Crown Solicitor, Bal- 
lina, was elected member of the Gaelic 
Union under the new rule, according to 
which the payment of lOs. qualifies for 
membership and entitles the member to 
the Gaelic Journal, free, for twelve months. 

Applications from the provinces, and 
from America, for agencies for the sale of 
the Gaelic Journal having been considered, 
it was unanimously agreed on that, for the 
present, no agents should be appointed 
except in Dublin. 

The Hon. Sec. was empowered to com- 
municate with publishing firms in Ireland, 
London, Edinburgh, and New York, with 
the object of establishing agencies in these 

The Gaelic Journal- is now ready for 
publication, and intending subscribers 
should forward their subscriptions at once 
(5s. 6d. per annum), lest the First Number 
be exhausted, and copies of it unobtainable 
afterwards. Subscriptions and donations 
payable to M. Cusack, Treasurer, 4 Gar- 

Routine business having been transacted, 
the Meeting adjourned to Nov. 29th, 4 p.m. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
the 29th November. 

Mr. David Comyn occupied the Chair. 

There were also present — Rev. J. J. 
O'CarroU, S.J. ; Rev. John E. Nolan, 
O.D.C. ; Michael Cusack, Esq. ; Thomas 
L. Synnott, Esq. 

The following subscriptions were an- 
nounced as having been recently received : 
Right Hon. The O'Conor Don, P.C, 
M.R.I. H., £2 ; Right Rev. the Abbot of 
Mount Mellcray, £1 2s. ; Right Rev. John 
M'Carthy, Bishop of Cloyne, £l ; Rev. E. 
Maguire, Letterkenny, £l ; Dr. Simpson, 
Birmingham, £2 ; Very Rev. Guardian 
Franciscan Convent, Ennis, 10s. ; Rev. 
Patrick Moriarty, P.P., Brosna, County 
Kerry, £2 ; J. E. MacAndrew, Esq., Crown 
Solicitor's office, Ballina, los. : and for 
Journal in addition — Rev. P. J. Moran, 
Mullingar, 5s. 6d. ; Rev. J. O'Riordan, C.C, 
Midleton, 7s. 6d, ; Miss Keynell, Killucan, 
£1 ; E. A. Hayden, Esq., Clarendon-street, 
los. ; J. J. Doyle, Esq., Liskeard, Cornwall, 
17s. ; Rev. Father Sturzo, S.J., £1. 

The Journal Management Committee 
announced that the number of subscribers 
already enrolled was 585 ; and the amount 
received for the special " Subsidy " for the 
support of the Journal was £6g i6s. up to 
this date ; and that many more subscrip- 
tions and donations were guaranteed as 
soon as the First Number should have 

The Editor presented to the Meeting a 
perfect copy of the First Number of the 
Gaelic Journal, which has been now sent 
to press. 

The following agents were appointed for 
the sale of the Journal in Dublin — Messrs. 
W. H. Smith and Son, M. H. Gill and 



Son, J. Duffy and Co., Brown and Nolan, 
Joseph Dollard, A. E. Chamney, M. and 
S. Eaton ; and in London — W. H. Smith 
and Son, and J. Duffy and Son. 

The usual weekly meeting of the Council 
of the Gaelic Union was held on Wednes- 
day, 6th December, at No. 4 Gardiner's- 
place, Dublin. 

Rev. J. J. Carroll, S.J., occupied the chair. 

Amongst other important letters relative 
to the publication of the Journal, and to the 
general business of the movement, the Hon. 
Secretary read the following communication 
from the President of the Gaelic Union, the 
Right Hon. The O'Conor Don, P.C. :— 

" Marine Hotel, Kingstown, 

"5th December, 1882. 

" My dear Father Nolan, — I have just 
received your notice. I have got to go to 
the country, to County Roscommon, to- 
morrow, Wednesday ; only for that I would 
feel much pleasure in attending at your 
meeting. — Faithfully yours, 

"O'Conor Don." 

The following resolutions were adopted 
unanimously : — 

Proposed by Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., 
seconded by I\Iichael Cusack, Esq., and 

Resolved — "That the Right Hon. Charles 
Dawson, M.P., Lord Mayor of Dublin, and 
the Rev. Samuel Haughton, S.F.T.C.D., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., be elected members of this 

Proposed by R. J. O'Mulrenin, Esq., 
seconded by David Comyn, Esq., and 

Resolved — " That the standing orders be 
suspended so as to enable the foregoing 
resolution to take effect without the usual 
delay, and to admit of the election of the 
Lord Mayor and Rev. Dr. Haughton without 
the customary week's notice of motion." 

Proposed by Rev John E.Nolan, seconded 
by John Morrin, Esq., and 

Resolved — " That the day and hour for 
meetings of Council be changed to Saturday, 
at 3.30 p m." 

The Council accordingly adjourned to 
Saturday week next, i6th December, 1882, 
as above. 

(Cork Branch.) 

Lecture ey Father Havde. 

A lecture was delivered by the Rev. 
Father Hayde, at the Royal Cork Institu- 
tion. The Ma^^or presided, and there were 
present :— Dr. Caulfield, LL.D., Messrs. E. 
M'Namara, J. Ogilvie, D. F. Giltinan, M. 
T. O'Keeffe, &c. 

The Mayor said it was not necessary for 
him to say anything in introducing Father 
Ha)'de to the audience; they were all 
acquainted with his worth. In the manage- 
ment of the great and beneficial institution 
over which he presided he had displayed 
great energy, and on behalf of religion and 
in the training of youth, and in displaying 
the intellectual resources of the country, he 
had established a name for himself not only 
in Cork, but throughout Ireland. Notwith- 
standing his many engagements, he had 
often come there to lecture for the Literary 
and Scientific Society. He had been un- 
sparing in promoting the well-being of the 
youth of the community (hear. hear). 

The reverend lecturer said that he had 
not in reality come there to deliver a lecture 
but rather to have a friendly talk about 
some subjects in connection with the lan- 
guage of the country that was so dear to 
them all. He was not sufficiently well 
acquainted with the Irish language to tell 
them very much about it. He was but a 
student of it himselfand therefore could not 
profess any deep knowledge of his subject, 
but what he wanted to do was to put before 
them some very cogent reasons why the 
Irish language should be preserved. There 
were many points to which he might direct 
attention ; there were many features of the 
subject to which he might address himself; 
but the chief point was contained in the 
heading to the bill — -"A sacred trust is the 
care of the national tongue." Those words, 
though given in Irish, were not originally 
written in that language. They were the 
words of Schlegel, a great German, who 
was a great writer, and had done a great 
deal for the literature of his own country, 
and indeed of others. The transmission 



of a language might be spoken of in another 
way. Let them suppose the case of a father 
dying, and upon his death-bed bequeathing 
to his son the precious history of his hfe, 
in which his earliest life and subsequent 
progress were chronicled, and in which the 
son would find all that would lead to an 
intimate knowledge of what his father had 
been ; and let them suppose the son to 
take this record, and after the father's death 
to cast it aside and never study it. What 
would they say to such a son ? They 
would deservedly condemn him ; but this 
was the very way in which the sacred trust 
of the Irish language had been treated by 
those to whom it was transmitted. Was 
it not ungrateful of a nation to forget its 
language ? There was another great reasoi? 
for which the language of a country should 
be preserved, and that was its nature as a 
national characteristic. Our language is a 
part of ourselves, as near to us as our own 
thoughts. The nation's language tells us 
the history of the nation — it is full of records 
of what has been achieved in the past ; it 
is the story of its birth and progress. When 
we come to countries where the people, not- 
withstanding the frequent invasions of 
strangers, have remained of the same stock, 
where the language has never really changed 
or lost its original character (as in the case 
of the Irish), we see all the more strongly 
the reason why its diffusion should be 
promoted and the study of it encouraged. 
According to the very highest authorities, 
the Irish language has preserved its cha- 
racter more perfectly than any other lan- 
guage. The study of Irish as a help to the 
knowledge of what Ireland had been, was 
an important one, and the best historians 
of Ireland — indeed the only ones to be 
valued — were those \vho had a knowledge 
of the Irish language. Up to the present 
no history of Ireland worthy of the name 
had been written, and there never would 
be one till the materials for a history were 
carefully taken from the fountain head — 
from the works of those who wrote the 
records of the country in the ancient 
tongue (hear, hear). The learned lecturer 
here entered into a dissertation upon the 
philological construction of the Irish lan- 

guage, which he said was beautifully 
euphonious. A very learned Scotch scholar 
— William Shaw — had said that the ancient 
MSS. in Irish were amongst the most 
ancient and valuable in the world ; and 
Beass, a great German philologist, told 
them that " with regard to the power of 
composition and expression, the Celtic 
language does not yield to any of those 
thai belong to the A}'rian stock." Why, 
then, should Irishmen be ashamed or ne- 
glectful of their own language? They ought 
rather be ashamed to let it die. 

The reverend lecturer then described the 
difficulties under which he laboured in his 
acquirement of the language — his want of 
time and books — which made it very diffi- 
cult to learn, but with the means at present 
at their disposal, the young men of the 
community should experience little diffi- 
culty in mastering the language. The 
reverend lecturer concluded with an earnest 
appeal to those present to do their best to 
foster a studious spirit, so that the sweet 
old tongue of their forefathers might be 

A cordial vote of thanks, gracefully 
acknowledged by the lecturer, brought the 
proceedings to a close. — Cork Examiner. 

\Extract from Report of an important Meet- 
ing of County Cork National Teachers' 

12. The Irish Language : — 

Proposed by Mr. D. O'Leary.Culmontain, 
seconded by Mr. R. W^ Payne, Mossgròve : 

Resolved — " That the members of this 
Association pledge themselves to co-operate 
with the Gaelic Union in their efforts to 
revive the Irish Language, and that to do 
so the more effectually they immediately 
apply themselves to the study of the Lan- 
guage, and thus secure certificates to teach 
it in their schools." 

Mr. O'Leary, in proposing the above reso- 
lution, remarked : 

" Mr. Chairman and brother teachers — 
It were well that we give the subject cf this 
resolution our most earnest consideration 
for it is admitted by the best authorities' 
that all efforts to revive the Irish Language' 



will fail unless it be successfully taught m 
the national schools. That being so, it 
becomes our duty to use all available means 
to become thoroughly conversant with it. 
A threat many teachers consider the pro- 
gramme in Irish too difficult, but from my 
own experience I would say that it looks 
much harder than it really is. Let teachers 
set the books from which examination 
questions are taken, and study them with 
moderate care, and they will agree with me 
that the course is not so hard as it appears 
at first sight. My own knowledge of rish 
is only very elementary indeed, still 1 have 
succeeded in obtaining a certificate. It was 
but a few months previous to the examina- 
tion that I commenced to write it for the 
first time and read those books which the 
programme specifies. I mention this as an 
incentive to some of my brother teachers, 
who have not yet competed, and to show 
that by a little application it is in our power 
to attain a respectable proficiency in our 
own dear native language (hear, hear). Let 
us all then lend our aid in the good work ; 
let us henceforward speak it more freely ; 
let us talk it to our Irish-speaking neigh- 
bours, as it is from them we will best learn 
its idioms and pronunciation ; let us all 
become subscribers to the Gaelic Journal ; 
let us endeavour to create a taste for Irish 
in our respective localities, and by so doing 
the national schools, which have been some- 
times styled ' the graves of the national 
language,' will ere long become the powerful 
agents of its resurrection (applause)." 

At the request of the President, Mr. 
Holland, Ballinspittle, gave the meeting an 
account of the late Congress of the Irish 
Language supporters in Dublin.— /rwÄ 
Teachers' Journal. 


The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturday, i6th December, at No. 4 Gardi- 
ner's-place, Dublin, at 3.30. _ 

R. J. O'Mulrenin occupied the Chair. 

There werealsopresent— Rev. Maxwell H. 
Close, M.A., M.R.I.A. ; Rev. J. J. O'CarroU, 
S T ■ Rev J E. Nolan, O.D.C. ; John 
Fleming, T. B. Griffith, H. C. Hartnell, 

John ^lorrin, Duglas Hyde, Michael Cor- 
coran, Michael Cusack, and David Comyn. 
The following letter was read from Dr. 
Heinrich Zimmer, Professor of Sanscrit 
and Comparative Philology in the Univer- 
sity of Greifswald (Germany)— 

" Dear Sir— I wish to become a sub- 
scriber to the Gaelic Journal, which I am 
glad to see has been set on foot. Reading 
in the First Number, page 20, 'that all 
members of the society subscribing at least 
ten shillings per annum, not m arrear, will 
receive a copy free of the Journal each 
month,' I send ten shillings by money 
order, and beg you to accept it as annual 
subscription.— Yours very truly, ^ 

" H. Zimmer." * 

Amongst the many letters received, con- ^ 
taining the warmest expressions of approval 1 
and encouragement for the Gaelic Journal, J 
the following is an extract from an impor- 
tant communication received trom Michael 
Davitt, Esq. — 

" I must add my congratulations to those 
you have alreadv been paid for the healthy, J 
handsome, and 'long-living appearance of . 
your First Number, and my heartiest \ 
wishes for its complete success. I enclose 
a yearly subscription, together with a small 
donation towards helping on the thorough y 
national work of reviving our grand old 
mother tongue.— Wishing you God-speed 
in the undertaking, I am, yours truly, 

"Michael Davitt." 
Letters of approval were also read from 
Very Rev. Canon Bourke, P.P., M.R.I.A. ; 
Very Rev. James O'Laverty, P P , M.R.I.A. ; 
Rev- Father 0'Reilly,P-P.,Cahirciveen; John 
O'Hart, Ringsend Schools ; Prof Geisler, 
of Queen's College, Galway, and many 
others. . , ^ . 

Rev Father O'CarroU gave notice that at 
next meeting he would propose the names 
of Henry Bellingham, M.P., and Professor 
Geisler, for addition to the Council. 

Close on seven hundred sub.scnbers for 
the Journal have been registered, the latest 
being Lady Florence Dixie-thus showing 
an increase _of nearly 200 since the issue ol 
the First Number. 

iisLeAbvxn ik\ ^vxetjilje. 



No. 3-— Vol. I.] 


[Price Sixpence. 

ẃllK\nCv\ CleaSv\C.\: llim. 3. 

OnKMi öo)>oiiiie Ajui' A bÁiTO, HIacLiaj. 
[bi\K\n, 111okol]-úrAin, IIIacLiaj 1 lArAi]!.] 

buKMI. jOAbATO An 5aII All CeAT5 A CÁ 

I'e A5 K\]11IA1-Ó, 

^gur iiío]- iiió 'iiÁ ]-in. tAibeoiKMU ye 
II1 li-é AiiiÁin lioiii-]-A, A\iiTO]\ijiiAli-éi|\eAnn, 
-dec yóy le li-uiLe Jiijcib in 1110 fltuvj. 
uem ctoiióL in jeAiiiAii Aim aj éi]xeAcc tei]'. 
CAicpiTÌ) ]-e -[.-uineAc caiiiaÌÌ beAj, iiia|i cá 
•i\n iiiAiT3in inoc Anoi]\ CufA, a f aoi, 
lÌlAoilinicAin, 1111C15 ciiije, LAbAin leif 
50 CAicneAiiiAC, i"Áiii, i'iiLciiiA]! : congbAi j é 
In vo boic yéìn, iiiah ceAccAi]\e áhü-uaj-aI. 

[üéfô 1îlA0l]'ÚèAlll AlllAC.] 

pAn cu]'».^ lioiii, lilicLiAj, p\.ẃ\\ IIA iii-bÁ]\-o, 
ÜÁiin-i'e ].-ui]\eAc Aiji mo liiAC ẃnii)-o, 
ino riiAC 1]' fine, HlujicA-ó. ÜÁ ye ceAcc, 
Ajuf 1 j-cui-oeAcc leif acá tio liiAC-fA, 
inAji bitieAiin ]-e 1 g-cóiiinui je. l-'An 50 

■OéAii|.-AiiiAoiü CAinc le céile no 50 -o-cioc- 

IIIa)! 'y niAic Lioiii cAinc le caiu\iü, ylAic a']' 


lllAcllAJ.— A ÁlJTOlHJ llAJWll, flAll, A 
ü]\K\in lÌlAlC, 
1]' 1110)1 An C-ÁC]\UJAt) Al]! ÜO ClìlÌlACC AllOl]' 

Ó'n ]"eAn-Ain coiinA)icA|' 'y<\ u-coi'ac cn ; 
ni ỳnil ÁciinJA-ô m -oo cjioi-oe. 1]' cniiiiin 

An ceiiü uAi]! cuic 1110 fúile ojic, ẃ 1115 ! 
Di' ru Annfin 1 ■o-ÜUAc-IÌIúiTiAin ']'<3' b-fAf ac 
Aj lui-óe le-o' lAOCAib <\ì]\ An caIaiìi yuAy. 
c\nn|-in a bibeAu ■00 leAbA my An Aiii úr> 

lllIAlU C0]ni15 Cll, niA]! ÓJÁIIAC ]ió-pAt, 

An rnoiü UAcbÁf AC fin m ajaiü nA njALt. 
Iiif All Am úx), Am bAojAtb, Aiii món-ýulAinj, 
Di-óèeÁ 1 g-cómiuiije ciiiin 1 moAj-g n* 

1 j-cóiiinni-óe caIiiia be iiA nAiiiAüAib, 
AHiAiii niACÁncA, fÁiii be uAoinib eibe. 
■O'AijiijeA]' Annpn An mó]TOACc X)o bi lonAr, 
Aju]- no cÁinic lonjAnrA)" ai|\ m'lncinn, 
Aju]- ■o'pÁf 511Á-Ó cóiii-biK\bA|icA ill 1110 

11Í jiAib Acc biiACAib Ó5 An cAii fin lonAin : 
Ajuf An p]iiom-fO)ioi'oeAf fibniieACCA 
Di mi]'e Aj fójbuim, cum beic Am' bÁ)iT> 
A15 ÜA-óg 11a CeAblAij, mA|A ACÁim Aiioif, 

niA]\ bi m' ACA1]\ AI5 A ACAlf ceAHA. 

-dec, A -di|TO]n5, bub mo An jOAn 'I'An 5|iáô 
"Oo bi jAin' CA^inumg cujac in ■00 cojaü ; 
Ajuf 50 mintc 'o'fÁj me bjuij m'ACAji, 
At^u]' cuKvlbAf CA]i ri]i cLocAij UUAC- 

lil li lil All 

50 b-fAgAinn cu]-A 111)- iiA coillcib -oouca, 
A pn 1]' bAi-oi)! bÁiii, If fiAÍ AiiAin ! 
but) liiAicbiom CAiceAb jAecAU m uo CACAib, 
bub liiAic lioiii feucAin a,i]\ vo jniomA]\CAib ! 
bub liiiAU liom eifcCACC be vo cóiiif Ab Áfo 



^511]-, Aj; Dill A1]l 11i'a1]' ■0A111 50 1TI0 CI); 

"buü jnÁc lioin iiin]-eACC ai)i ah nieut) v\\ 

At^xì]- beic cAiTA-o A1H 00 citó-ÔAcn iiióii\, 
^Xjiif "beic pnuAineATÌ) aii\ ■00 beiiiv\ib 

lluAip eipjeAf Am' yeAji aju]' A111' oIIah'i, 
"O'eiiuj no cúiiiACC A'y ■00 clú tiio]- 1110 : 
"O'eiptji]' At)' ]115 ÜUAcriníniAn, ajuj-IIIúiìumi, 
'O'eijiiji]' Aim I'll! ATj' lAiiitiiiij j;tó]iriiA]\ 

éii\eAnn ! 
Jo imnic cAnjAf-i-A le ireucAin ope, 
ÜAiigẃf cum I'eucAin ai)i jac riioji-oAil nuAit), 
Acr yuAHA]' AH y:eA]\ cetiniiA lonAc yóy, 
Out) cuniiin iiom ó bliAbAiiCAib ha li-oige. 

UniAn. — II0 CAn5Ai]--]-e iiiah cAjuMt) 


-A5UI' ]\o jIaca]" niA]! mo cA]u\it) cu : 

111 mó]\ All iiit) ]~)ti. Acr mó)\ ah r-ionjtiAt), 

Ui), Aj beic AT)' bÁ|\t) A15 Î^At)5 11 a 

Jitu Anii]-A leAC beic atd' bAiit) ajahi-i'a. 
llliiriA m-beiüeA-ó Uaxij yiAÌ 'iiA buAii- 

CA]\A1-0 t)Am 

til leijpit), 111 piileoiijAi-ô ye é ]-iii. 

IIIacLiaj. — 111 leij^-ni) ]-e é, 111 ýuileoii- 

JATO ]'e ! 
A Aì]m\\ìi^ iiiói]i, nÁ bi CAinc 'iioi|- iiiaji I'lii. 
IIac niAic yóy -co lÌlAoilf-eAclAiiin yéiti 50 

"Oume iiiA)! CÁ IIIac Cot)-e Aige-i'An ? 
"OÁ iii-beTOeAu bÁ]\t) eile Aige, bÁ]iT) iiia)i 

50 TDeniini CAillpit) j-e a bÁ|ro ahoi]-, 
111a]i CAiLl ]-e ]ioiiiie |-o Ajiu-iieim iia li- 

1]' mo All pie '11Á All bÁ|TO lìlAcCoii'e. 
1)' 111AIC A •o'i:ó jluitii ye aii yilioeAcc 

II lie 50 leiji : rÁ blA]', cÁ iiicinii Aige, 
-<\cc le jAC cioblAiceA-o mon-liiAij ^-o)-, 
te ■OÚCCA]' AjUf le Á]\-o-iinuneA-ú ).']iei]-ni, 

III ỳuil Acc •OAoiiÁiiAc Aim. i\ CÁ )'e ceAii- 

5 Alice ; 
CeAiijAilce yóy beic tiiAji a acaiji ceAiiA, 
CeAiigAilce le aoii ^-lomne a']- Aon ^-liocc, 

CeAiijAilce 1 115AC nib cÁ |-e le nÁb, 
CeAiijAilce Aiji All no]' cÁ ]-e le lAbAi)ic ; 
CeAiigAilce lei]' iia ]"5iAiiiAccAib ■00 ].niAi]i ]'e 
In]' nA ]-eAn-bv\]\tiAib a']' ']-An b-yilibeAcc. 
1]' leAiicói]! é — cÁ blA]' a']- incmn Aije, 
Hi yml An c-]'A0i]\]'e, nA An ceine, nA An 

CÚ 111 ACC. 

niiAi)i bi ]'e ■oéAnA-ô céA]-ACCA in ajato 
Ha ii-T)AomeA-ó ü'ÂiigAin c, a b)uÌ5 ']■ a ci]i, 
O ]Mol b]\ei.i5 néill iii]' ah ci)Ai]'ceA)ic iatj- 


é yém Ag lAbAi]ic le 11a Héill in -dileAc, 
A-^uy A5 CAnAW óy a cótiiAi]i 50 li-Á]i-o ; 
Hac b-]ruil y^oy ajac c]ieiit) a injne ye Ì 
11io]\ lAbAi)\ ]'e le yei]i5 ai]1 ah olc ; 
tlio]i lÁtii ]'e yóy lAbAijic Ain-i'eAii 50 

Ceil ]-e é i'éiii ]:aoi b)\Ai]-5eul ].-oimiiu\]i, aic, 
<\'y cui]i nA ■OAonie aj gAijU-oe Aiji a bocAji ; 
tlo 50 le ]'5iAmACCAib An-beAjA, mine, 
"0'eini5 1115 "OoiimAll yém lÁ,n-]'A]-OA lei]- 
v\Y iniAiji IIIac Coi]-e ah ]ii j beic leij' 50 


■jTeA)! eile iiii]-e. 

11 1 




"Oo bit)eA]'-]-A All lÁ pn A15 CeAnn-co]\Ai-ô, 
lluAi]! cnic All c-ionjnAt) o]\m ]ioiiii aii 

4\n-tiiói]i ]\o ]:aca]' Ann, a']' ■otibAi]ic en I10111, 
"1)Á 1110)1 All menu ]"iii, i]' le>.\c-]-A é aiji 

I'ATJ "— 

iX'y cujA]- o]ic ].-iiioc-Ainiiii, b]\iAn bo]ioiiiie. 
bub liio mo ■óiAn-j]iÁ-ò-]'A ai]1 -o'dnAni mó]i 
'11 Á Ai]i •00 b]ioncAnA]'. giiAbuijim jac nib 
<.\ b-].-uil ]:ío]i-ua]-aI, Á]i-o, a']- CAicpb me 
Cuji 5iunn mo f-i'il Aqi, aju]- ceol mo jocA. 
"Oob' All liom beic Am' bÁ]ro A15 üaüj 11a 

■Oeb]iiJ5UHiiiAiclei]Miie AjleAnAiiiAin ■ouic, 
<\'y leig ]'e yóy üahi ].-éin 50 iiiinic beic 
In éinỳeAcc leAC, 1 meA]-^ iia neiceAb mó)i, 
O]' cioiin UA neiccAb beAj. 1]-mAicliom yóy 
Cac, aju]- cogAb, Aguj' cúiiiAcc ■OÁ ]ii]iib ; 
An ýí]imne jio-iiioji jau i'jiaiìiacc bjieugAij. 
-Ann ]-in ■00 5|uo]'ca]i ia'auaiti fUA]- 50 

íAcÁ All ceine '5 lA]-Ab m ino c]ioibe ; 



^juf x)0 cAicceA]\ jAece ceoiL aiiiac, 
50 ciAii, Ajiif 50 lATOiii, Af 50 buẃn. 

b)\K\ii. — I]- yui inAH bAjro cu, pu iiiAji 
Jac cAbAncA]- ■oo ]:iK\i]\ rii Af mo lÁiiii. 
Ajuf If -pu UAijj -oiojuAifeAC Ha CcaIIaij 
<\n cAbAjiCAf ni'o]' mo cÁ Aije uaic, 
An clú bei-ô Aiji a Ainim Af uo "beoil. 

mActlAJ. 1]- I'Mi ÜA-Ôg ].-1aI : ACC 111 pU 

"OeqibnÁcAi)! A liiÁcAH, beic 1 b-yocAi]\ leif, 
1)- mime cit)im iA-o-]'Ati Le céile, 
nuAi)\ bi-óeAnn iiii]-o a']' IIIac Coij-e A5 

c\i]TOni5 ! 


dra:\iatic scenes in irish. 

No. III. 

By Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. 

Brian Boroimhe and his Bard, 

[Present — Brian, Calvus, JlIacLia^.] 

Brian. — The foreigner shall have what he 
And even more. He shall not merely treat 
With me, chief sovereign of the land, but 

With all the monarchs present in my host. 
Soon will I call the council of the kings 
To listen to him. He must bide mean- 
while ; 
The morn is early still. Thou, learned 

Calvus, go ; seek him out, converse with him 
Right pleasantly and softly in thy tent, 
And treat him as befits a nation's envoy. 

[Exii Ca/viis.] 
Thou, greatest of the bards, remain with me, 
MacLiag. I am waiting for my son, 

My first-born, Murrogh, who is hastening 

hither ; 
And in his company will be thy son, 
As ever is his wont. Rest thee awhile. 
And we will talk together till they come, 
As I do love to talk with poet, chief and 


MacLiag. — ]\Iost generous of sovereigns, 

noble Brian ! 
Vast is the change hath come upon thy 

Since the long-distant day when first I saw 

thee ; 
No change is in thy heart. I do remember 
That first time when my eyes beheld thee, 

king ! 
Thou layest for the night with followers 

round thee 
On the damp earth of Thomond's lonely 

There was thy wonted couch in that wild 

When in the generous spirit of proud youth 
Thou didst begin the contest with the Dane. 
In that wild time of peril and hard toil 
Thou borest thee with calm each day of 

For ever valiant 'gainst thine enemies, 
For ever gentle with all men besides. 
I then did read thy greatness, and my mind 
Opened to marvel and to admiration, 
And deep attachment in my heart sprung 

I then was but a boy. The elements 
Of learned letters were then still my study, 
To help to fit me to sit one day bard 
In Teig O'Kelly'sf halls, as now I do, 
As in his father's time my father sat. 
But, sovereign monarch, stronger was the 

That drew me on to thee and to thy battles ; 
Full often did I leave my father's keep 
i\nd journey over Thomond's stony land 
To find thee in the shadows of thy woods. 

* See the account of Brian's e.irly campaigning given 
in " The War of the Gaulhel and the Gaill," edited by 
Dr. Todd, with Notes and Translation, for the Rolls 
Series of publications. 

t On MacLiag's connection with O'Kelly and Brian, 
see the beginning of the sixth of O'Curry's posthumous 
Lectures, 0« the iMaiiners and Customs of the Ancient 
Irish. Vol. II., p. 115. 



Man of the strong arm and the lofty spirit ! 
I loved to launch the dart where thou didst 

I loved to look upon thy prowess, king ! 
'Twas joy for me to hear thy lofty speech ; 
And when I hied me back unto my home 
I used to tell men of thy exploits, Brian, 
And sing about thy valour, and reflect 
With wonder on thy peerless courtesy. 

When I grew up a man and rose to be 
An oUav, then thy power and glory rose 
Still higher. I beheld thee king of 

Then king of Munster, then high king of 

Erin ! 
And often came I still to visit thee 
And look upon each new-won majesty, 
But found thee 'mid all changes still the 

What I had known thee from the years of 


Brian. — Thou earnest to me ever as a 

And I did but receive thee being such. 
There is no cause for wonder. This alone 
Is strange : that thou, the bard of Tuig 

Hast chosen rather to become my own. 
Were generous Teig less faithful unto me 
He would not grant, he would not suffer 


MacLiag. — He would not grant, he would 

not suffer this ! 
High-king of Erin, speak not in such sort. 
Is it not well for Malachy himself 
That he has got Errardus in his service? 
Had he another bard — a bard like me — 
I do protest that he would lose his bard, 
As he had lost the sovereign throne of Erin. 
Errardus is a learning-polished man,* 
Yet only half a bard. He hath learned all 
That letters teach, and he hath taste and 

judgment ; 
And yet with all these precious benefits 
Of nature and of learning's discipline. 

* On the meaning of the Irish word, V'te, see the first 
note in the Appendix to O'Curry's Lectures on the MS. 
Materials for Irisli History, published while the author 
was a professor in the Catholic University. The same 
note throws light on the requirements of bardic study. . 

He's but a gifted hack. He's harness- 
bound ; 
Bound to be, as his father was before him, 
Tied to one name and to one famil}-. 
Tied to the very things he is to say, 
And bound to say them in the way approved; 
Bound up unto the very ornaments 
He finds in his old bards and rhetoric ; 
He doth but imitate — with taste and judg- 
ment — 
But ne'er bursts forth with freedom, fire and 
When he went forth to make complaint 
The plunderers of his home and lands at 

Men of the northern race of the Ui-Neill, 
When he was speaking with their king at 

And singing in his presence loftily ; 
Know you what then he did ? No indig- 
Led him to tell with vehemence his wrong ; 
Nay, king, he did not dare to name it 

plainly ; 
But wrapped himself and it in a burlesque,* 
And set men laughing at his own mis- 
Till with his petty slight intricacies 
Donal the king himself grew gratified. 
And the bard won him wholly to his side. 
'Tis otherwise with me. 'Twas not in- 
A little cunning story that thou found'st me. 
When wonder seized me on Kincora's plains 
At the enormous herd, and thou didst tell 

However great the number, all was mine, — 
And I gave thee the liamc-f- that clings to 
thee for event 

* See the of posthumous lecture of O'Curry al- 
ready quoted (p. 130). for an account of this piece of 
" very extraordmary character," composed by Errard 

+ See the emlier part of the Lecture referred to in the 

+ 1 ! : ' \ I I > ÌL^in of " Boireaiiih Laighean " (or 
the "I,' . li, ; . Leiiister") is interesting, and may 

King Tuathal Tcachtmhar (or the " Acceptable "), who 
was Audiigh of Ireland in the tirst century of our era, hav- 
ing been restored to the throne from which his father had 
been displaced by the rebellion of the Aitheach Tuatha, 
had obtained the willing obedience of all the provincial 
kings and chiefs. He married his younger daughter to 



More did I love the greatness of th}- 

Than all the greatness of thy gift. I love 
All things that really are noble, and 
I cannot bear but see and sing them all. 
It pleased me well to be O'Kelly's bard ; 
He was well pleased to see me follow thee, 
And let me many, many times return 
To pass my days with thee amid great 

High over what is small. For I love, too. 
Battle and war and ever}- real power. 
Truth in its might with no false ornament ; 
Then is my spirit wholly lighted up, 
Then is my heart on fire, and then my 

Burst forth like flames with swift repeated 

Scattering glowing radiance afar. 

the King of Leiribter, \\lio, after some time (as the story 
goes) hcLOm ng C3ii\mced ol the superior charms of her 
eldtr s stei ie->i he I to obtain her hand. He, therefore, 
k ] t 111 wif ^ el pi lioner and gave out a report of her 
il I f cr due time, his great anxiety to con- 

tii th the family of the Ainirigh. He 

t 1 daughter and brought her to the 

1 il ng w ith her sister, who had contrived 

to e cij L ir m her prison, both were so overcome with 
^liame and gnef at the manner in which they had been 
tieated, that they died The monarch, hearing of these 
e\eutb, invaded Lemster wuh all his forces, and only 
granted peace in consideration of a very heavy tribute of 
cattle, silver, brass and bronze vessels, and other valuables, 
to be paid by the province of Leinster, every third year, 
to him and his successors for ever. 

For about six hundred years this tribute continued to 
be paid, when, at the solicitation of St. Moling, of Lein- 
ster, it was remitted by King Fionnachta Fleadhach (or 
the *' Festive '"), for a term, go la Ittain, which, by a 
play on words [Liian meaning either Monday or the 
" La-it Day "), was held to be and afterwards admitted as 
a total abolition. 

When Brian, son of Ceinneide, King of Mun.ster, be- 
came Airdrigh, more than three hundred years after the 
abolition of this tribute, he re-imposed it as a penalty 
for the frequent defections of the Leinster kings and peo- 
ple to the side of the foreigners, and the aid they gave 
them in their invasions of Ireland. The imposition and 
exaction of tne Boromean Tribute (as it was called) had 
important and disastrous consequences, as it was one of 
the chief causes why the province seldom remained long 
faithful to the cause of Ireland. 

From bú, a cow, the tribute was named, as cattle in 
those days formed a large part of every spoil ; hence, in 
the text above it is called a iáiit-bú, or "cattle-prey." 
'I'he second pait of the word would seem to be aireamh, 
a number or counting : the word is given as Boireamli in 
the Glossary to O'Curry's Lectures, the genitive case 
beiiig boiumha or boroimhe, which was given to King 
Brian for a surname, as has been seen, and most probably 
first by his bard, MacLiag,— £i^. G. J. 

Brian. — Well didst thou merit, bard and 
Each gift that thou receivedst from my 

And well doth Teig O'Kelly, too, deserve 
That greater gift he holdeth from thy lips, 
That glory that shall gild his name for ever. 

MacLiag. — Teig merits all. But Ma- 
lachy, his uncle. 
Is all unworthy to be named beside him. 
Often I see the two together sit. 
The while Errardus and I chant our songs ; 
High-king ! place tlioii no trust in Malachy* 

By Rev. John James O'Carroll, S.J. 


The latter portion of the poem of Tirnanog 
is of course taken up with the account of 
the transformation of Oisin. But the trans- 
formation of Oisin is like the Death of 
Diarmuid : it towers almost immeasurably 
above all that precedes it in the composi- 
tion of which it forms a part. We shall 
have to dwell on it at comparatively great 
length, and make an effort to explain its 
beauties. And we must now prepare our- 
selves to do so by making the nature of the 
peculiar excellences of our Celtic poetry as 
clear to the reader as it is in our power to 
make it. 

For this purpose we caii find an im- 
portant ally, but one that will cause us 
considerable delay. A distinguished writer 
of our own time, Mr. Matthew Arnold, has 
treated with great power the question of 
the Celtic poetic genius. We proceed to 
point out in an abridged form, which for us 

lie posthumous Lecture so often referred 
r " the fifth piece of MacLiag which 

".M . ortures to Tadhg O'Kelly (who 

was ]ii !\- fully described here; and they 

fonn the must complete evidence of the treachery of the 
lung of Meath at Clontarf that has ever yet come to light " 
(p. 126). 

Todd holds a contrary opinion on the histotical ques- 
tion, as to the treachery or fidelity of Malachy, •' the 
King of Meath," — Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy, vol. vii,, p. 509. 


will be very long, the main points which he 
has most ably and interestingly rriaintained 
in his Essa\'s on Celtic, originally published 
in the Coriihill Magazine in 1 866. Here and 
there we shall venture to add some expia- 
tion of our own. 

Mr. Matthew Arnold speaks somewhat 
differently from us of the nature of that 
peculiar charm which he, in common with 
other great authorities, recognises amid un- 
doubted drawbacks in the Ossian of Mac- 
pherson. Mr. Arnold, in his fourth essay 
on the Study of Celtic Literature, puts 
forward as a characteristic of Celtic poetry 
" Penetrating Passion and Melancholy — 
Titanism as we see it in Byron," and it is 
as an example of this that he mentions 
Macpherson's Ossian with high praise. 
Here follow his own words : — 

" The Celts are the prime authors of this 
vein of piercing regret and passion, of this 
Titanism in poetry. A famous book, Mac- 
pherson's Ossian, carried in the last century 
this vein like a flood of lava through 
Europe. I am not going to criticise Mac- 
pherson's Ossian here. Make the part of 
what is forged, modern, tawdry, spurious, 
in the book as large as you please ; strip 
Scotland, if you like, of every feather of 
, borrowed plumes which, on the strength of 
'Macpherson's Ossian, she may have stolen 
from that vctns et major Scotia — Ireland ; 
I make no objection. But there will still 
be left in the book a residue with the very 
soul of the Celtic genius in it, and which 
has the proud distinction of having brought 
this soul of the Celtic genius into contact 
with the nations of modern Europe, and 
enriched all our poetry by it. Woody 
Morven and echoing Sora, and Selma with 
its silent halls ! we all owe them a debt of 
gratitude, and when we are unjust enough 
to forget it, may the Muse forget us. Choose 
any one of the better passages in Mac- 
pherson's Ossian, and you can sec, even 
at this time of day, what an apparition of 
newness and of power such a strain must 
have been in the eighteenth century." 

No doubt, what strikes one chiefly in 
Macpherson's Ossian is piercing regret and 
melancholy. It is not however, we think, 
aggressive, like the piercing regret and 

melancholy of Byron, and we are inclined 
to look on Titanism as a word that ought 
to be reserved from what we may call the 
aggressive variety of the piercingly melan- 
choly species. And the piercingly melan- 
choly itself is, even according to Mr. Arnold, 
only one species of the development of Celtic 
character in literature. In his third essay 
he notices that something apparently quite 
the opposite of Titanism has in France been 
pointed to as the true literary product of 
the Celt ; he remarks that a peculiar gentle- 
ness of manners and life is put forward by 
another critic, the too well known i\I. 
Rénan, as the striking characteristic of 
Celtic literature. Strange as it may at first 
sight appear, far from treating this idea as 
quite opposed to his own, Mr. Arnold re- 
gards it as correct enough, providsd it be 
acknowledged to offer, like his own theory 
of Titanism, only a partial view of the great 
subject. He maintains that to one common 
Celtic quality may justly be referred both 
his own Titanism and piercing passion and 
melancholy, as exemplified in Macpherson's 
Ossian, on the one hand, and on the other 
the gentleness which M. Renan calls the 
Celtic characteristic. Mr. Arnold writes as 
follows, alluding to M. Renan : — 

" He talks of his ' douce petite race 
naturcUement chretienne,' his ' race ficre et 
timide à l'extéricur gauche ct embarassé.' 
But it is evident that this description, how- 
ever well it may do for the Cymri, will 
never do for the Gael ; never do for the 
typical Irishman of Donnybrookfair. Again, 
M. Rénan's ' infinie delicatesse de senti- 
ment qui caractérise la race Celtique,' how 
little that accords with the popular concep- 
tion of an Irishman about to borrowmoney!* 
Scntiiiient is however the word which marks 
where the Celtic races really touch and are 

* ilr. Arnold published this in the ' ornhill Magnziite 
in lS66. We have nothing to say alioul the " I)llpul.1l■ 
conception," but four or In \..iil!,i:i\n. Ariinld's 
publication, Mr. John lin , ,1 L;an a 

series uf papers in J/; i. i> fifty 

j'ears' experience of Life in h l.i.^i. i .1 ;- . ii.i . _v in his 
first paper to many facts showing the fulelity ot the Irish 
lower orders in repaying money lent, and narrated one 
fact which proves indeed, in precisely this respect, and in 
the case of two poor Irishmen, an "infinie delicatesse 
de sentiment,'' that men of the world must read of to 



one ; sentimental, if the Celtic nature is to 
be characterised by a single term, is the 
best term to take. An organization quick 
to feel impressions, and feeling them very 
strong!}- ; a lively personality, therefore 
keenl)- sensitive to joy and to sorrow — this 
is the main point. If the downs of life too 
much outnumber the ups, this temperament, 
just because it is so quickly and nearly con- 
scious of all impressions, may no doubt be 
seen shy and wounded ; it may be seen in 
wistful regret ; it may be seen in passionate, 
penetrating melancholy ; but its essence is 
to aspire ardently after life, light, and emo- 
tion, to be expansive and venturous and 

Principal Shairp, in his Oxford lecture 
on Ossian, published in Good Words, in 
April, 1880, seems to prefer the word "sensi- 
bility" to "sentiment" as the designation of 
the generic Celtic characteristic. We arc 
inclined to agree with him. But whatever 
it be called, once there is such a general 
characteristic of the Celt, one would natu- 
rally be inclined to think that in a book con- 
taining " the very soul of the Celtic genius," 
the general characteristic would be found 
to lead to something more than Titanism 
or penetrating melanchol}'. This is really 
the case with regard to Macpherson's 
Ossian, and we believe we are right in 
judging that Mr. Arnold is quite of this 

We find it indeed easier to follow Mr. 
Arnold in his praise than in his blame. 
As to carelessness of style being very 
general in Germany, we dare say he is right, 
and he certainly has De Quincey on his 
side ; but it must be remembered that 
legions of learned men write books in 
Germany, who in other countries would not 
find a public interested in their minute 
researches. With regard however to sense 
apart from style, we cannot agree with Mr. 
Arnold in his views of German " Platitude," 
and his strictures on Krummacher. 

Again, Mr. Arnold's declaration that 
Ireland has had no great sculptors, will 
puzzle many of the countrymen of Poley 
and of Hogan. But his statement that 
" the sensuousness of the Latinized French- 
man makes Paris, the sensuousness of the 

Celt proper has made Ireland," will puzzle 
none of us. We all remember that some- 
body besides the Celt proper meddled with 
the making of Ireland. Mr. Arnold here 
shows a little of the Bonus Geniiaiuis, or 
what he would, we suppose, call the Philis- 
ter, and adopts decidedly the " Conventional 
Manner " of description. 

Mr. Arnold maintains at great length 
that the Celtic genius is remarkable for 
three things of which Titanism is one. For 
this one he quotes Macpherson's Ossian 
directly, but his strong expressions seem to 
show that that book has in all respects the 
Celtic perfections. Let us notice what 
these perfections are, apart from Titanism, 
in Mr. Arnold's excellent judgment. He re- 
marks three good manners of depicting 
nature, assigns them to three nationalities, 
the Germans, the Greeks, the Celts, and 
strongly distinguishes all from the " con- 
ventional" mode of treating nature, in 
which latter one alone, according to him, 
the eye is not upon the object* Calling the 

* Tlie rule laid down by Mr. Matthew Arnold for dis- 
tinguishing between natural and not natural description, 
is liable to be understood in a false sense. The rule he 
gives deals properly with descriptions of the appearance 
uf tilings ; tliat in descriptions of what appears, the eye 
should be on the object (to use Mr. Arnold's expressive ter- 
minology), is manifest. In descriptions of sounds, on the 
other hand, it is rather the ear that should have paid at- 
tention. Take, for instance, the following stanza of Mrs. 
Hemans : — 

" There was heard a heavy clang. 

As of steel-girt men the tread. 

And the tombs and the hollow pavement rang 

With a sounding thrill of dread ; 

And the holy chaunt was hushed awhile 

As. by the torches' flame, 

A gieani of arms up the sweeping aisle 

Wiih a mail-clad leader came." 

Whatever else may lie said about these verses, it must 
be admitted that the description given in them, far from 
being unn.itural, is very natural, and even vividly so, from 
first to last. Vet the eye is no/ " on the object " till the 
last three lines. In the first five it is the ear that has been 
attentive. It is, we think, obvious that the true, full, 
general distinction to be drawn between natural and not 
natuial description is this: that in the first case the 
object is represented as it strikes some sense, while, in 
the second case, it is submitted to us in a form in which it 
dees not seem easily recognisable by any of our senses. 

This abstract poiiit has. however, no practical bearing on 
the particular criticisms of Mr. Arnold to wliich we refer, 
as the descriptions they deal with are descriptions of 
appearances, and in them, when they are nataral, "the 
eye is on the object." And even in the general theory 
we can scarcely think that Mr. Arnold is against us. He 



moon the refulgent lamp of niglit, is an 
example of the Conventional Mode ac- 
cording to him. Such words would not 
call up a picture of the moon to the mind's 
eye, though they would remind one of the 
effect produced by the moon's visible pre- 
sence. They insist on an analogy between 
the action of a lamp and the moon upon us. 
But " refulgent lamp " gives us no picture 
of the wonderful orb set nearest to us in the 
sky when we hear those words, tlie eye is 
not upon the object. It is otherwise when 
nature is described in any one of the 
" faithful " manners. Mr. Arnold describes 
the German manner as merely " faithful," 
merely calling up the vision of the object as 
we see it in nature. In the Greek manner 
he says " lightness and brightness are 
added ; " in the Celtic, charm and magic. 
He points out the following short passage 
in Shakspeare, where the three may, it 
seems to us, be distinguished in gradual 
succession, though he sees there only the 
Greek and Celtic manner. We think he 
might have called the first couplet, accord- 
ing to his principles, an example of the 
German mode — 

" I know a bank whereon the wikl thyme blows, 
Where oxiips and tlie noddy violet grows, 
Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, 
With sweet musk roses or with eglantine. 

Look how the floor of heaven 
Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold ! 
Met we on hill, in dale, forest, or mead, 
By paved fountain, or by rushy brook, 
Or in the bleached margent of the sea." 

In the lines just quoted we have at first 
scarcely anything more than a faithful re- 
presentation of what we see in nature ; then 
the description seems easily to set a natural 
scene in a peculiarly vivid light ; " light- 
ness and brightness are added," and finally, 
there is no longer vivid light enabling us to 
feel easy masters of the whole scene ; but 
on the contrary it seems as if the scene 

surely cannot have meant to reject with mute contempt 
the great prhiciples, well defended by Lessing, as to the 
ait that appeals to the eye alone, and the art that appeals 
to more. If Mr. Arnold had been really opposed in this 
respect to the gieat German critic, we cannot think he 
would have quietly passed him by ; surely he would have 
o|)enly entered the lists against him, feeling that he was 
an adversary who might be defeated, but could not be 

becomes our master — as if there were some 
spell binding us, entrancing our attention 
to the clearlydefined objects which suddenly 
put on for us an attraction we cannot with 
facility explain. " Magic," says Mr. Arnold, 
" is the word to insist upon — a magically 
vivid and near interpretation of nature." 
He gives of this the following fine examples : 
From Shakspeare — 

" In such a night 
Stood Dido, with a willow in her hand, 
Upon the wild sea bank, and waved her love 
To come again to Carthage." 

And from the Celtic — 

" They saw a tall tree by the side of the river, one half of 
which was in flames from the root to the top, and the 
other half was green and in full life." 

This kind of excellence Mr. Arnold 
believes to have been introduced into 
English literature from mixture with the 
Celts. It, as well as penetrating melancholy, 
is to be found in Macpherson's Ossian, and 
we cannot think that Mr. Arnold would 
have written, as we have seen he does, about 
woody Morven and echoing Sora, and 
Selma with its silent halls, if he had not 
himself strongly felt this magical descriptive 
charm in the " residue " of that " wonderful 

His third Celtic excellence is st}'le, which 
he looks on as an almost universal natural 
gift among the Celts, and it is at any rate 
one that must be recognised in Macpherson's 

"Sentiment,"according to Mr. Arnold, and 
"sensibility," according to Principal Shairp, 
is the best word to designate the general 
character from which all these peculiar ex- 
cellences proceed. Some such word it must 
be. But these words are a little too general 
for our purpose ; they seem to point directly 
to abuse of a good quality, at least to call 
up the idea at once of the faults as well as 
the virtues of the character ; they suit ad- 
mirably the cxterieur gauc/ie et em- 
barassé M. Rénan has introduced us to, 
and we want something to describe more 
immediately the source of the power of the 
high Celtic qualities alone. We think the 
spirit of friendly admiration serves this pur- 
pose, that it expresses what is good in 
sensibility, and may therefore be properly 



set down as the source of those good 
quahties which are justly said indeed to 
arise from sensibility in general, but arise 
precisely from what is good in sensibility. 

Lord Byron's Titan ism has power to 
attract us, not because he hates the world, 
but because he seems to love and aspire to 
something better than human coldness and 
pretence. The source of the power of this 
great writer in his misanthropic mood, is 
his astonishingly friendly admiration for 
what he does not despise or hate. He con- 
templates, for instance, the death of the 
Princess Charlotte at first as a vision of the 
abyss. Even from the first he is full of pity 
for the vague, deep and immedicable wound; 
but in a moment he is on warm and inti- 
mate terms with the chief phantom that 
" seems royal still," and " pale but lovely." 
He addresses it with more than affectionate 
loyalty, with familiar tenderness — " Fond 
hope of many nations !" " O thou that wert 
so happy, so adored ; those who weep not 
for kings shall weep for thee." This it is, 
this friendly admiration, which not only 
makes Titanism interesting, but gives the 
magically near interpretation of Nature. 
Byron was indeed the man who — 

" Made hhn/tic-nds of mountains ; with the stars 
And the quick spirit of the universe 
He held liis dialogues : and they did teach 
To him the M(1i;Íí- of tlieir mysteries." 

If he makes us sympathize with him 
when he revels in the terrible, it is because 
we feel his heart is in it. 

On the other hand Goethe can, as Mr. 
Arnold remarks, write in the Greek manner 
nobly. He never gives a " magical " de- 
scription ; in fact he never could or would, 
for, unlike Schiller, he never could or would 
appear to have the least personal feeling for 
any one of the objects which he described 
\\-ith his amazing mirror-like perfection. 
The Greeks he could and did imitate in- 
deed. The masterful artistic Greek keeps 
at a distance from his object, and surveys 
it to the best advantage in the clearest 
light. He is a connoisseur, not an en- 
thusiast. The true Celt, on the other hand 
never merely contemplates ; he feels deeply 
at the same time ; he is ardent for some 
object that he would fain acquire or pre- 

serve, and therefore his descriptions show a 
sort of magic intimacy ; his melancholy has 
peculiar power ; his satisfaction breathes a 
kind of enthusiasm for peace. As for style, 
it is clear that both the Greek love for 
brightness of description with ease of man- 
ner, and the Celtic warmth of feeling pro- 
ceeding from friendly admiration of what is 
great, tend to induce men to make the inost 
of the objects theyrepresent; toput them for- 
ward in pleasing grouping and good order ; 
to be careful of style in their expression. 
It is only those who love no charm beyond 
truth and wisdom, that will be careless of 
such a thing as style. 

We have said enough, we think, to satisfy 
our readers that we do not mislead them in 
pointing to the romantic spirit of friendly 
admiration for something Great as the true 
source of the charm of the " residue " of 
Macpherson's Ossian. The Celtic genius 
is there, and this spirit is the source of its 
peculiar excellence and power. This same 
spirit is to be found in our good Irish 
Ossianic poems. There is, no doubt, more 
variety in them than in the Scottish work. 
The development is not so monotonous, so 
purely melancholy ; but what gives the 
monotonous melancholy book its power, the 
romantic spirit of almost magic intimacy, 
of enthusiastic admiration, is fully there, 
and often in a form most closely resembling 
Macpherson's Ossian. 

The examples we have selected to show 
the similarity between the two kinds of 
Ossianic poetry, certainly bear out this with 
reference to description. And as for " Ti- 
tanism," while Mr. Arnold points to Mac- 
pherson, we feel we may direct attention to 
the two concluding lines of the passage last 
brought forward from Tirnanog. There 
is surely Titanism in the " We gazed 
awhile" of the brave travellers suddenly 
enshrouded in a great tempest. It is very 
unlike the 

" Extemplo /Enece solv 

frigore membr: 

of the grand storm scene at the beginning 
of the ^-Eneid, where there is none of the 
Celtic romantic friendliness for what is 
great, even when terrible, from which both 
magic interpretation of Nature and Titan- 



ism spring. Both tliese things are ahkc to 
be found — -we say it without hesitation — in 
our 'own and in Rlacpherson's Ossian, 
though it is only in our own that we meet 
with Ossianic pictures of gentle happy daj-s 
like those which M. Rénan admired and 
called Celtic. 

With this view of the Celtic poetic genius 
before us, we shall now approach the great 
passage of the Return and Transformation 
of Oisin in Tirnanog, and we venture to pro- 
mise our readers they shall not find their ex- 
pectations disappointed by the Irish bard. 
We believe they will find them all surpassed ; 
they will certainly find deeply penetrating 
Passion and Melancholy in the midst of 
immense Misfortune, and they will see that 
Misfortune sketched with a delicate and 
entrancing power. They will see with what 
facility and intimacy the old poet dealt 
with his whole subject ; how near and dear 
it must have been to him to appear so 
magical to us ; and they will see all this 
exhibited, not by snatches, not as a Ciiriosa 
Felicitas, but in a sustained and admirably 
progressive manner. 

( To be continued.) 


Welcome to Cork. 

Sund.ay's Well, Cork. 

A few subscribers requested tbot I would translate 
my "V-iiUe JeAL won 1i\i]-leAb.\i\ SAewilge 50 
Cuncjij.'' — (No. 2, page 52.) Terhaps you would think 
this version worth a place in the ne^t number. 

The Gaelic Jounial is Heartily Welcome to Cork. 

You're heartily welcome, young Journal to Cork, 
Most welcome, as showing the patriot's work 
Is still of some consequence. sliU of some worth, 
In preserving our dear native Gaelic. 

No half-hearted welcome, repellingly cold — 
I promise you welcome from young and from old. 
The blushing, the bashful, the brave and the bold, 
Assisting while reading the Gaelic. 

As I sit by the fire I'll enjoy the glad news — 
More treasure-trove measures of bards to peruse ; 
I'd sink ill mid-ocean, or perhaps I'd choose 
Hot quarters for haters of Gaelic. 


" The care of the National Language is a Sacred 
Trust."— Ä/i/fi'í/. 



It is evident on inspection that the letters 
of the Irish alphabet are identical with 
those of the Roman, as found in MSS. 
of the 3rd — 5th centuries. These latter 
characters were introduced into Ireland 
during that period : but we shall give reasons 
which induce the belief that, at least among 
a limited number of persons in the island, 
alphabeticalsigns of some kindhadbeen long 
previously in use. It is probably on this ac- 
count that, on adopting the Roman alphabet 
of the period, the bards a ndy7/tv?í//;í, who com- 
prised all the educated men, chose only cer- 
tain of the Roman letters, re-arranging them 
in a different order from that of the alpha- 
bet as received from the Continent or 
Britain. This may have been the order of 
the letters in the older Irish alphabet, and the 
names of trees or shrubs which were given 
to them would seem to point to some such 
writing as that known as the Ogham. The 
letters in the latter closely resemble the 
trunks and branches of trees, being the 
handiest form for cutting on tablets of wood, 
or for forming inscriptions on stone. From 
the names of the first three letters of the 
ancient Irish alphabet, it was termed the 
Beth-luis-nion, but the third letter was sub- 
sequently put in the fifth place. It consisted 
of the ordinary i8 letters, with a few addi- 
tional ones for the writing of Greek, Latin, 
and Hebrew names, and of certain diph- 
thongs, and the combination nj. The 
letters in their original form were not 
angular, but rounded. It was only after 
several centuries that the angular forms 
came into vogue. It was from the older 
forms, as found in such manuscripts as the 
Book of Kells, that Pctrie and O'Curry de- 
signed thecharacters in the fount of type cast 
for the Catholic University press. Similar 
ones are employed in the Gaelic Journal. 
The following is the Beth-luis-nion. We 
give the names of trees given to the letters, 
with the modern Irish names of the same 


trees and their meaning in English, together 
with corresponding Roman letters : — 




^^„_„„u ,_ 













.s^ t-!-c.= P u o E l/;3-t--3 = o ^ 




« rl r^ * .^f> r^co CN - -1 ^ ■* >"0 t^M 

The combination 115 had also a special 
name, njeriAL (meaning a reed, at present 
called jiolcAc), but not represented by a 
single character. However, in an Ogham 
alphabet given in the Book of Ballymote, 
there was a distinctive arrangement for the 
simple sound represented by these two 
letters in the Roman alphabet adopted by 
the Irish. It will be at once perceived, on 
examining the above characters, that they 
differ but slightly from the printed letters 
used by the western nations of modern 
Europe, the most marked differences being 
in the 5, 11, 1', and c, and in the more orna- 
mental forms of some of the capitals. They 

are also, from an artistic point of view, 
beautiful, and from a matter of fact stand- 
point, clear and easily read. There is there- 
fore no valid reason why the characters 
which have for so many centuries been used 
for writing and printing the Irish language 
should be now superseded by others, and 
there are several powerful reasons against 
adopting such an innovation. At present, 
the modern Irish alphabet is, for conveni- 
ence, generally arranged in the same order 
as the Roman, the letters receiving names 
indicating their sounds. Its modern name 
is Aibjici]! orAibroiL. Its powers of expres- 
sing sounds are increased by accents over 
the" vowels, by dots over consonants, and by 
certain combinations of letters. The ancient 
Irish employed numerous other marks, 
many of which indicated abbreviations, but 
these have been reduced and simplified in 
the modern language. A current hand for 
writing, sloping from right to left, has been 
used by some scribes, but the ordinary Irish 
handwriting is an imitation of the letters 
used in print. There is, however, a design 
formed of issuing copy-books containing a 
current Irish hand. We may take this op- 
portunity of pointing out that in the Beth- 
luis-nion the vowels are arranged all 
together at the end, the broad preceding the 
slender, that the letters at the commence- 
ment give examples respectively of a flat 
labial, a sharp lingual, a sharp open 
labial, a hissing or sibilant sound, and a 
nasal sound. This furnishes a key to the sys- 
tematic arrangement adopted, probably de- 
rived from that of an earlier alphabet. The 
orthographic system, including aspiration 
and eclipsis, traces of which are discernible 
in the oldest Irish manuscripts, is so different 
from the Greek and Roman, and so well 
adapted to the Irish language, that notwith- 
standing the hypothesis of Zeuss, we plainly 
discern in it evident marks of an earlier me- 
thod of writing. As for the theory ot 
Ledwich and Graves, that there is a connec- 
tion between the Ogham and Runic alpha- 
bets, we consider it unworthy of notice, even 
if the limits of our space permitted its dis- 
cussion. Whether the Welsh Coelbren y 
Berdd, or bardic alphabet, was in use before 
the introduction of the Roman, we will not 



attempt to decide ; but considering that the 
Phcjenicians traded to the ports of Ireland 
and Britain long before the time of the 
Roman Empire, it would be a wonderful 
thing if the inhabitants of these countries 
had not a knowledge at that time of some 
kind of writing. We must remember that 
the Romans were very prone to accuse of 
barbarism and savagery any peoples who did 
not at once accept their own civilization, 
language, and rule. Ireland was never a 
portion of the Roman empire, but in it a 
kind of learned men, called ollamhs, sub- 
divided into the classes of bards and fileadhs, 
existed from time immemorial, and it is 
claimed for them that they kept regular re- 
cords of public events. Making due allow- 
ance for mythic allegories and bardic 
exaggerations, and avoiding the extremes 
of uncritical credulity and prejudiced dis- 
belief, we have accordingly arrived at the 
conclusion that the Irish possessed an 
alphabet before the introduction of Roman 
letters. The numerous references to ancient 
records, inscriptions, and written documents 
in our early annals strengthens us in this 
opinion, as also the peculiarities of the 
ancient Irish Roman and Ogham alphabets. 
Having considered the peculiarities of 
the Irish alphabetical characters, we shall 
now proceed to an inquiry into the sounds 
represented by them, taking first the simple 
vowels, and then in succession the simple 
or unaspirated and the aspirated consonants. 
We shall take the English sounds as heard 
in that portion of England east of a line 
drawn from the Wash to Birmingham, and 
passing thence to Oxford and the Isle of 
Wight. The pronunciation of English in 
Ireland we shall not notice, except some- 
times as an illustration of Irish sounds. We 
shall take the pronunciation of Irish of the 
west of Galvvay and Mayo as the standard 
for the sounds of the letters, except in one 
or two evidently erroneous utterances ; but 
we shall also mention the principal devia- 
tions from these sounds in other parts of 
Ireland. The Irish spoken in the Island of 
Achill and the South Isles ot Arran may 
be generally considered, in the matter of 
pronunciation, as the purest and most cor- 
rect at present existing. 

As we have already stated, the vowels 
have each three sounds — a long sound, a 
short, and an obscure. Under certain cir- 
cumstances some of them have diphthongal 
sounds. An obscure sound never occurs in a 
root-syllable, in a monosyllable, and very 
seldom in the first syllable of a word. The 
exceptions to this are found in some of the 
possessive and compound pronouns. Long 
vowels are generally, though not always, 
marked with an acute accent, as ]:Á)-, growth; 
05, young. This accent indicates length, 
not stress, or, in other words, it is a sign of 
quantity rather than what is usually under- 
stood in English treatises by accent. The 
latter or stress is nearly always on the root 
syllable of the word, though in the Munster 
pronunciation this rule is frequently 
broken. No number of vowels coming 
together forms more than one syllable, and 
vowels in modern Irish are never doubled. 
There are no absolutely silent vowels, 
though some are very faintly pronounced, 
and may become wholly silent in rapid col- 
loquial use. 


A is the first letter of the modem Irish 
alphabet, and the first of the vowels in it 
and in the Beth-luis-nion. It is a broad 
vowel, having three regular sounds — a long, 
a short, and an obscure, besides two or 
three diphthongal ones under certain ex- 
ceptional circumstances. It is never sounded 
as in any of the English words, /i?/t', /(?/,/(?;-, 
cribbage, when not accompanied by ano- 
ther vowel. Its sounds are as follow : — • 

A long has a sound intermediate between 
those of the rt's in the English words, fall 
and far, but approaching nearer to the 
former. Irishmen generally pronounce the 
a in all with this Irish sound, but if atten- 
tion is paid to the pronunciation of the 
same word by an Englishman, it will be 
found to be nearer to long, deeper and 
more open. The long a is generally dis- 
tinguished by an acute accent o\-er it, 
though in certain positions this is not ne- 
cessary, and the accent is omitted. The 
s)dlable containing the accented d may or 
may not have the stress or tonic accent 
upon it in the pronunciation of the word, 



the accent indicating length only. Exam- 
ples of words with this sound of a are — 
bÁn, white ; LÁ, a day ; rÁ, is ; ájto, high ; 
bÁnn, a top, summit ; lÁii, full ; bÁ-o, a boat. 
-c\-ó and aj, when followed immediately by 
one of the consonants b, 111, n, or ]i, has often 
the sound of a long. As, however, the 
usage in this respect, even in the province of 
Connaught, varies, it were desirable that 
when the long sound is used, the a should 
be marked with an accent, which is seldom 
done by Irish writers. If this rule were ob- 
served, then in all cases in which atj or aj 
occurs with the stress on it in polysyllables, 
and in which no accent is marked, a sound 
somewhat more open than the English long 
z in tile would be heard. Thus a-oaui, an 
aspen, is pronounced something like i-in ; 
<.\-ó]iAiiii, I adore, like i-rim ; üaüj, Thady, 
like tigue ; the i in all cases being long, like i 
in mine. The rule therefore for the pro- 
nunciation of a in the combinations ^^■ó and 
Aj may be given as follows : — 

A when followed by an aspirated t3 or 5, 
which is again followed immediately by a 
broad vowel, or by the consonants I, m, n, ]\, 
c, 5, in a word of more than one syllable, 
and when not marked with the accent, has 
a sound intermediate between the English 
oi in boil and i in mile. In other situations 
a in this combination is pronounced long, 
as in the words, Á-óbAji, cause, pronounced 
something like aw-wur ; Át)iiK\t>, timber, 
pronounced aw-mudh, nearh'.* 

A short has an intermediate sound be- 
tween that of a in the English word, ;«i?«, 
and that o{ a in the word 2í'//at or o in «0/. 
The English word ?iût is frequently pro- 
nounced by the Irish peasantry with the 
sound of the Irish short a. The flat sound 
of the English short a, as in cat, is very 
rare, and does not to our knowledge exist in 
an}' of the Continental languages, the short 
a of these languages approching much 
nearer to the Irish sound. However, the 
English sound exists in Irish, but is ex- 
pressed by eA or by ai, as in the words 

bcAn, a woman, pronounced almost like the 
English ẁr«/ A1II, a cliff, pronounced almost 
ulyi/Zi, but in one syllable. The difference 
in the two sounds can be heard by getting an 
Irish speaker to pronounce AnAin, a soul, and 
Ainni, a name; and by noticing the difference 
in sound between the nominative singular of 
beAii and its genitive plural b^n. O'Donovan 
is therefore wrong in stating that the a short 
is like a in the English word /ût, unless he 
means that there is a distant resemblance be- 
tween the two sounds.* There is a similar 
difference between the Welsh short a and the 
English ; for the \vovd/>aii, ivlicn, is not pro- 
nounced as the English word pan, though it 
approaches nearer to it than a correspond- 
ing Irish word would. The excessive flat- 
ness of the short English a in the mouth of 
some speakers has been travestied by 
Dickens in certain expressions attributed by 
him to Mr. Mantalini. There is an opposite 
tendency in central England. In fact, there 
is an almost infinite variety in the sounds 
of the vowels in the various English dia- 
lects, the changes being much greater than 
the variations in those of Wales or Ireland. 
We may remark that the sound of a in 
father also exists in Irish, but is not ex- 
pressed by a single a. 

The obscure sound of a is heard when it 
occurs in the unaccented terminations of 
polysyllables and in certain particles. Ex- 
amples, A-ÓAJ1C, a horn, pronounced almost 
like i-urk, when the second a is obscure, and 
the first diphthongal. This obscure sound 
corresponds to the a in unnecessary or to 
the French e deini-viuiet. Other examples 
are the article ah, the preposition Af in such 
expressions as a ni-bAile, at home; a iiiáhac, 
to-morrow, &c. 

CÌAnn ConcobAtti. 
(To be continued.) 

* In the South no trace of the long accent is discernible 
in the pronunciation of the word ûẃbAp, which is sounded 
as if the i> were not present ; this may be, perhaps, owing 
to the presence of the aspirated b ; -iŵniu-o is, however, 
pronounced in Munster i-mudh. — Ed. G. J. 

* In editing the First Irish Book for the Society for the 
Preservation of the Irish Language, we ventured here to 
dissent Irom O'Donovan : relegating his a short to the 
position of an exceptional sound in Irish. — Ed. G. y. 

t & or 1 (Ann, 101111 or 111) : the sound of the vowel in 
this preposition is very obscure, and has been much in- 
fluenced by the rule caoL le caoI, &c. 

belt) An JAe-óilij jtaoi liiOAj- iro]'. 


Le Tomas OFlannaoile. 


I-measc na n-ainmhidheadh uile o a 
ngoirthi anmanna d'fliearaibh in Eirinn 
"san t-sean-aimsir ni raibh ainmhidh — beath- 
ach, eun, no iasc — ba mho meas na ba 
mhinice tugadh i g-cuimhne faoi 'n t-samh- 
ail so 'na an cliii. Do lamhfainn a radh 
go deimhin nach bh-fuil focal air bith eile 
ann— leath amuigh b'flieidir don fhocal 
viaol amhain — do cleachtadh i g-cumadh 
anmann dileas fear chomh minic agus 
ainm an bheathaigh so. 

Deir an Saiias Choruiaic gur b' in "oenach 
n-uircthreith " (iodhon, in aonach flatha 
oirdheirc) do dioltaoi na viiolclwiii, i coin 
na miolmaighe no coin na ngirrfhiadh — 
amhail earraidli uaisle eile mar taid na 
li-eicJi agus v\d.carbaid, lionn digusfeoil, fit/i- 
cliealla agus fir-fitiichilk agus mar sin. Is 
iomdha cruthughadh eile mar an g-ceudna 
do gheibhimid in ar sean-dantaibh agus in 
ar bh-finnsceultaibh a dhearbhas duinn an 
meas agus an gean do bhi ag ar sinscaraibh 
air an m-beathach uasal so. Agus ma 
smuamimid go raibh an tir uile in allod 
foluighthe o'n g-ceann go cheile le coilltibh 
mora tiugha, mar a d-taithigheadh an fiadh, 
an mac-tire, an tore fiadhain, an sionnach, 
an girrfhiadh, an broc, agus miolta eile a ta 
air n-a muchadh le re fhada ; ma smuaini- 
mid gur ba mhor na sealgairidh na sean- 
Ghaedhil, ler bh'ionmhuin dul tre sna coill- 
tibh le n-a " g-conaibh saoithe" tar lorg na 
m-beathach n-allta ud ; agus ma chuimh- 
nighmid air neart agus air luathas, air 
chrodhacht agus air cheill na con, ni bhudh 
iongnadh linn gur ba bhreagh le n-ar sin- 
searaibh an beathach so, agus go ngrad- 
huighdis a g-clann d ainmniughadh go 
minic uaidh. 

Ta clu na con Eireannaighe go deimhin 
chomh mor sin go d-tig linn a radh gur 
beagnach do chomharthaibh no do shua- 
theantasaibh Eireann i, mar ta fos an Chros 
Eireannach* an Dealiadh-greiiie, an Seaii- 

Creuclfa d tus tliar " Cros Clieilteach " yo gnathach' 

air ang-cic 

Anl)!i-fa"hthar i d-tirthibh Ceil 

Albain, 'san bh- 

cJtlcigtlteacli, an Cldairseach agus an "i-Scaiii- 

Is inbhreathnuighthe e, cia gur minic do 
gheibhimid Faolan agus Coilean agus Oisin 
agus Matligliaiuliain 'sa leithide sin 'na n- 
anmannaibh fear, ni feicthear gur cleachtadh 
riamh "Cu" mar so 'na aouar gan tuilleadh- 
focail d'a mheudughadh no da chriochnugh- 
adh — muna be mar ghiorrughadh anma dob' 
fhaide, amhail Cu air son Ciíchu/ainii. Ni 
fhaghmaid " Cu " mar ainm-fir, acht se as 
gnathach ann Cti-Midlie no Cu-slcibhe no 
Cii-dnbh no Domic/nino Coninhac; gidheadh 
ta hiífhdiiighíhe le faghail 'na n-aonar mar 
ta Cnan amhail laghduighthe eile mar 
Alarcan, Oisin, etc. 

Do bhi na h-anmanna pearsanta so 
chomh lionmhar, agus ta an oiread sin do 
shloinntibh deidheanacha d'eirigh uatha 
gur concas dam go m-badh mhaith le leigh- 
theoiribh Gaedhealacha trachtadh beag do 
bheith aca airna " Cu-anmannaibh" so. Do 
tharraing me iad as na h-Aiiualaibh do 
scriobh na Ceithre RIaighistridh (clo Ui 
Dhonnubhain), as na Goidclica le Whitley 
Stokes (an dara clo), as na Lectures on the 
MS. Alaterials of A ncicut Irisii History le 
Ua Comhraidh, agus as priomh-shaotha- 
raibh eile. 

'Se an focal cu aon do na h-anmannaibh 
d'athruigh a n-insce le cathadh na saoghal, 
mar ta tir, tnuir, briatliar, beatha, slighe, 
pearsa, agus moran eile. Feadh na d-tri 
g-ceud m-bliadhan do chuaidh tharainn, an 
chuid as lugha dhe, do cleachtadh an focal 
mar don bliean-inscc, 'se sin, an t-aon ainm 
beanda don da chineul. Is forus a fl-ioill- 
siughadh so ; mar ta i seanchas an Doch- 
tuir Ceiting 'san 8adh Caib, don cheud leab- 
har : " . . gur bhuailiosdair an meascoin 
fo lar go ros marbh i ; gona naithe ainm- 
nighthearan Innsi." {Forus Feasa ar Eirinn: 
clo an t-Seoighigh.) I d-Toruidlieacht 
Dhiarinada agus Grainne do leighmid 
'■Do chonnairc an chu chuige agus a 
craos ar leathadh aice'.' Ta an ni ceudna 
foUus air feadh na n-dan " Oisineach " go 
h-uile. Acht 'san t-sean-Ghaedhilig — mar 
luaidhtear le Zeuss 'agus le Windisch 'na 
dhiaidh-sean — is don fhear-insce ba h-e an 
focal, mar kuon i nGreigis agus canis i 
Laidin ; amhail fhoillsigheas an rann so as 



lomunii Bhrocain in onoir Bhrighde 
Naomhtha {Goiddica 1. 138): 

" Sech ba sathech in cn de ni bu broiiach 
in t-oscur." 'Se sin le radh, " cia go raibh a 
saith de ag an g-coin nir ba bhronach an 
t-aoidhe." Is follus as so agus as taisbcun- 
taibh eile d'fheudamaois a thabhairt gur 
bh'ainm feardha ai 'san t-sean-aimsir. Is 
amhlaidh so do bhi in anmannaibh-fear ; 
agus is uime sin a tlieagmhas go n-abra- 
daois C)i-diiblt, Coii-diiibh air an ainm 
dileas in allod, cia go n-abramaid andiu ai 
dhi'b/i, con dtiibhc ag labhairt air an m-bea- 
thach duinn. 

Ag so na cineil anmann in a d-teidh an 
focal cii : 

1. Cii agus geinidin i. cas geineamhnach 
'na dhiaidh, mar ta (a) Cu maille le geini- 
din anma dhilis _/?;', mar Cn-Chulainn ; Qo) 
Cu le geinidin anma dhilis do /////- no do 
tlircabii no dait eigin, mar ta Cit-Ciwnnaclit, 
Cu-Gaileang, etc. ; (c) Cu le geinidin anma 
choitchinn mar ta Cu-aibhne Cu-sleibiie agus 
a leithede so ; is ro lionmhar iad. 

2. Cu agus coinhflwcal no " aicideach" 'na 
dhiaidh mar Cit-allaidh, Cu-buidlic, Cn- 
caocli agus cuid eile. Ni mor a lion-san. 

3. Cu agus biiadlifliocal roimhe — air 
uairibh ainm, air uairibh eile comhfhocal ; 
(a) le h-ainm air n-a chur roimhe, mar ta 
Aolchu, Dobharchu, Miolcku agus a samhla 
sin ; (b) le comhfhocal roimhe mar Ardchu, 
Fionnchu, agus cuid eile. In san treas 
cineul ta an dara lion is mo. 

4. Comhshuidhthe no " cumaisc " inarb'e 
con- (gne as iomlaine don bhun-fliocal) do 
gheibhimid air n-a chur roimh focal eile 
mar ata in sna h-anmannaibh Conchadli, 
Conglial, Coninhac agus iomad eile. 

5. Na laghduighthe no deiitinutiva do cii 
mar ta Cuan, Cuanan agus beagan eile. 

In sna h-altaibh a leanas deanfaidh me 
tracht air na cuig cineulaibh so i n-diaidh 
a cheile. Tabharfaidh me an meud do 
thainic liom d'fhaghail diobh as na h- 
oibreachaibh reumhraidhte ; agus nuair 
fheudaim a dheanadh luaidhfead gneithe 
deidheanacha na n-anmann reir mar ataid i 
nGaedhilig agus mar ghnithear " Beurla " 

(Le bheith air icaiiamhain.) 




By J.\mes Murphy, 

AiMor of " U!ic Fitzmauricc," "Tlw Fortunes of Maurice 
O'Donnell" " Hugh Roach, the liiblionman," "Mau- 
reen's Sorrov.'," " The House on the Rath," &^c. 

The summer sun is streaming o'er many a 

galley tall 
Where Eastern wave, by Syrian coast, 

builds up of foam a wall ; 
And bright the golden streak of rays that 

marks the vessels' track. 
And bright the sheen of summer light the 

parted wave gives back. 

But brighter far the lines of light from 

waven swords that gleam. 
And brighter still of high resolve in warrior 

e}'es the beam ; 
As from the galleys' sun-lit decks into the 

temple's gloom 
Pass armed hosts with glancing helm and 

wave of tossing plume I 

The sacred shrine above them — the spread- 
ing sea before — 

The silken sails, as }'et unfurled, their wait- 
ing galleys bore — 

In shrouding mist and silence — none dared 
to whisper then ! — 

Await the God of Destiny a thousand 
bearded men. 

No arching roof or canopy o'erspreads the 
temple where 

Before the awful shrine of Fate the mus- 
tered warriors arc — 

In solemn silent reverence the mystic words 
of fate 

From the High-priest of Prophecy the 
plumed chiefs await. 

A leader stands before them, whose broad 

and ample breast 
In mantling folds of purple cloth by kingly 

ritrht is drest ; 



A head above the tallest, his helm, athrough 

the mist, 
Beams bright as day with diamond and 

gleam of amethj'st ! 

That sword he bears, in Babylon from roj-al 

hand he tore ; 
That golden circlet on his arm the regal 

Pharaoh wore ; 
The diamonds on his sword-hilt, that gleam 

like liquid fire, 
Once graced the golden shrines above the 

idol-gods of Tyre. 
A warrior he of warrior race, Assyria owned 

his sway ;* 
His iron-bands through Scythia tore their 

resistless way ; 
And women wailed in Egypt, and cities lay 

as lone 
As Isis in the desert, when once his flag 

was flown ! 

But leave he must ! The fabled isle, the 
ancient seer foretold-f- 

In burning words of prophecy — whose hills 
were throned in gold — 

Whose streams were tuned to melody — 
whose shores with pearls were lined — 

And where the perfumes of the East sur- 
charged the summer wind — 

Called him afar ! He cannot stay ! At 

night the golden beams 
That flooded that fair island-home, shone 

inward on his dreams ; 
At day nor eastern wave he saw, nor 

eastern land, nor sky — 
Along the golden rim of heaven sought out 

that isle his eye ! 
And now, amid his followers, before the 

shrine he stands — 
Before the unknown God that holds the 

future in His hands — 
And a bright blessing prayeth he his fol- 
lowers for, and on 
That island-home, that fabled land, e're yet 

his ships were gone. 

* See OTVI.ihony's " Keating," pp. 178-9. 

t " Caicer," a principal druid among the Gadclians [a 
kindred race of the Mile.sians], informed them by his pro 
phctic knowledge that there was no country ordained for 
them to inhabit until they arrived on the coast of a cer- 
tain western isle — meaning thereby Ireland. — A't-n/iii^s 
Aiicimt Irish History. 

The aged priest before them stands, the 

mystic reed in hand : 
" Milesius ! Heber ! Heremon ! — seek ye 

the fabled land ? 
My heart-strings rend at parting — with grief 

my breast is wrung — • 
But a priceless gift I give thee : — the Bless- 
ing of the Tongue ! 
" A tongue for men to pray in to listening 

gods on high, 
A tongue whose ringing accents shall cheer 

the brave to die — 
Meet, in the dark'ning even', when falls the 

night above. 
For red-lipped maids in Eire to speak the 

words of love. 
"A tongue wherein the Druid may wor- 
ship at the oak, 
A tongue wherewith magician may hidden 

spells evoke — * 
In airy mist at noonday shall her fair hills 

be drest, 
Or golden light shall deck her at eve — at his 

" Its notes the flow shall rival of Eire's 

silver streams. 
Breathe it at night — a benison falls on the 

sleeper's dreams 1 
And angels' speech of sorrow (for ruined 

souls) in bliss 
Shall lose its tone of anguish when women 

cry in this !" 
The chieftain frowned in anger : "Not gift 

like this," he said, 
" Want we to stir the heart to love — to 

sorrow for the dead ; 
For the brave heart to conquer, and the 

bright blade to slay. 
Shall win us woman's love, I trow — let 

sorrow those who may. 
" Hast thou no other blessing?" " Hush !" 

the aged seer replies, 
" Than gleaming sword, or gallant heart, in 

this more power lies ; 
Swords rust and throbbing hearts grow still, 

but in this gift I give 
Thy princely name and glorious deeds and 

bright renown shall live ! 

* The pagan Irish were enable 1 by their magic gifts to 
enshroud tlieir enemies in a mist, whereby they were 
easily defeated. — Keating. 



" Its kindling words shall valour feed within 
thy children's breasts ; 

Its songs shall prouder tribute be than 
heralds' gleaming crests; 

Its strains shall make their swords outflash 
when dangers gather round ; 

And ever shall its clarion cheer o'er con- 
quered foe resound. 

" Its trumpet tones in battle hour shall 

point the lifted spear ; 
The battle-axe through surging foes shall 

make a pathway clear ; 
For victory won its songs of joy shall grace 

the festive cup " — 
The sword-blades in their jewelled sheaths 

came ringing swiftly up ! 

" But hand-to-hand unitedly — on this con- 
dition rests 

The mystic charm of victory that in this 
blessing vests — 

Your ranks must join ; your arms strike ; — 
your valiant hearts must know 

Nor treason nor disloj-alty when dares }-our 
strength the foe : 

" Else shall your paeans of victory be songs 

of woe instead ; 
Else shall the conquering feet of foes above 

your bravest tread ; 
Else shall — but no ! — the perfumed breeze to 

bear you hence away 
Swells in your sails^mine aged lips the 

rest forbear to say !" 

He lifted high his trembling hands — the 

chieftains forward sprang 
And, kneeling, with the clank of spears the 

marble pavement rang ; — 
A glorious sunburst flashed athrough the 

temple's solemn glooms — 
A thousand swords outflashed ! — the air was 

swept with tossing plumes ! 

Uprose the bannered lances, like lines of 
tapered oaks ; 

Rang on the pave their sabres, like hammer- 
ing forgeman's strokes : 

A cheer arose ! " The sunburst ! The God 
of Fate," they cried, 

" Our banner in the golden sky with golden 
light has dyed ! 

" Never to die that banner ! Never that 

tongue to die. 
Till the warring world is voiceless, till the 

sun dies in the sky ; 
Till the god-like gift of manhood dies out 

from heart and veins. 
And on the breast of Eire no son of our race 


" To the golden shores of Eirinn ! To her 

sun-lit hills 1 " The cry 
In the mystic tongue, that now they spoke, 

on the swelling breeze rose high. 
And the silken sails and the cedar masts 

that their tossing galleys bore. 
On that Eastern wave, when the sun went 

down, threw a shadow nevermore ! 


In no country in the world is there so 
large a proportion of the names of places 
intelligible as in Ireland. This may be 
accounted for partly by the fact that the 
names are nearly all Gaelic, which has been 
the language of the country without a 
break from the time of the first colonies 
till the introduction of English, and is still 
the spoken language over a large area, so 
that the names never lost their significance ; 
and partly that a very large number of the 
names are recorded in their correct original 
forms in our old Gaelic books. But, even 
with these helps, we have still a considerable 
number of local names whose meanings we 
cannot discover. In my two volumes on 
" Irish Names of Places," I have confined 
myself to those names of whose meanings 
I had unquestionable evidence of one kind 
or another; but it may be interesting to 
pass in review here a few of these names 
that came across me whose meanings I was 
unable to determine. 

\\'here names do not bear their interpre- 
tation plainly on their face in their present 
Anglicized forms, there are two chief modes 
of determining their meanings ; — either to 
hear them pronounced as living words, or to 
find out their oldest forms in ancient Gaelic 



documents : in either case you can gener- 
ally determine the meaning. But still 
there are names — and not a few — about 
which we are in the dark, though we can 
hear them pronounced, or find them written 
in old books. 

And here it is necessary to observe that 
once you hear a name distinctly pronounced 
by several intelligent old people who all 
agree, or find it plainly written in a manu- 
script of authority, if in either case it is not 
intelligible, \o\x are not at liberty to alter 
it so as to give it a meaning, unless in rare 
exceptional cases, and with some sound 
reason to justify the change. It is by in- 
dulging in this sort of license that etymolo- 
gists are most prone to error, not only in 
Gaelic, but in all other languages. 

We are not able to tell, with any degree 
of certainty, the meaning of the name of 
Ireland itself, or of any one of the four 
provinces. Our old writers have legends 
to account for all ; but these legends are 
quite worthless as etymological authorities, 
except, perhaps, the legend of the origin of 
the name of Lcinster, which has a historical 
look about it. The oldest native form of the 
name of Ireland is Heriu or Erin. But in the 
ancient Greek, Latin, Breton and Welsh 
forms of the name, the first syllable Er, is 
represented by two syllables, with a b, v, 
or zu sound : — Gr. and Lat., Iberio or 
Hiberìo,Hibcrniû,Joucrnia (Ivernia) ; Welsh 
and Breton, Yiucrddon, Izverdon, Iverdon. 
From this it may be inferred, with every 
appearance of certainty, that the native 
name was originally Ibheriii, Ebcriii, Iveriu, 
Hcbcriii, Hivcriii, or some such form ; but 
for this there is no manuscript authority, 
even in the very oldest of our writings. 
Beyond this, all is uncertainty. Dr. 
Whitley Stokes suggests that this old form 
may be connected with Sanscrit o-rura, 
western ; but this, though \cr}- probably 
true, is still conjecture. 

The name Erin has been explained iar- 
in, western land ; or iar-iius, western 
island. Zeuss conjectures iar-rcnd, or iar- 
renu, modern ica--rearm, western island or 
country ; and Pictet regards the first S)-!- 
lablc of the form Ivernia as being the 
Celtic word ib/i, land, tribe. Pictet took 

the word ibh from O'Reilly, whereas there 
is no nominative singular word ibk in the 
Irish language : ibh, or ?iibh, is merely the 
dative plural of na or o, a grandson. Max 
Muller (Lectures on the Science of Lan- 
guage, I. 245), thinks he sees in Erin, or 
Erin, a trace of the name of the primitive 
Aryan people. But all these latter conjec- 
tures are certainly wrong. 

The name of Navan, in Meath, has long 
exercised Irish et)-mologists — including 
even O'Donovan. This greatest of all 
Irish topographers, at the time he was em- 
plo)-ed on the Ordnance Surve)', identified 
it with the Nuaclwugbliail of the Annal- 
ists ; or perhaps it would be more correct 
to say that he showed beyond doubt that 
NuacJiongbliail stood where Navan now 
stands. Nuachongbkail sìgmíie?, new habita- 
tion, from nna, new ; and congbhail, a habita- 
tion. This long name would be sounded 
Noo-Jwng-val ; and elsewhere in Ireland it 
has been softened down to Noughaval and 
Nohoval. L is often changed to n in Irish 
names, and if we admit that this has taken 
place here, and that the middle // sound 
has been omitted (which it often is, as we 
see in Drogheda for Droghed-aha, Urum- 
lane for Drumlahan, &c.), we shall have the 
form Novan ; and we know that in some 
old documents, written in English, the 
place is called Novane. 

But another very different, and indeed 
a far more interesting origin for the name 
suggests itself We are told in several ot 
our most ancient legendary records, that 
Heremon, son of Miled, or Milesius, while 
still living in Spain, before the Milesian 
expedition to Ireland, married a lady 
named Odhbha [Ova], who became the 
mother of three of his children. After a 
time he put her away, and married Tea, 
from whom in after time, according to the 
legendary etymology, Tea-nnir, or Tara, de- 
rived its name. When Heremon came to 
Ireland, Odhbha followed him and her child- 
ren, and soon after her arrival died of grief on 
account of her repudiation by her husband. 
Her three children raised a mound to her 
memory, which was called Odhbha, after 
her ; and from this again was named the 
territory of Odhbha, which lay round 


Navan, and which in after ages was known 
as the territoiy of the O'Heas. 

This mound, we know, was near the 
place on which Navan now stands ; and 
like all sepulchral mounds, it must have 
contained an artificial cave in which the 
remains were deposited. We know that 
the present Irish name of Navan is an 
naimh, the cave ; this name is still remem- 
bered by the old people, and we find it also 
in some of our more modern Irish annals. 
We may fairly conclude that the cave here 
meant is that in which Queen Odiiblia has 
rested from her sorrows for three thousand 
years ; and it may be suspected that uaiinh, 
though a natural name under the circum- 
stances, is a corruption from Odlibha, as 
both have nearly the same sound ; in fact 
the modern pronunciation varies between 
an Uaiiiih and an OdJibha. 

Another element of difficulty is the fact 
that in the Annals of Lough Key the place 
is called Aw lliiiAinÁ — The Utiiaiiia — which 
seems to show that the old writer was as 
much puzzled about the name as we are, 
and wrote it down honestly as best he could, 
without attempting to twist it into an in- 
telligible word, as many modern writers 
would do without hesitation. This form, 
Uniaiiia is probably evolved from the old 
form Odiibha — at least I shall regard it so. 

Now, from which of these three words, 
Nuaclionc^hhaiL Od/ibha, or An Uainth, is the 
name of Navan derived ; for it is certainly 
derived from one or another of the three ? 
The first n of Navan is the Irish article an, 
contracted to «, as it usually is ; and this is 
still remembered, even by the English- 
speaking people, for Navan has been and 
is still is often called The Navan. But this 
fact might apply to any one of the three 
derivations. In the case of Navan coming 
from NuacJwngbJiail, the first n of this Irish 
name was mistaken for the article ; just as 
in the case of OugJiaval in Sligo, Mayo, and 
Queen's County, in which the initial n has 
been dropped by the people, who mistook 
it for the article, the proper name being 
Nfliighaval, i.e., Nuaclwngbliail, and as to 
Odldiha and Uaiuih, the article is there to 
the present day annexed to both. The 
presence of the last n of Navan is quite 

compatible with the derivation from either 
OdJibliii or An Uainili, for it is the termi- 
nation of an oblique form, and, as a matter 
oíía.ct,nainth is often written and pronounced 
iiamliainn, as in case of the name of the vil- 
lage of Ovens, west of Cork city, which is 
really Uamhainn, i.e'., caves, from the great 
limestone caves near the village, and either 
'n Odhblian or 'n Uaiiihaiiin would sound 
almost exactly the same as the old English 
name, Novane. 

The change from NuacJiongbhail to No- 
vane looks too violent, though possible, and 
I am disposed to believe that Queen 
Odhblids name still lives in the name 
" Navan." The people having lost all tra- 
dition of Heremon's repudiated queen, 
and not understanding what Odhb/ia meant, 
mistook it for Uaiinh, which has nearly the 
same sound, and which was quite applic- 
able, as the cave was there before their 
e)'es, so they prefixed the article and used 
Uamhainn (as elsewhere) for Uaiinh, the 
whole Irish name, n-Uainhainn (pronounced 
Noovan), being Anglicized to Novane, which 
ultimately settled down to Navan. But 
this is by no means certain, and until we 
discover more decided authorities, the name 
will continue doubtful and tantalizing.* 

Granard, in the county Longford, is men- 
tioned in the Tain-bo-Chiiailgnc in Leabliar- 
na-hUidhre (p. 57, col. a, line 30), a book 
written A.D. 1 100. In the text it is written 
Grdnairud, which is the oldest form of the 
name accessible to us, and a gloss imme- 
diately over the word — ".1. 5iiÁnÁ|ro m-oiu " 
("namely, Granard to-day") — identifies 
Grdnairud \\\t\\ the present Granard. More- 
over, the gloss was written at the same time 
as the text, so that the name had taken the 
form Granard 800 years ago, Grdnairud 
being a still older form. If we were profane 
enough to take liberties with this grand old 
text, we could easily, by a very slight twist, 
change Granairud to an intelligible word ; 
but there it stands, and no one can tell what 
it means. 

But a name may be plain enough as to 
its meaning — may carry its interpretation 

» <Vn llniAmÁ would seem to point to <m Uauti OwbA 
{or Oẃb..\ii), the c.ive of OJhbha— if we could get over an 
important rule of Irish Syntax. — Ed. G. J. 



on its face — and still we may not be able to 
tell what gave rise to it — why the place was 
so called. There are innumerable names 
all over the country subject to this doubt ; 
but in these cases a little more liberty of 
conjecture is allowable. Moreover, local 
inquiry among the most intelligent of the 
old inhabitants often clears up the doubt. 
Still there are hundreds of names that re- 
main, and will always remain, obscure in 
this respect. 

The name of the village of Sneem, in 
Co. Kerry, to the west of Kenmare, is a 
perfectly plain Gaelic word, and universally 
understood in the neighbourhood — Snaidlun 
(snime), a knot. The intelligent old people 
of the place say that the place got its name 
from a roundish grass-covered rock, rising 
o\er a beautiful cascade in the river just 
below the bridge, where the fresh water and 
the salt water meet. When the tide is in, 
this rock presents the appearance ol a 
snaidlun or knot over the stream. This is 
not unlikely. But there is another name 
formed from the same word — just one other 
in all Ireland, so far as I am aware — the 
origin of which it is not so easy to discover. 
This is Snimnagorta, near the village of 
Ballymore, in Westmeath, which is a real 
puzzle, though its meaning is plain enough, 
govt, or gorta, hunger or famine : Snimna- 
gorta, the knot of hunger. I will leave this 
name to exercise the imagination of the 

As an example of the doubts and diffi- 
culties attending the investigation of local 
etj'mologies, and of the extreme caution 
with which the investigator must proceed, 
this short sketch may be of some use to 
the j'ounger and less experienced students 
who are labouring to master the Irish lan- 
guage by the help of the Gaelic Journal. 

P. W. Joyce. 

" VlrlaiiJais, par son extension, sa cultiue, etl'ancien- 
nefe de ses monuments ecrits, est de beaucoup le plus 
important dts dialectes Gaelique. Sans entrer ici dans 
des details qui nous meneraient trop loin, je me bornerai 
à dire que ces monuments sont fort nombreux, qu'ils em- 
brassent I'liistoire, la philologie, la legislation, la poésie," 
&.c.—Moits. Adolphe Pictct. 


By John Fleming. 

(Translated \ivith Notes'\ by the Author 
from our First Number.) 

This century is an age of wonders. Bur- 
dens are drawn" along the roads, and land 
is ploughed by the powers of fire and water ; 
and on the sea ships are going against flood 
and tide, and against the wind too, without 
even a sail. A message in writing can be 
sent again and again round the globe in a 
quarter of an hour,= and two persons can 
discourse though separated by the breadth 
of a large city.3 Likenesses are drawn-* by 
the sun's rays in the twinkling of an eye, 
and large towns are illuminated by the 
electric light — and so with an hundred other 
things ; they are now done by processes 
that would be set down as the black arts 
some time since. And not only are new 
arts invented, and new discoveries made 
daily, but the truth is being made known 
in respect of things concernir g which people 
were heretofore in ignorance. It was 
thought ever until this century that the 
Hebrew and the Irish were kindred lan- 
guages, but every man of learning now 
knows'' that these languages arebutdistantly 
related to each other. Every scholar also . 
knows that our tongue is nearly related to 
the Latin, the Greek, the English ; to the 
tongues of Germany, France, Spain, Italy 
and the East Indies. Nearer still to the 
Irish are the Welsh, and the dialect of 
Brittany, in France ; and there is very little 
difference between our language and that 
spoken by the people of the north of Scot- 

Whilst Irishmen were thus in ignorance 
in respect of their own language, they wrote 
a great deal about it that gave scholars 
reason to ridicule them f but since its 
degree of relationship to these other lan- 
guages has been correctly ascertained, it 
has risen so high in the estimation of those 
scholars, that many of them in foreign 
countries are now engaged in learning it. 



It is a strange thing, no doubt, to see the 
savants of France, and Germany, and Italy 
— the most learned people on the globe — 
learning a language thought so little of by 
those whose native tongue it is. The lan- 
guage of Ireland is not easily learned, 
especially by those who never heard a word 
of it spoken by any human tongue. The 
people of the countries mentioned have a 
knowledge of all learning in vtorks of their 
own tongues;^ why then are they giving their 
time to the learning of a foreign language ? 
They are taking this trouble on account of 
the great treasure to be found in the lan- 
guage and literature of Ireland. These very 
great scholars esteem so highly our manu- 
script treasures, that many of them, when 
they get the opportunity, come to Ireland 
to learn Irish, instead of going to places for 
amusement, or even for the recruiting of 
their health, as other people do. During 
these last three months, there has been every 
day at the Ro\-al Irish Academy, in Dublin, 
a French gentleman who does not speak a 
word of English. No sooner are the doors 
opened to the public at midday than he is 
in the house, and from that hour until the 
doors are closed in the evening he never 
leaves off work. He is reading and writing 
Irish all that time as diligently as if his life 
depended on [the work he had done]. 

Again, the best scholars of foreign coun- 
tries are editing and publishing Irish books; 
while we, who have piles of these books 
rotting, can scarcely find a person among 
us capable of even reading them. People 
of Ireland, is this creditable to us? Shall 
we not give a helping hand to those who 
are trying to put an end to this disgrace ? 
Shall we not give a hand to those who are 
seeking to keep your country's language 
alive, and to teach it to your young people, 
so that these may hereafter be capable of 
doing the work which people of other coun- 
tries are now doing for us ? It was for these 
two purposes especially that this Gaelic 
Jounial was established. 

You will read in this Journal to-day a 
long and very important extract from the 
most influential and most widely-circulated 
newspaper in the world— 7%e Times. The 
writer of this article says : — " All, Saxons 

and Celts, will concur with the Gaelic Union 
in wishing that the Irish language may be 
preserved. No historical relics can approach 
in dignity and value an indigenous tongue." 
Still he says it is folly for those who are 
wasting their time and labour in trying to. 
keep this language alive, for the people of 
Ireland will not keep it alive for them. 
Instead of toiling thus idl\- it would be 
wisdom on the part of the Union to set 
about embalming'" their country's language 
[in order] to lay it up in some museum. 
We have relies of very high value in 
museums of this kind ; treasures of gold, 
and silver, and bronze, and a great collec- 
tion of them, and this writer thinks that the 
time has come to lay up the language of 
Erin with these relics. But we have piles 
of Irish manuscripts which scholars term 
" riches " and " treasures." Only a very 
small portion of these has been edited as 
yet — the great mass of them is still rotting 
—and not six men in Ireland capable of 
even reading them. What shall we do with 
those books ? The great scholars, spoken 
of above, would not give an inch of them 
for gold, had they owned them. Shall we 
make them a present of them, and tell them 
to do as they like with them ?" People of 
Ireland, what do you say ? Remember that 
it were a thousand times better to give 
them to any people under the sun that 
would cause them to be published, than to 
have them rot here ; and we have no other 
choice but to give away our Irish books, 
to leave them to rot, or to teach the Irish 
language to the' young people of Ireland, 
especially in the localities in which it is still in 
the mouths of young and old. Take notice 
of another thing also,'"" that there are 
portions of these old books which will never 
be understood or edited by anyone except 
by a person that has spoken Irish from his 

The French gentleman referred to above* 
is engaged in translating into French the 
Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland [The 
Annals of the Four Masters]. In three 
months' time, since he came to Ireland, he 
printed in Paris a considerable port'on of a 
book of the Annals. People of Ireland, look 

Mons, Henri Lizerai, 



at this : your own books — of the existence 
of which many of \-ou are ignorant'3 — being 
translated from Irish to French, and printed 
in a foreign country, and very few only of 
you capable of translating them to English ! 
But how shall the young people of Ire- 
land be taught to read and understand 
these old books, so that they may be able 
to edit and translate them hereafter? 
Easily. From the Foyle round to Water- 
ford most of the people have the Irish still 
in their mouths. In these districts too, 
many of the young people are so ignorant 
of English that it is idle [to attempt] to 
teach them in that language. Let such 
children be taught through the Irish [as a 
medium] at first, and they will afterwards 
be prepared to learn anything else. In 
proof of this, there will be inserted elsewhere 
in the Journal the opinions and the evidence 
of the best living authorities on all questions 
pertaining to the education of young folks. 
All these authorities say that there is but 
one sensible way of teaching children who 
do not speak English, and that is, in their 
own native language in the beginning. 
Were the children who speak Irish thus 
taught in the beginning, they would learn 
all other branches of knowledge well ; they 
would all read and understand Irish, and 
the gifted among them would acquire a 
knowledge of the language such as the 
Germans now acquire, and even a better 

Again, hundreds of the people of Ireland 
spend years in learning the language of 
Greece, and thousands of our youths and 
maidens devote great portions of a year or 
two to learning French, and all this fruit- 
lessly. In a short time the Greek is com- 
pletely forgotten ; and not one out of every 
three of the thousands who are so long at 
French could speak ten words to a French- 
man without making him shrug his 
shoulders, in spite of his politeness. Those 
who have talent, and time, and means — let 
these drain the fount of knowledge dry."» 
But it is folly for those who can remain but 
a short time at school to spend any part of 
that time skimming [running on the top of] 
the language of France, or such other 
branches of learning. There are pleasure 

and profit to be derived from knowing even 
a little Irish, and it is not a little of it any 
person would know who should devote to 
it as much time as is devoted every year 
uselessly by the thousands referred to above. 
There is no quarter of Ireland a person goes 
to in which he will not hear the name of a 
town, or river, or mountain, or plain, in 
Irish, and surely it is pleasant to be able to 
understand the meanings of these names. 
And so with many other things — a person 
who knows Irish can derive pleasure from 

Surely a journal devoted altogether to 
the preservation and reviving of your own 
language is a novelty in this century, and 
in the last quarter of it. People of Ireland, 
if you give a willing hand to those who are 
issuing this journal, there is no danger that 
the Irish language will die in this century, 
or in the next. But you must treat them 
with consideration and generosity. It is a 
proverbial saying amongst you that use 
makes mastery, and the practice of writing 
in Irish has not been in use among the 
people of Ireland for a longtime ; but they 
are now learning this art hard and fast. 
There is another difficulty in the way ; 
there are no Irish names for new inventions 
or discoveries : but surely this is the case 
with the English also. Telegraph, teleplione, 
geometry, and such other terms, are not 
English, and no language in the world is 
better adapted than the Irish to give its 
own appearance to borrowed words. 

As the Gaelic Union is now calling on 
you, men of Ireland, so did Hugh MacCur- 
tin call out loudly to the Irishmen of a 
century and a half since. He thus ad- 
dressed them : — 

" Nobles of beautiful Erin ; Blood of .ifTectionate genera- 
Cast off your lethargy at once ; [Help me] to urge on the 
earnest publication of youi: books. " 

He complained of the nobles in these 
following sad lines : — 

" Heavy the stupor that has seized you ; And also your 
wives and sons, 
Forgetting the old tongue of your ancestors, The en- 
lightened discourses of your ' fathers.'" 

The ancestor of }-our President, the 
Venerable Charles O'Conor, of Bellenagar 



attended to this appeal of the poet, but 
very few more of the nobles of beautiful 
Erin paid any heed to it. The poet also 
appealed to the English, saying — 

vho have acquired 

" I also beseech the candid 1 
a knowledge of all learning." 

I do not know whether it was to the 
English in Ireland or to the inhabitants of 
England he appealed, but he got a hearing 
from Dr. Johnson and Edmund Burke, from 
Henry Flood and General Valiancy, just 
as the Union to-day are getting a hearing 
and assistance too from people who are not 
of the Irish race.* 

Some time ago we appealed to our kins- 
men in the north of Scotland, and we now 
again appeal to them. Ours is the same 
language with that at the other side of the 
Moyle ; we have the same feats and the 
same superstitions. A century ago there 
were two poets of a high order contempo- 
raries — Robert Burns, in the Scottish High- 
lands, and Brian Merriman, in the county 
of Clare, in Ireland. Each of these poets, 
about the same time, wrote a poem — the 
Irishman wrote the " Midnight Court," and 
the Scotchman " Hallow-E'en." The fol- 
lowing lines are in the " Court " : — 

" None of these times was I content to sleep, 
Without a hnse-full of herbs under my ears ; 
For devotion's sake to fas'. I never liked, 
Vet for my three meals I swallowed not bit or sup ; 
]\Iy inner garment against the stream I drew, 
Expecting to hear my (future) spouse whisper me 

when sleeping ; 
To sweep the stack oft-times did I repair. 
My nai's and hair being left beneath the embers ; 
Tae flail in the gable corner oft I place 1, 
And the spade beneath my pillow silently ; 
In the small drying-kiln cell I put my distaft, 
And the thread wound from off it in MacRannall's 

lime-kiln ; 
Flax-seed I sowed in the middle of the street, 
In my straw shake-down I put a liead of cabbage." 

Let our readers compare these lines with 
these stanzas of " Hallow-E'en " which 
Burns wrote.-f- How was it that these poets 
chanced to describe the same spells in their 
poems? Neither of them had ever seen 
the poem written by the other. The Gaels 

* It was "from, the generous and candid part of 
the inhabitants of Great Britain " that he hoped for a 
" favourable reception " for tlie dictionary which he had 
then in the press. 

t Quoied in Gadic Journal, No. i, p. 5. 

at the two sides of the channel have kept 
their magic spells and their other customs, 
together with their language, for thirteen 
centuries, and surely they will not now 
allow this language to be lost. The Welsh 
language is in the mouths of all those to 
whom it is the native tongue, and shall the 
Gaels of Ireland and Scotland be without a 
word of their own noble language? Far 
from the Scotic race be this shame, but 
may the light [the moon] of Sanihain shine 
benignly, and the kindly breezes of Sam- 
ham blow upon them as they stand shoulder 
to shoulder for their native tongue. 

' The form AgA in the original written in various 
« a\ s — ŵjA, öga 5A — and as such cons ructions are 
st ange to begmners perhaps it iin\ I e w ell to refer them 
for an explanation of such f r I Irish 

Gram 1 ar p 116 117 Perl 1 ono- 

\insGamiia is out of punt well 

to q lotc the fol on ng fi tl j j - 

In the mo lern lan'^ a com- 

b ned « th the pre( e |uentl) placed 

before a -1 erbal roun c \erbal noun 

has tl e foice of the a 1 t pos essuely in 

Engl sh asCojiuev s c ^ I e hou e is b Hid- 
ing or a I Iding c\ ŵn ob s'^ gA ■oe\tnm the work 
5 ao I 1 a do ng 01 being done coiitj | \-o ja 
n eilLj-o the) aie bein^, decei ea F r - tl ese in- 

stances many vv r ters put x> \ o\ I con- 

sidered a c rrect as 50 -o uero nnc<\, 

unt 1 i e goes to «allow m tl P i ! 

OA-ocojsiMi to summon tl ^ o ■o'Á 

16*15^1) >ein jjiim si ma 7 o / p Ij Some- 
times n this CO istruct n the \erbal noun is not passive, 
asr\i ., 1 1 u \L.i-o I e is a still ing me 1 terallj he 
s at n ) St il mg an c eu^i-oci 1 \u\ vj \' up 
nAh aci.,reoi b the it 1 1 bcin^ exerc sed 

against 1 s inhabitan s A /V / <\cato 

UŵLa s>- is^TDr ]i 5 1 la 1 i^^ie a draw- 
ng or 1 I J n V i 1 o gh -o a la not c itically 
c 1 1] the Munst r t>ro to substitute it 
1 m the several passages \here 
tl 1 urs This construct on is found 
tr J, b 1 1 they are better masters of it uy 
learnin^ ill t n i fc ; í to it in Dr Joyce s Grammar 
In a quartet of an hour of the clock 

3 Literally ' talk to lo with each other, and the bieadth 
of a large town between them." 

* Instead of saying I was ruined, 'oo cy^&&cxò me, 
Edmund of the Hills said I was made to ruin, tjo iMniieAW 
me cpeac ; instead of saying directly, ■00 buŵib pe me, 
he struck me, 00 pinne pe niebiu\loiT), he made to strike 
me. is more generally said ; i.e., instead oi' u-ing any verb, 
the corresponding part of the verb to do with the infinitive 
of that verb is employed ; ■oéaiicŵp loiiuijo x>o ẃeo,ll5a-ó 
forxjeubbcAp lomaige [images are made to delineate, in- 
stead of images are delineated]. In construing such 
phrases translate; the verb infinitive in the voice, mood, 
and tense of ■oéiii, to do, disregarding this latter verb. 

5 "■OomeoippAi'ôe ibeic 'nonipaoigeAcc, that would be 
thought to be [in its] black art." (Dr. Joyce's Gr., p. 133, 
sect. 42.) 



' l^- col T)0, it is l<nown to ; literally, it is a knowledge 

' " An<l it i- \. I'.- ';il ■ iliat it is not the same language 
that is With ; 

' '■ l-'aii- ■ . ' r them." 

9 ^\rÁ pi !]• c ■ ■ ; ! ;im a Le f Ág^vil, a knowledge of all 
learning is to be had (Gr., p. in, rule II.) 

"■ 1ce, an embalming, a balm : ciii\ in ice, or cinv in 
loca. toembalin. 

" Make good or bad of them. 

" T3e..\j\ó, atlentinii. .-.] , , !■. n, rjbûip yÁ ■oeinó, 

also si^nilies /tf t-ií.vt- ■ . r. Perhaps AH^e, 

heed: r.OjAip 1-V\ti' .mj- i;, i;ii,ler thy heed, is pro- 
bably the oiiginid loiUi .-I L.,|.U, t,-.,. 

■Î llAC re.^r [^v"-Tl «'J'li. ih--il 'lo iT't li'i""' ; merally, 
" that it is not knowledge to them," uto -do Vieic Ann no 
A]', whether tliey are in existence or not ; literally, ihcy 
to be in it or out of it (Joyce's Gr., p. 113, par. 20, and 
end of par. 42, p. 134). 

" " T3ifc, dry, run dry, as a spring well, or a cow ; ' ■00 
cuJTO An riobA)\ .\n-t>ii-c,' the well has run dry (Kilk.) " 
O'Don., App. It is equally in use in Waterford [-oic- 

Errata and Omissions. 
The spelling ■D|\eo5A-ô should be substituted for ■oiẃg.s 

wherever the word occurs. 
In last line, page i, for foglunn read fojluiin. 
„ 1st „ „ 2, „ CAicejm „ cAifiiii. 
„ I2th „ „ 2, insert a. cÁ after ■0|\oiii5. 
„ 23rd „ „ 2, ,, nAh-eii\einn after muinci] 
„ aSth „ „ 2, „ An before ccAnrA. 

cóiiiRúiüue -oeijbeiis^vcvV: iinii. 2. 

ŵì\\ n-ô j-gpiobAÓ 1 SiCi-bein\l,A Lei)- An »Acaii\ pÁTi|\Aic 

llA CAOtiii, Ó <.\)TO-ýAii\ce CAii'il ; 

Aju)- Ai]-t3)\igce 50 bAe-ôilig le SeÁjAn pléimion. 

•Oo 5]tÁü Á]t 5-Cóiiuini'An. 

1)-iiK\n ]-o -D'AictieocAi-o 1K\ ■OAOiiie iiile 
^u]\ ^b -oeii-ciobAil •OAiiiiVN I'lb, iiiÁ bnJCAnn 
5)>Á-ó ẃjAib ):éin •o'Á céile (IIaoiìi Coni, 
xiii. 35). 

1]' é cóiiiA]\cA "oili]- All ỳíoi\-Cnío|TAit)e 
5|\Á-ò üo beic Aije ■o'á cüiìiii)1)\\iii : "1]' iiia]\ 
fo," A]\ Ci\ío]-c, "■o'<\icneocAit) iiA ■OAOinie 
gup ẃb -oeii-ciobAib ■OAtii^w fib, niÁ bi-óeAnn 
5|\Á-ó AgAib yeín «'A céile." 1p Lei]' Ati 
5-cóiiiA]icA ]"o ■o'Aicm 11A pÁjÁnAije iia 
CeAu-Citio^'CAijce : "peiic iia C]iio]'CAi5t:e 

l'O," AT)01]tlT)l)', " All 511Á-Ó ACÁ ACA 'o'Á célle." 

X)o nieA]'pAibe iiac jiAib aca acc aoii c)\oi-óe 

Agll]' AOll A11A111 AlÌlÁlll. "OO lUJIle C]\Ì01X 

i:éin cú]\Ain Áinijce -oe'ti ceAcc ]-o iia ca)\- 

CAllACCA -00 CeAJAfg X)' ò. luCT) leAllAlÌlllA 

50 ieip : " ^]- 1 i-o iii'Aiciie-p." aji i"e, " 50 
iii-beiweA-o 511Á-Ò AjAib "o'Á céile 111 a]! -oo bi' 
AgAiii-fA tDib-fe." (llAoiii eoni, XV. 12.) 
" 5l'Ái'òeoÔAni> cu -oo cóîiiuiifA 111 aji cu ^-eín " 
(tlAorii ÎÌIÁCA, xxii. 39.) 5l'<^'óui5''ô bun 
tiAiriit)e, -oeAriAni) niAic noib ^-o ỳuAciitjeAiiti 
I'lVj. beAnmiiji-ô iau ]'o uo liiAj-linjeAiin 
]'ib, A^u)' juibró 0)\)\A ]'o ■00 CÁ1110A1111 i'ib." 
(11. UiCAf, vi., 27, 28.) 11Í nAib llAoiii eoiti 

l'ÁI'CA AOll Alll ACC ÍUIAIH bfoeAt) ]'e Ag 

feAiiniói)\ Ain 511Á-Ó bnÁicneAiiiAil; 111 a 
feAii-AOif, nuAi]i nAC ]tAib ye Ai)t a cuniA)' 
l'eAncuf pAüA "00 ■òéAnA'ó 'o'Á luct) étj'ce- 
ACCA, -00 fÁfuijeA-ó yé é yéììi lei)- aii 
ngeAitii-ceAjA]-^ i'O : "A b|\Áic|\e, bfoeAV 
5|iÁ-ó AjAib -o'Á céile." -1^5111' inu\i]i 
T)'ýiA|.']\iii j ■ounie iiniiiiceA|TOA iJe choat) 
yÁ é beic A5 Ac-nÁ-ó 11 A ]'eAiiiiiüHA ]'o coiii 
11111110 i'iii, ■o'i.-]ieA5Ai|i ]-e, no jiéin IIaohìi 
1e)ióiii : "1]- Aicne •o'AiceAiicAib aii üijcahiia 
511Á-Ó Áji 5-cóiiniiirAii, Agii]- 1]- leo]! coníi- 
líoiiAt) iiA li-Airne yo ciini iia bcACA 
]io|iiiniie." -^-^SMr wneiit IIaoiìi pöt : 
" CóiiiiLi'oiicA]i An •oil je 50 \.l'ì\\ 111 aoii )^'ocaL 
AiiiÁin : 5HÁi-óeocAi-ó cii -oo cóiìui]1|-a itiA|i cii 
Véiii." (5aI. V. 14.) 

11 í yéit)in "OiA •00 jIlATJUJAt) 5AII All 
cóiiuipi'A -OA jiiÁ-óuJA'ò. SgníobAiiii IIaoiìi 
G0111 : "111Á ■oei]i A011 ■011111 e, cÁ jiiÁt» ajaiii 
■00 "ÓiA, Ajiip yuAC Aije -d'a bpÁCAin, ij' 
■oiinie bjieujAC é. Ói]i aii cé iiAc iigitÁ-óin- 
jeAiiii A bnÁcAip A ciu -j^e ciAiino]" ìy yeixiiy 
■QÓ "OiA X)o jjiAuu^At) TiAC b-j-'eiceAiin ye." 
(1.11. eoiii, iv. 20.) A-^uy A]\iy: "An cé 
iiAc iijiiÁ-óiiijeAiin cóiiimiijeAiiii ye 1 111-bÁ]-." 

(1.11. eoin, iii. U.) A^u] 

111 llAOlÌl 

^Xjuii'dn leij- yo, 50 b-|.-iiil ■ouine •oe'n 
c-i'AiiiAil -|-o iiiAnb, 111 li-é AiiiÁiii -00 cionn 
c]\eiicc peACAib cnoiiii tio beic ai|\, acc yóy 
■oe bpij 50 b-):uii yneuiii aii iiile joeACAit) 

CU)ICA 111 A AIIAIII. 5^^" Sr^^b T)o'll C()lÌU1|l]'A1t1 

11Í ỳitil Aon liiAic 1 lÁcAip X)i' 111 ii]\iuii5e 11Á 
1 ii-neinc, )1Á 1 ]"AC]iAiiiiiiicib, 11Á 111 íüt)bAt]\c. 



•dt)et]> "OiA 50 ]-oilLéiii : " llnne I'ln, mÁ 
coiiibifieAiin cu -oo CAbAjirA)- A15 ah aLcói)i, 
A511]' gup cuiiiiin iev\c Aim ]'ú-o 50 b-puiL 
Aon ni-o A15 •00 bnÁcAi)\ ax)' coinne, itaj Ann 

]-ÚT) ■DO CAbwUCAf 1 l,ÁCA1]l nA 1i-aIcÓ]\ac 

Ajuf iincij Aip ■o-cúp Aguf -oéAn Ac-iiium- 
ceA]TOA|' Leti' b|u\CAi|i, ajuj' ai|\ •o-rcAcc 
•ouic Ann pn üéAniTAit) cu t)o CAbAncA]' no 
coinbi]\c." (tlAoiii niÁcA V. 23, 24.) "OÁ n- 
•oéAn]:A'ó ]"ib blip iiiAOin 50 téi]! x>o ]ioinn 
cum nA boicc a cocúgA-ó, ŵjuf -oÁ n--oéAn].-At) 
y\h biin 5-coi)\p -oo cAbAi]ic le n-A Ioi'ja-ò, 

5)\A-0 ŴJAID "00 


1' 5- 


nil Aon CAijibe -óíb Ann. " !)■ é An jpÁ-ó," 
A]! IIagiìi <\inb]\ó]-, " piieuiii jac 'oeij- 

v\noi]' c)ieAü e Aii ]iiajaiI a üá lei]' aii 
b-irioii-jpAb b|iÁic]\eAiiiAit ì C\\e<\x) iy 
■oeAlb ■Do'n b-fioii-jiiÁ-ó yo ? ^■oei]! 11aoiìi 
póL 50 in-bA-ó cói|i vo 5)iÁ-ó nA coiiiApj-An 
A beic üeAlbûA Aip An ngjiAr) aju)' ah 
g-cóiiii-ceAiigAl A rÁiüi)! bALlAib An coii\ij 
•OAon-OA. "!]• Aon aii comD A15 a b-puiL 
iiiónÁn ne bAllAib. . . . 1]' eAt» Cnio]"C 
TiiA]-, An 5-ceu-onA." (1 Co]i. xii. 12.) 111ah 
riijAin bAili An coi]ip 50 léi]i congnAt) aju]- 
CAbAiji 50 li-AoncAmAil d'a céile, iiia]i aii 
j-ceuDnA bA-ó cóin ■oo b^lLAib ah cini-ó 

■OAOnüA COnjllAt) AJUJ- CAbAl]\ X)0 CAbAlHC 

50 h-AoncAiiiAiL td'á céile. Iía-ó cóip -ouinn, 
Ai)i An A-obA]! ]-in, ]:ói)ii5in A^]\ An eAfbA-OAC, 
l'ólÁ)' ■00 cu)! Ai|i An -ouine ■oqiIjio]-ac, 
jiii-óe Ai)i ]-on iiA 5-cionncAC ; 111 aoii ýocAl 
i|' eijm miinn ciì|\Am üo ■óéAnAi) ■o'áh 5- 

CÓlTIU]lfAin. X)0 ClllH "OlA Clì)lAtll A cóiini]!- 

]-An Ai]i jAC n-üume AjAinn. bAb cói|i 
■oúnin cúnAin •oo -óéAnAt) n'-x AiiAin coiii inAic 
be n-A co)i]3. v\ -oein IIaoiìi be]\nÁiTO, aj 
c]iÁcc Ai]\ An g-cúiiAiii i'o : "üiiiceAnn An 
c-ai'aI A51.1]' CÓ5CAH jAn nioill é; CAillceA)! 
AnAin, Ajuj' ní cni]ieAnn Aon neAC l'iséi]' 

-ajii)-, bA-ó ceAnc -00 511Á-Ó A)! 5-coiini]ii-An 
A beic coj-AiiiAil leii' An njjiÁb a cá AgAinn 
■oiìmn yém. -düÁ jiiAb An •oume -óó i.-éin 
pop A^u]^ ion]\<\ic; acá ye cAOin, buAn, 

gníoiiiAc; 1]- é a Leicéit) x>e jliÁt) i]- ceA]\r 
■oúinn A beit AjAinn X)'Â]\ ^-cómuyyMfí. II1 
ceAnc wìinn olc -oo néAnAt) -oo m a peA|i- 
]'Ain, in A liiAom, nÁ in a clú : bA-ô ceA]\c 
•oúinn A liiAic •o'iAjiiiŵi-ó, Ajiif tAbAi]\c 50 
TTiAic Ai]\ ; bA-ô ceAHC -oviinn giti-oe Aiji Aj-on, 
Asuf 1 g-coiiinuTOe congnAii) ■00 cAbAipc tdó, 
coiii 1TIAIC aY if yemip iinn, in a juAccAnAp 
AUAm A a']- coinp. IDa-ó ceAHC -oiimn ■oéAnA-ô 
■ÓÓ iTiAH bATJ 111 Ale binn é-]'eAn 'oo ■óéAnAt) 
■óúmn. "HIah but) iiiaic bib," Ap Cjiioj-r, 
" -oAoine no ueAnAU nib, néAnAin-pi iiiah An 
5-ceunnA noib-feAn." (11. IIIÁca, vii. 12.) 
bA-ó CÓ1J1 núinn Áy j-cóiinijifA nojiiÁnúJAn, 
111 be bjuACAU nÁ lei]' An ceAnjAin, acc be 
gnioiii Ajup le p'unme. 

■pÁ úeoij, bAt) ceAjic n'Á|i njnÁn n'A]! 
5-cóiiiu)i)-Ain A beic co]-aiíiaiI le 5]>á-ó 
C]iío]'C niiinne. "1]-']-An [nin] fo i]- Aicnin 
niiinn jiiÁn "Oé, ne bjiij 50 n-cuj ye a AnAin 
yéin Ai]! Á)> ]"on, ajii]' bAn cói|\ ni'inme, iiiAji 

All 5-CeiinnA, A)! n-AlUMIl no tAbAl|\C Al]! fOll 

Á|i n-neAiib]iÁcAH." (I. Gom, iii. 16.) "Oo 
jliÁniiij Ciiio]-c I'inn 1 n-uiA A511]' ai]\ -j-on 
"Oé; uiiiie ]-in bAn cóip núinne Áy j-cóiii- 
ii|i]-A no jjiAnuJAn 1 n-TDiA Ajuf Aiji yon X)é. 
CAicpn 5HÁt) Á]! 5-cóiiuinp\n ceACC ó jjuxn 
"Oé, CAicpn ye yÁy Ay iiiAji n'^Aj-Ann cpAnn 
Ay All b-pneiiiii. 

Hi ]:ulÁi)i númn 5|iÁn a beic AjAinn no'n 
cmeAn nAonnA 50 leiji, ini]\ olc aju]- iiiaic 
iiiAii no bi A15 C)iio]-c. Hi b-i.-inl Aon leic- 
leACA)' le neAiiAt) niob ^^o iiac b-yuil n'Aon- 
cuemeAiii Imn, nA yóy niob ]"o no neAiiAim 
olc op]\Ainn. CAicpimin jjiAn Abeic AjAinn 
nóib yo no neAUAnn níojbÁil núinn cóiii 
niAic leiy An niiomj le]\ Ab loniiiuni y\nu : 
"Óin," Anein Cnio]-c, " iiiÁ cÁ 5]>An AjAib 
no'n nnomg a ^iiÁnuijeAy pb c]\eAn é ah 
liiAineAcn a jeAbAin pb ; nAC n-né AnAin 
nA puibliocÁiiAitje pém ah nib po?" (11. 
111 ÁCA, V. ■!().) 1]- iiiAic le "OiA 5]<Á-ù A beic 
AjAiim n'Á]\ iiAiiiinib coiii iiiaic le n-Á)i 
5-cÁi)inib. " 5l'>ibui jn) huy nAiiiroe," a]1 
C]iio|'c, "néAnAin iiiaic no'n n]\oin5 
n'ýuAcuijeAf pb, A-^uy guinin aiji yon ha 



•o|\oin5e A •ôéAnAi' in jneim aju]- cúlcAinc 
oiiiiAiV (11. 1T1ÁCA, V. 44.) 111 Á "00 pijne 
•oo cótinin];A •oi'ojbAiL t)ib, aju]' niÁ liiA^'Unj 
I'e ]-\h, cuimniji-ó 511)1 iiiA]'Uii5 ]'e "Oia cóiii 
iiió]\ ccuTinA, Aju)' 1 ■b-yA-o nio]' inó ; ai)i a 
foil |-in, ACÁ 5I1Á-D A15 "OiA ■ÔÓ ; ciieAt) y-s, 
<\i]\ All A-obA]» ]-m, iiAC in-bci-oeAt) jliÁb 
A5Aib-]'e -óó 111AH All j-ceu-oiiA? CÁ 51"aii 
"Oé AjcAiciieAiii Ai]i All b-yi]ieiin Ajuf aiji aii 
j-cioiincAc ; ú iitnjeAiin i:eA|\cAiiin "Oé aii 
neiiiicionncAc Ajuf ah peACAC : acá JHÁb 
"Oé 11 line ]'iii Ag leACAW aiiiac aiji a iiAiiiAit». 
An b-puil I'e 10111AIICA fint A beic 50 
iijHÁiẃeocA-ô I'lb-i'e ah cé 'o'Á b-fuit JliÁ-ó 


A b]\Áir]ieACA 1110 c]\oi-òe, if bAoJAl 


b»r V^ 


iiUl'Aii ! I]- bAOJAb tioni 50 b--i.-iiiliiiiT) 

110-CAbA]lüA TIO CÚbcAlllC, a']' 'OO CÁltieẃt) a')' 

•00 ■tn'oiiiolAT) Aji 5-cómu]i]'An. nío]\ 
b'ýéi-oin be 11aoiìi -Á^inixín i\AtiA]\c yì\\ 11 a 
cúbcAince ■o'ýulAiij. "bibeAb iia b|\iAriiA 
fo ]~5]iiobtA A]i iini]i A p)ioiiinci5 : " 11Í 
b--piiib jAbÁib be buct) ci'ibcAinre A15 ah 
iii-bó]ro ]-o." CioiiiiruijeAiin aii Sginbmn 
"OiA-LiA All 5obAi]\eYiiAb)iiArnAibi]']'oilbéi)\e 
Aiji bic: " "OOAiipAnJ Ati 5obAi|\e a aiiaiii 
yéìn A ciiUAibbniJA-ó, Ajuf bei-ó 5)iÁin Aiji A15 
All iiile ■óuine : Agup beiw ah cé vo coiii- 
iniijeAf iiiAille bei]' jnÁineAtiiAib : CAbA)i- 
yA|\ oiiói]! -oo'ii •ouine cnini ciAbliiiA]i." 
(ecclti]- XS.Í. 3L) " 1]- é ycA]\ ha ciib-cAince 
•oubjiiÁiii iiA n-T3Aoine." (Scaiiii. xxiv. 9.) 
.Auei]! llAOtii L15ÓH1 50 iieAiiieAjlAc : " -AcÁ 

All -OlAbAlb 1 111-betlb All re ÌAbjlA]- 50 llCAlil- 
CA]ẂA11AC A]! A CÓlÌU1|ll-A1tl, AJU]' 1 J-cluA- 

pAib All re -o'eii-ceA]' bei]-." 

V)lO-Ó JHÁtl AJAIlin Ulllie I'Hl Al]! Á]\ 5-CÓIÍI- 

A]\fAin — SliAu p'on 1011)11110. IDi'o-ô 5)iÁt) 
AjAinii "00, iiiA)i A benieAt) ajaihii ai)i ah cé 

rÁ ■OÓAIirA 111 lOlllAlj A5II)" 1 5-C0)'AlilbACC 

X)6, Aju]' yiu\]~5Aibce le ):iiit iíió)\liiAi5 1o)'a 
C)\iu|-c. bidb 5|iÁX) A5A11111 VÓ 111AH A 
benJcAt) Aj^Aiiiii A1)\ All cé no c)n.iciii5eA-ó 
iiiAji )-nin i-'eiii ctiiii )iAẂA)\c "Oe f-eAbbu5A-ô 
ẃi)i ycM) 11A )'io)\unJeAcCA ! 


It is a healthy sign of the movement for 
the preservation of the Irish language that 
such heavy demands are made upon our 
space this month, by accounts of important 
and interesting proceedings by which the 
cause it is the sole object of this Journal to 
advance has been and will be greatly for- 

Notwithstanding the enlargement of the 
present number, we are reluctantly obliged 
to hold over some valuable literary contri- 
butions without even being able to allude 
to them. Amongst others, the instalment 
of Canon Bourke's Irish Life of Archbishop 
MacHale has had to be held back for ne.\t 
number, when we will be able to do it 
justice, as the rev. author has placed a very 
large portion of the work in our hands in 

The importance of the proceedings in 
relation to the Irish language at the late 
Congress of National Teachers requires 
their being fully, and without undue delay, 
placed before our readers. Though for 
many years the Congress has passed reso- 
lutions in favour of the teaching of Irish, 
and the removal of the restrictions which 
impede its progress in the schools, yet this 
is the first occasion on which the subject 
was discussed at a public meeting— one of 
the most influential ever called together 
under the auspices of that important body. 
The impetus given to our movement by 
the hearty interest there manifested in the 
resolution adopted, and in the able speeches 
and addresses in support of it, can scarcely 
be over-estimated. 

The " List of Subscribers" has had again 
to be held over. 

We are also obliged to defer noticing the 
English translations of Prof. Windisch's 
Grammar, to which reference was made last 
month. The second translation has since 
been published by Messrs. Gill & Son, of 
Dublin. Both versions are, wc believe, due 
to Irishmen, and good Celtic scholars ; but 
is is pleasing to see that this work has now 
been issued by an Irish firm in a style 
I which, it is sufficient to say, fairly rivals 



that of the issue from the great English 

Mr. M. J. Shanasy, an Irishman, now of 
Bedford, England, editor of a new journal, 
"The Phonographic Reporter " (published 
by F. Pitman, 20 Paternoster-row, London), 
and which has now seen its second number, 
has, in his editorial address, stated his " in- 
tention to reproduce in phonographic 
characters, from time to time, passages 
written in the Celtic tongues." He has 
also, in his first number, given a very ap- 
preciative review of this Journal, and has 
moreover been so kind as to favour us with 
a copy of his remarks, transcribed in vulgar 
" long-hand," which will be found else- 

The following is the full text of our pre- 
liminary Circular relative to the establish- 
ment of this Journal. A very useful form 
for enrolling subscribers' names, addresses, 
and amount of donations, which accom- 
panied the Circular, will be found among 
the advertisements in this number. We 
have been asked by several friends to re- 
print the Circular in the columns of our 
Journal, so that it may be preserved in a 
permanent form. We need scarcel}' remind 
intending subscribers that though the date 
mentioned for sending in subscriptions is 
now long past, the Circular loses none of its 
force in appealing to those who have not 
yet come forward to do so without delay. 
Their names and addresses may be written 
on the accompanying form, and will be 
gladly enrolled on our List of Subscribers, 
even at this period, so long past the eleventh 

To the Members oi the Gaelic Union 
and of kindred bodies, who have, with more 
or less interest, watched the progress of the 
movement for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language since its inception, in 1876, by 
some of the founders of this Journal, it is 
not necessary to state that from the first the 
establishment of a periodical exclusively de- 
voted to the work they had in hand was 
among their most cherished objects, was 
always considered as one of the very best 
means towards the end in view, and, from 
their first provisional Circular, seeking for 

advice and assistance, down to their latest 
pamphlet, the project has been kept con- 
stantly before the public, until at length it 
has become a reality. The claim the Gaelic 
Journal has upon the country for support 
need not therefore be based upon any special 
efforts during the last few months, nor is 
the idea of founding such a periodical by 
any means new, though some, whose connec- 
tion with the movement and knowledge of 
the work previously done is but of yesterday, 
may be inclined to think so. 

The Circular itselt states this, and fairly 
begins " at the beginning " of the story it 
has to tell. It recounts how, owing to the 
developments of the movement in direc- 
tions hardly dreamed of at first, the atten- 
tion of those able and eager to work for the 
cause was diverted to other literary labour, 
of which they may still be honestly proud, 
and so the project remained in abeyance, 
though it never ceased to be urged from 
both within and without the small circle 
with whom it originated. 

The anxiety of that small circle to set 
such a work on foot urged them to take ad- 
vantage of the friendly feeling of the con- 
ductors of certain weekly periodicals, who 
permitted Members of the Gaelic Union 
Council to establish and conduct " Gaelic 
Departments," by which much good service 
was done. 

We cannot introduce the Circular to 
those who as yet have not seen it, those who 
know nothing of the progress of the move- 
ment, and those who are perhaps scarcely 
aware of its existence, better than by quoting 
what is said on the subject in the pamphlet 
issued by the Gaelic Union in 1881 — 
copies of which may still be had on appli- 
cation. We read therein : — 

"A Gaelic Journal. 

" The want of a means of communication 
between classes and associations cultivating 
the Gaelic Language has long been felt. 
The Gaelic Union would be glad to make 
arrangements to meet this requirement by 
establishing a cheap periodical which, with 
other matter, might contain information on 
the progress of the movement, and be de- 
voted to the cultivation of the language. A 


preliminary step has been made in this 
direction by forwarding to persons believed 
to be interested in this subject a circular, of 
which the following is a cop)- : — 


"Dublin, 2gt/i Jan., 1881. 
" Dear Sir, — -With the object of obtain- 
ing information on the advisability of es- 
tablishing a Gaelic Journal, you are respect- 
fully requested to answer the following 
queries, viz. : — 

" I. — Have you a Gaelic class or associa- 
tion established ? If not, could you 
organize one ? 
" 2. — Would )-ou advise the project of es- 
tablishing a Gaelic Journal ? If so, 
how often should it appear ? What 
matter should it contain ? What 
price should be charged for it ? 
" 3. — By adopting your suggestions as far 
as possible, what support would you 
give it, and be likely to obtain for 

" Requesting the favour of a reply, 
" I remain, dear Sir, 

" Yours very sincerely, 
" J. E. Nolan. 

" All those who take an interest in the cul- 
tivation and preservation of the grand old 
language of Ireland, and under whose no- 
tice this circular may come, are respectfully 
and earnestly requested to treat it as if per- 
sonally addressed to themselves. Each one 
should act, according to circumstances, 
as if success depended on his individual 

In answer to the above, many favourable 
replies have been received, good suggestions 
have been made, promises of literary and 
pecuniary assistance have been given, and 
not a few have guaranteed a pound or two 
annually in support of the Journal, besides 
undertaking to be regular subscribers and 
canvassers. This is very encouraging, but 
more is required. If the project of estab- 
lishing a Gaelic Journal fail, it will not be 
for want of willing hands and gratuitous 

" Gaelic in Dublin Journals. 

" The Gaelic Union has been for a con- 
siderable time conducting a 'Gaelic Depart- 
ment' in the Irishman and Shanu'ock ; 
'Lessons in Gaelic' in Youn^ Ireland; 
and a 'Grammar Course' in the Irish 
Teachers' Journal The Irishman and 
Shamrock contain original Gaelic prose and 
poetry, translations into Gaelic, &c. ; the 
' Lessons in Gaelic ' are a course of self- 
instruction, simple, easy, and progressive ; 
the ' Grammar Course ' appearing at inter- 
vals, entirely in Gaelic, is intended for ad- 
vanced students. Besides these, ' Gaelic 
Departments ' are conducted in the Tiiam 
Nczos and Cork Examiner weekly. The 
success attending these efforts to spread a 
knowledge of the language is satisfactor)', 
and the example might be followed with 

Since the establishment of this journal, 
the necessity for the " Gaelic Departments " 
has, in great measure, ceased : that in the 
Irishman, being the only one remaining, 
save the oldest of all, the Tuam Netvs, 
which continues to collect varied and in- 
teresting Gaelic Relics in its columns. The 
following is the Circular alluded to : 


For the Preservation and Cultivation of the 
Irish Language. 

Patron.— Wis Grace the Most Rev. T. W. 
Croke, D.D., Archbishop of Cashel. 

President. — Right Hon. the O'Conor Don, 
B.C., D.L., M.R.I.A. 

19 Kildare-street, Dublin, 
14^ September, 1SS2. 

" The Gaelic Union Journal." 
Dear Sir, — Before the Members of the 
Gaelic Union commenced work for the for- 
mation of the " Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language," during their connec- 
tion with that Society, and especially since 
they founded the Gaelic Union, lately 
organized as a regularly constituted Society, 
they were encouraged, and, in fact, re- 



peatedly urged by many friends of the 
movement, to establish a periodical devoted 
exclusively to the cultivation of the Irish 

Their own conviction has always been 
that such a publication would be not only 
a desideratum, but a necessity, if the work 
they had in hand was to be carried out with 
vigour and success, and the members as 
well as the general public kept informed of 
what was being done, and instructed and 
encouraged to persevere in the study of the 
language through a medium specially de- 
voted to these ends, instead of being, as at 
present, dependent on the scant and precari- 
ous favour of daily and weekly papers, 
which, bjing devoted to other objects, could 
not be expected to give to this movement 
that attention and support which its friends 
feel to be right and necessar)'. Besides, they 
cannot fail to perceive that by making use 
of any special existing periodical as the 
organ of the Irish Language movement, 
they would run the risk of seeing what is 
truly and necessarily a national and patrio- 
tic endeavour, knowing no distinction of 
creed or party, become identified with the 
religious or political views of the conductors 
of that particular paper, and to a great 
measure restricted to its supporters. 

Though from the first convinced of the 
great value and importance of the project 
of founding a Gaelic Journal, their attention 
has been for a long time absorbed by their 
work in connection with other departments 
of the movement, such as introducing and 
fostering the language in the schools, pro- 
ducing text-books suited to the Celtic pro- 
grammes of the Educational bodies, forming 
a Prize Fund for the encouragement of 
Gaelic students, and many other duties 
arising out of the unhoped-for developments 
of the work they inaugurated, which it has 
been their good fortune to witness, and to 
have taken so large a part in. 

As soon as they felt that something had 
been done towards supplying the wants 
thus created, the Hon. Secretary sent ouf, in 
January, iSSi, a circular asking for aid and 
practical suggestions on this matter. This 
circular was merely of a tentative nature, 
and addressed only to a few friends, known 

to be interested in the subject, and who have 
always proved willing supporters of the 
movement, yet it evoked a number of en- 
couraging replies ; the names of some 150 
subscribers were enrolled, and others pro- 
mised special assistance, amounting to about 
£iiO per annum, as a reserve fund for the 
Journal, over and above their subscriptions 
and the subscriptions they undertook to 
collect. Copies for distribution of the Gaelic 
Union Report, and of a small pamphlet 
issued recently, will be sent post free on ap- 
plication to the Hon. Sec. From these you 
will be able to see what a large proportion 
of its intentions the Gaelic Union has, after 
all, been enabled to put into practice in the 
face of great difficulties, arising from the 
condition of the times and from other 

In January, 1881, the circular, in reference 
to a Journal, was sent out, and as the en- 
couragement promised on that occasion was 
sufficient to warrant the publication of a 
small monthh' Journal, without fear of in- 
sufficient supijort or pecuniary loss, the 
Council had already commenced making 
preparatory arrangements. The call of 
duty, however, shortly afterwards removed 
the Hon. Sec, Rev. John E, Nolan, O.D.C., 
from the centre of our labours for nearly 
twelve months, and in his absence those 
who continued to carry on the work of the 
Gaelic Union had no alternative but to let 
the project lie in abeyance, not considering 
their hands strong enough to undertake 
such a work. Now, however, that he has 
returned to Dublin, and the Gaelic Union 
having received valuable accessions to its 
numbers and its strength, and the project 
having been lately again strongly urged 
upon us, we believe the time has arrived 
when it could be entertained with very fair 
hope of success.. The aid the Hon. Sec. re- 
ceived in answer to an appeal for funds to 
publish an Irish Prayer-book (which has re- 
cently appeared) has, in particular, led him 
to believe that not only is there at present 
a great interest taken in the language, but 
that that interest is steadily on the increase. 

In view of all these considerations, the 
Council, while believing that a weekly 
periodical of the kind here referred to could 



not at present find sufficient support, arc yet 
agreed that a ;//(7«////j'journal can and ought 
to be set on foot. They have, therefore, de- 
cided to commence such a pubHcation early 
in the winter months, if properly supported. 
On the answers to queries on the enclosed 
slip will depend the event, and you are re- 
quested to return same to the Hon. Sec. be- 
fore the 1 0th of October, so that arrange- 
ments may be made to issue the first 
monthly number in time for the 1st of No- 
vember — the great feast of Samhain among 
the ancient Irish. 

The Council will, of course, give their 
labour— literary and otherwise— gratui- 
tously, and will not be found wanting in 
other ways. A still larger number of prac- 
tical supporters than those already enrolled 
is required in order to remove any possibi- 
lity that the present move might prove use- 
less, if not illusory. As the Council will 
have to undertake the entire responsibility 
of this effort, they will not enter into the 
project as a speculation, neither will they 
be satisfied with mere security against loss ; 
but before commencing, they must have 
reasonable hope of success, and such a num- 
ber of names enrolled as will allow of con- 
siderable possible defections. The Journal 
must be self-supporting. If, happily, it 
should do more than cover its expenses, any 
surplus shall be employed in improving, en- 
larging, embellishing, and possibly illustra- 
ting it. 

Guided by the replies received to the cir- 
cular of 29th January, 1881, and by the 
opinion of many friends, the Council have 
come to the conclusion that the following 
arrangements are most generally suited to 
the present requirements : — 

It is proposed that the Journal shall be 
called " The Gaelic Union Journal," but we 
would be glad to have youropinion and sug- 
gestions as to the title, 

For the present it shall appear once a 
month. Each number shall consist of 32 
l>ages, same size as this Circular. 

it .shall be for the present partly English, 
partly Irish, but with a gradually increasing 
proportion of Irish. 

The subscription shall be 5s. per annum ; 
per post, 5s. 6d. ; single copies Gd. each. 

Special terms for classes taking six or more 
copies for a year. No accounts kept ; sub- 
scriptions to be paid in advance. 

The contents shall be varied — prose, poe- 
try — original and selected — papers, essays, 
notes and queries, answers to correspon- 
dents, phrases, proverbs, &c. Several dis- 
tinguished literary gentlemen will beamong 
the contributors. Reports of the proceed- 
ings of the Council and of associations and 
classes in connection with the Gaelic Union 
will also be given regularly. 

It shall be entirely devoted to the one 
object — the furtherance of the Gaelic move- 

The Council will be glad to receive and 
carefully consider any advice or suggestion 
you may think fit to offer towards the im- 
provement of the above proposed arrange- 
ments. We would urgently press upon you 
the patriotic necessity of promptly and 
efficaciously supporting our endeavour. 
And, as the defection or indecision of even 
one man might result in losing a great and 
worthy cause, so on the giving or withhold- 
ing of your support depends the realization 
of our object. Presuming that }-ou take an 
interest in this undertaking, we respectfully 
request that, should circumstances permit, 
you would make it known to your friends, 
write for circulars for distribution, and can- 
vass subscribers. Leaving aside the often- 
courted sympathy for the Gaelic revival 
movement, if each one who supports this 
project would act as if success depended on 
him alone, the result may be easily ima- 

Awaiting your repl)-, we are, dear Sir, 

Yours very faithfully. 

Maxwell H. Close, M.A., 

Michael Cusack, 

Hon. Treasurer. 
John E. Nolan, O.D.C, 

Hon. Secretary. 
D.WID COMVN, ) Members of 
John Mokkin, ] Council. 



Bv T. Flannery, 

Member of Council of the Gaelic Union. 

So we have made our debut, and our re- 
ception, we are happy to say, has been 
kindly and encouraging. Our Irish pro- 
verb saj-s, TÚS ììiaith Icath na h-oibre — " a 
good beginning is half the work ; " but even 
if we have made a good beginning — which 
it is for others to say — most assuredly we 
shall not rest satisfied with doing only this 
half of our work. 

Though printing has been known and 
practised in this country for over three hun- 
dred years ; though during this period nume- 
rous works in the Irish Language have been 
published, not only in Ireland, but also in 
England, and on the Continent — at Lou- 
vain, Paris, Rome, and other places ; and 
though a periodical press has existed here 
for some two hundred }'car3, yet, strange 
as it must appear to those who are not na- 
tives of this country, it is only in the j-ear 
1882, that we first print on Irish ground 
a periodical even partly in the Irish lan- 
guage, devoted to the interests of that 
language and its literature. There have been 
Joiiriials of A>-i-/moío;^ì\ doubtless, which 
have amiabi)' given some of their attention 
to what they called the " relics " of our lan- 
guage — the same sort of attention that they 
bestowed on our ancient bronze swords, 
our round towers, and other venerable re- 
mains of antiquity. There have been 
Transactions of Antiquarian Societies pub- 
lished from time to time; but all of these 
have made the native language and its 
literary productions hold but a very subor- 
dinate place among the objects of their care 
and solicitude ; and, as far as the modern 
tongue and literature were concerned, they 
almost ignored their existence. 

The causes that have hitherto operated 
against the existence of a vernacular Irish 
press are, man)^ of them, obvious, and need 
not therefore be referred to here. Of more 
immediate interest are the causes and agen- 
cies that have at length made the Gaelic 
/í7«;-«a/ a thing possible as well as desirable. 

Among these may be briefl_v mentioned (i) 
an increasing taste on the part of all classes 
of our people for things national, and a 
juster appreciation of the value of such 
things as we can still call our own ; (2) the 
labours of individual Irish scholars on be- 
half of our native language and literature ; 
(3) the labours of Continental scholars in the 
general field of Indo-European philology, 
more particularly the labours of Pictet and 
Zeuss, and their followers on behalf of Cel- 
tic philology ; (4) the labours of learned 
bodies, as the Royal Irish Academy, the 
Celtic Society, the Irish Archieological 
Society, and, in particular, tliose of the late 
Ossianic Society ; (5) the establishment of 
the Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language, and of the Gaelic Union ; and 
last!\-, a tendency on the part of the rulers 
of this country to adopt a ^íoWcy oi enlight- 
enment in the administration of Irish affairs, 
as opposed to the policy oi darkness, accord- 
ing to which it was so long thought that 
nothing could be good for this country but 
what came from the other side of the Irish 

Our objects have already been sufficiently 
stated. One main purpose we have in view 
is to popularise the study and use of our 
language, among all classes of our people, 
especially amongst those classes who have 
time and means for education. This would 
surely be more creditable to them, and even 
more "valuable" than the smatterings 
usually acquired of French and German 
and other foreign tongues, which, as Mr. 
Fleming said in his excellent Irish article 
in our first number, not one in a hundred of 
the Irish educated classes ever has occasion 
to use. When our people reflect more on 
this, we may soon hope that Ireland's work 
will be done — that Ireland's language, and 
literature, and history, and antiquities, will 
be elucidated — no longer by foreigners, but, 
as is meet, by her own sons. There is no 
shadow of doubt that the surest and readiest 
and most natural way for Irishmen to the 
understanding of those more ancient lite- 
rary treasures which still remain to us in 
our own language, and which foreigners so 
much envy us, is through the living Irish 
toncTue. We long for the time when Irish- 



men who interest themselves in the native 
hteraturc of their country, will cease to be 
sneered at as "antiquarians ;" when Irish- 
men who can read and write their own 
land's language will cease to be wondered 
at and spoken of as "scholars" — when, in 
a word, the wonder will be to find an Irish- 
man who cannot do so. 

Our readers will now understand that it 
was in no antiquarian, no antediluvian spirit 
that this Journal was founded ; and in no 
such spirit will it be conducted. The Irish 
in it will be the warm, living thoughts of 
living Irishmen and Irishwomen. It will 
not be the language of the St. Gall glosses, 
nor of the Turm glosses, nor oi the Líûò/iû?- 
lomiiiin, nor that of the Leabhar na h- Uidiire, 
nor of the Seaiiclias JMor, nor of the Book of 
Leinster ; but rather, as might be expected, 
the Irish of the best authors of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries ; of the 
O'Clerys, of Mac Firbis, of Keating, of 
O'Molloy, of Dr. Bedell, of O'Donlevy, and 
Dr. O'Gallagher, and the Munster poets. 
These are the authors who shall be our 
models, except, of course, in such respects as 
their style may have become obsolete at the 
present day — a thing, however, which is not 
nearly so much the case as some might ima- 

As to the Gaelic Union itself, its platform 
we believe is broad enough for all Irishmen 
to stand upon. We are not by any means 
all Gaels ; we number in our body descen- 
dants also of Danes and Anglo-Normans, 
and Cambro-Normans, besides representa- 
tives of the later races that have settled in 
this country — men who in their love for the 
Gaels and things Gaelic, remind us that 
their ancestors in many cases became 
" Hiberniores Hibernis ipses" — men who 
would shame some who would boast them- 
selves true Gaels — ay, even some who 
have O's to their names "as big as cart 

For the present we are well content that 
our Journal should go donblc-banrllcd, in 
the hope that it may do the more execu- 
tion. What one barrel may not reach, the 
other may. For ourselves we would prefer 
one single barrel of greater capacity — of 
pure Irish metal — long, and strong, and 

straight, and polished. But let our readers 
take warning. We shall not always, or for 
long, humour them in their ignorance or 
their laziness. We have too much to put 
before Irish readers in Ireland's own tongue 
to take up our journal with matters in a lan- 
guage of which plenty can be had cheap 
elsewhere. So if there be any of our rea- 
ders to whom the happy thought has not 
}-et occurred, let them lose no time but 
forthwith get up tlicir Irish. 


Full Report of the proceedings in rela- 
tion to the Irish Language, at the Annual 
Congress of Irish National Teachers, held 
at the Sackville Hall, Dublin, on 27th, 
28th, and 29th December, 1882. 

At the public Meeting held on the 
second day, the President of the National 
Teachers' Organization, 

Mr. W^illiam Cullen, in the Chair, 

The Rev. Dr. Haughton, S.F., T.C.D., 
amidst loud applause, rose to propose the 
resolution relating to the teaching of the 
Irish language. He said — 

Mr. Chairman and fellow-teachers (ap- 
plause), my highest claim to respect is that 
I have been all my life a teacher like you. 
I have great pleasure in moving the resolu- 
tion which has been placed in my hands, a 
resolution intended for the benefit of a class 
of our fellow-countrymen for whom I feel the 
deepest sympathy — I mean the Irish-speak- 
ing population of the South and West of Ire- 
land — (cheers) — merely introducing it with 
the remark that, from whatever point of 
view we look at it, the Irish language must 
be regarded as a precious relic of ancient 
times. The resolution is as follows : — • 

"That we respectfully request the Com- 
missioners of National Education to re- 
move the existing restrictions on the teach- 
ing of the Irish language in National 
Schools, at least in districts where the Irish 
language is spoken." 



I hold, I believe, very strong opinions 
upon the importance of this question. I 
have made a stud}- of the Welsh, Flemish, 
Dutch, Danish, and Swedish languages 
and people, and I have found that, although 
these were all small countries, these people 
possessed individually an amount of inde- 
pendence and energy which was very often 
not to be found amongst the inhabitants of 
larger countries. I have been led to believe, 
from conversations with many intelligent 
persons in those countries, that much of 
their superiority was due to the fact that 
they were obliged to obtain a complete 
mastery over two languages. Horace had 
told them of the cleverness of the bi-lingual 
nations of his day, and his experience was 
one that had descended to observant people 
in the present age. The man who learned 
a language from his mother, or from those 
around him, had, without education and 
study, no more conception of the power of 
language than the dog that barked or the 
monkey that chattered in the menagerie 
(laughter). People who spoke one language 
only had generally no conception of the 
power of the instrument they were using, 
and, in order to thoroughly realize it, they 
must begin to learn another language. It 
was a mistake to attempt to teach a lan- 
guage through the medium of another 
language that was not grammatically under- 
stood, and English in the South and West 
of Ireland, in Irish-speaking districts, 
should be taught through the medium of 
Irish to be grammatically understood. If the 
Irish grammar were taught, accompanied 
by the learning of the English gram- 
mar, it would be an invaluable aid to 
their teaching, and would in the end 
raise the population in which that was 
practised far above the level of either the 
purely Irish or English-speaking portion 
of the population (applause). Some people, 
of course, thought there should be only 
one language, and that that language should 
be English. But the Irish language was 
there, and, like the Irish people, it would 
not go (laughter and applause). We 
should try to raise the people to the high 
position of our cousins in Wales, where 
every man who speaks the Welsh language 

can read and write Welsh. I want that, 
as I say, to be the case with the Irish- 
speaking population, and in proposing this 
resolution I would refer in a few words to 
the very painful scene witnessed some 
weeks ago in this city, where men on their 
trial for their lives, looked round the Court 
in wonder at what was going on like dumb 
animals, and spoke as well as they could 
through the interpreter, who conveyed to 
them also the results of their trials— and I 
say, I think it painful and a disgrace to our 
supposed civilization thatsuch athingshould 
occur, that men totally ignorant of the lan- 
guage of the Court should be there, and 
witness after witness be brought up depend- 
ing on an interpreter to be understood. I 
say the National School system has not 
done all that it can do, and will not have 
done it until every one of the Irish-speak- 
ing population understands his own lan- 
guage thoroughly and well, and as a neces- 
sary consequence, the English well, and can 
read and write both (cheers). 

Rev. J. E. Nolan, Hon. Sec. of the Gaelic 
Union, in seconding the resolution, re- 
marked, that if they turned their attention 
to other countries they would find greater 
care given to the culture of the Irish 
language than they found at home. On 
Friday last a chair of Celtic was endowed 
in the University at Edinburgh, solely 
through the agency of Professor Blackie who, 
though he had not one drop of Celtic blood 
in his veins, had collected ^^14,000 to pro- 
mote the study of the language. In 
ing that Celtic should be taught in the 
National Schools, he did not think they 
sought too much. Notwithstanding that 
the National Board of Education had Dr. 
Joyce and Mr. Fleming, and others well 
capable of preparing an Irish class-book, 
no such class-book had yet been oftered to 
the National Schools. It was in the power 
of the National teacher to revive the Irish 
language, and to make its resurrection 
glorious (applause.) 

While the Rev. Father Nolan was speak- 
ing, the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor and 
Mr. E. D. Gray, M.P., High Sheriff, entered 
the Hall, and were most enthusiastically 




Mr. ]\Iichael Cusack, Civil Service Aca- 
demy, 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin, in sup- 
porting the resolution, said — 

Mr. Chairman, my Lord Ma}-or, and 
fcllow-tcachers, you have heard the 
speeches ; bear with me while I deal with 
the restrictions which we require to have 
removed. In the first place children must 
be at 'least ten j-ears old before they may 
be taught a word of their mother tongue. 
What does this mean in districts where 
the Irish language is spoken, and that in 
the poorest districts in Ireland ? It means 
that during the school years of the poor 
children — for about the age of ten they 
are found useful at home — they are being 
taught an unknown tongue, without the 
assistance of the language of their homes. 
Practically, of course, they are taught no- 
thing. And }-et this antiquated method of 
teaching continues, most inconsistently, 
to be adopted as a part of that national 
system of education which is in every 
other department so ably administered by 
one of the foremost educationists of this 
age. During the few years that I taught 
a National School, I found my knowledge 
of Irish of the greatest possible service 
in dealing with children who heard very 
little but Irish at home, not only in teach- 
ing them, but in establishing between us 
that bond of sympathy which it is most 
desirable should exist between master and 
pupil. From the moment that I told a 
little fellow that the bill was the £-oò of 
a bird, my work as a teacher was reduced 
very considerably indeed. In the second 
place, a child must be in the fifth class, 
and know more arithmetic than the son of a 
Commissioner is required by the Civil 
Service Commissioners to knov/ when 
competing for a cadetship in the Royal 
Irish Constabulary. Tlic cliild must also 
pass in spelling, and hcic the standard is 
as high as that fixed for candidates seek- 
ing appointments as National teachers. It 
comes to this,thatthose who aremost in need 
of the Irish language — that is, those who 
ought to be taught English through the me- 
dium of the Irish — must wait until they are 
qualified to teach the important subjects of 
handwriting, spelling, and arithmetic in a 

National School ! Having then, let us say, 
obtained free admission for the Irish lan- 
guage into the National Schools, what are 
you to do next ? Well, I would ask you 
to support any society which is working 
for the preservation of our mother tongue ; 
support, let me say, the Gaelic Union, of 
whose Council the learned proposer, the 
Lord Mayor, Father Nolan, and your 
humble servant are members. But, above 
all and before all, I would ask you to aid 
our movement by supporting the Gaelic 
Journal, the second number of which has 
just appeared. It is non-political and non- 
sectarian. We are anxious to enlist you 
for active service in our ranks, because we 
know you are the most powerful and in- 
fluential medium for educational purposes 
in Ireland. One-fifth of the whole popula- 
tion of this country is on the rolls of the 
National Schools. This being the case, is 
it not manifestly desirable for the direc- 
tors of any movement for the preserva- 
tion and cultivation of the Irish language 
to secure in the first place the services 
of those who, from the fact of their 
having to direct the studies, and in a 
great measure to form the habits and to cul- 
tivate the tastes of the vast majority of the 
people, exercise so mighty an influence for 
good or evil as the teachers of a nation ne- 
cessarily exercise. In this movement on 
behalf of one of the oldest and most distinct 
forms of human speech and the head of a 
venerable and now greatly admired family 
of languages, acting I will say with some of 
that wisdom for the possession of which the 
Times has given the Gaelic Union credit, 
the council of that society having by the 
production of the Gaelic Journal, given an 
earnest of its capacity in a practical way to 
do work at once useful and meritorious, at 
the first available opportunity places this 
matter before you, with the fullest confi- 
dence that your intelligent patrotism will 
compel you to give our project all the sup- 
port which your circumstances can permit, 
(hear, hear). How great that support is 
few outside your own ranks can appreciate 
better than I can, because during the dozen 
years or so that have elapsed since I left the 
service of the National Board, I have never 



ceased to watch \vith intense satisfaction the 
steady growth of your influence, and the 
perfection of that organization which in re- 
cent )-ears won so many concessions from 
unwilling masters. Two of the most use- 
ful members of the council of the Gaelic 
Union belong to your ranks ; your verj' 
efficient Central Secretarj^ and that genial 
veteran Irishman, to whom belongs the 
proud privilege of having written the first 
article in Irish for the first page of the first 
number of the Gaelic Journal. Need I men- 
tion his name? — John Fleming (loud and 
prolonged cheers). I am quite aware you 
have many things to think of besides sup- 
porting to an inconvenient extent the 
Gaelic Union in its efforts to preserve the 
Irish language ; but I am also aware that if 
I needed support for a non-paying (pecu- 
niarily) movement of any kind, I should 
first ask assistance irom the busy and hard- 
working. Judging by results, }-ou are a very 
busy and hardworking and successful bodj', 
and the Gaelic Union therefore asks you and 
people like you, and nobody else, to lend a 
hand in this work nozv in the present uni- 
versal upheaval of our race in favour of the 
language of our fathers. From the universi- 
ties of Germany and from the marts of 
Chicago; from the plains of La Plata and 
from the moors of Inverness ; from every 
quarter of the globe from which a scholar or 
Celt could have replied to our recent pro- 
posals, the kindliest welcome and warmest 
greetings have reached us. When deep- 
thinking, indefatigable Germany takes up 
the Irish language warmly, what will well- 
informed people of taste and culture think of 
the educators of the Irish Nation, if these 
educators neglectthe language of their coun- 
try, and, above all, what will be thought 
of those teachers who neglect it where it is 
yet spoken, while the poetry of its words 
and idioms is being wafted past them by 
ev'ery breeze, and while the names of every 
hill and valley and mountain and glen are 
teeming with inexhaustible supplies of food 
for the imagination and the intellect of the 
student and the philosopher? Gentlemen, 
about si.x years ago a few friends of the Irish 
language went through the first act of a 
great drama by forming in Dublin a Societ)- 

for the Preservation of the Irish Language. 
The second act consisted in forming, about 
two years ago, the Gaelic Union ; and the 
third act produces the Gaelic Journal. Dur- 
ing the progress of the fourth act will you, 
fellow-teachers, be spectators or actors ? 
— actors I have no doubt. You have had a 
large measure of success in your under- 
taking. I heartily wish you a continuance 
of such blessings. And being, as far as I 
can see, on the high road to securing all that 
you can reasonably expect, I ask you, after 
you shall have finished your own business, 
to consider the terms of the resolution which 
I fear I have been too long speaking to, and 
then the condition of that most precious in- 
heritance of ours — our mother-tongue, and to 
show bj' your actions that the Irish lan- 
guage is not dead but sleeping, and that out 
of that sleep she will arise at the call of the 
Irish Teachers (applause). 

The Lord Mayor — I think the resolution 
which you are about to adopt in regard to 
the preservation of the Celtic language and 
its cultivation, is one deserving of the 
strongest support (hear, hear). 

The resolution was then passed by accla- 

At the Congress Dinner the same even- 
ing, the following remarks were made on 
this subject : — 

The President — My Lord Mayor, I have 
another toast on the list, namely, "National 
Education and the School Managers." We 
have been favoured here this evening by the 
presence of some of the managers, and have 
not been so favoured before. I hope this 
toast with which I couple the names of 
the Rev. Father Flynn and Rev. Father 
Nolan, will be as warmly received as it can 
possibly be (applause). 

The Rev. John Nolan, Hon. Secretary of 
the Gaelic Union, said — That part of the 
toast which refers to the management of 
National Schools has been stated so well 
and ably and satisfactorily by the last 
speaker. Rev. Father Flynn, that I need not 
deal with it ; but the question of National 
Education remains, and I wish its treatment 
had been left to better hands than mine. I 
have given a very considerable amount of 
time and labour to work up this question — to 



forward what I think we have a right to call 
a National Education — the cultivation of 
the Irish language, of which I am a repre- 
sentative here this evening. I have given 
many years of deep consideration and hard 
labour and anxiety to the working out of 
this question of the cultivation and preser- 
vation of the Irish language. I may tell 
you of the way the Society was founded, as 
it is an historical fact. Just about this day 
six years I determined to set to work on this 
question, as I saw there was no one in un- 
happy Ireland giving the slightest attention 
to the subject, whichought to be dear to the 
heart of every Irishman. So I determined 
to bestir myself, and first went to the Right 
Hon. Gentleman who honours you this even- 
ing with his presence, and whose name you 
have so warmly received — I refer to the pre- 
sent Lord Mayor of the City of Dublin. I 
heard him speak at the Catholic University, 
and I heard of him fromfriends.and knowing 
from other circumstances his high character 
and patriotism, I had not the slightest hesita- 
tion in makingboldtomakehis acquaintance, 
and I then proposed to him, on our first 
meeting, to give me his support and influ- 
ence to make an effort towards the cultiva- 
tion and preservation of the Irish language. 
He consulted a mutual friend Mr. Wm. 
Dillon, who, I am sorry to say, is far away 
from us this evening, and then promised me 
all the support he could give' me, and asked 
what was the first thing to be done. I said, 
" Money is the ' sinews of war,' and I will 
subscribe one pound, and you, I am sure, 
will subscribe a like sum." We did so, 
and then appointed each other treasurers, 
and co-partners of that same two pounds 
(laughter). The next thing we performed 
after that was having the Irish language re- 
cognised by the National Board of Educa- 
tion in this country, and when others failed 
to do their dut)', we succeeded in bringing the 
attention of the House of Commons to bear 
upon this matter, and by the aid of the 
O'Conor Don and Mr. O'Connor Power, we 
succeeded in having recognised by Parlia- 
ment on the Intermediate Education Act 
the teaching of the Irish language in 
Ireland. I am thankful to say success- 
ful measures for the preservation of the 

Irish language have been and are being 
adopted (hear, hear), and at this meeting of 
the National School Teachers of Ireland, I 
have had an opportunity of bringing before 
them this matter, and I trust this will not 
be the last occasion upon which we shall 
meet together (applause). — Irish Teachers' 


By 3ir. Joint FUuiing to the Delegates of ihe 
National School Teachers Organization 
of Ireland, assembled in Congress, igth 
December, 1882. 

Brother Teachers,— There is one 
point at least on which I can especially 
congratulate you — the language of Ireland 
is very likely to be spoken by future gene- 
rations of Irishmen ; and it is to you that 
this result is, in a certain sense, owing. A 
little more than ten }-ears ago, the most that 
could be expected for the Gaelic tongue 
was a respectable place in the National 
Museum — and that in the near future. Of 
those who had worked hardest to keep it 
alive, two had been lately taken from us, 
and those who remained were without any 
organization, as they were without hope. 
At that time — when all was dark and 
cheerless — a resolution passed at Congress 
here, pledged the National Teachers of 
Ireland to use every exertion to keep their 
language alive ; and later, the delegates at 
Congress unanimously adopted a memorial 
for presentation to the Commissioners of 
National Education, praj-ing them to place 
the language of Ireland on their programme 
beside those of Italy, Greece and P"rance. 
The adoption of this memorial formed the 
foundation on which were raised all the 
movements for the preservation of the Irish 
language that' have since taken place ; and 
the memorial itself formed the ground- work 
of that monster one, in response to which 
the teaching of Irish is paid for in National 
Schools as the teaching of Latin, Greek 
and French is. And what does the sum 
total of the results of all these movements 
amount to? In 1871, the Irish-speaking 
population of Ireland amounted to 817,875 


persons. During the subsequent census 
decade, emigration from the country went 
on as usual, and during the last years of the 
decade, distress, fever, and emigration on a 
larger scale, lessened the population very 
considerably ; and in no other parts of the 
country were these dire agents so destruc- 
tive as among the Irish-speaking portion of 
our people. This was so notably the case, 
that those who felt an interest in the Irish 
language, were making calculations as to 
the probable diminution in the number of 
Irish-speakers that the census of 1881 would 
show — and this diminution was scarcely set 
down by any one at less than 20 per cent. : 
i.e., the 817,875 Irish speakers in 1871, 
would be brought down to 654,300. But 
instead of being thus diminished by the 
calculated number of 163,575, they have 
been increased by 132,057, and there are 
949,932 persons in Ireland now speaking 
the language of Ireland. Such is the result 
of the movements which sprung from the 
action of the National Teachers. But it is 
asked, have not the National Teachers and 
the thousands of other memorialists got 
what they asked for? Has not the Irish 
been placed on the programme as they 
required ? And has not the 2s. fee required 
for extras been remitted in the case of the 
Irish? These questions can best be an- 
swered by-and-by. Passing by the senti- 
mental portions of the memorials, they 
prayed that in Irish-speaking localities, 
Irish should at first be made the medium of 
instruction ; in fact, this was the point to 
which the memorialists attached most im- 
portance. They laid particular emphasis 
on the absolute necessity of teaching Irish- 
speaking children as rational beings, and 
this, they said, could only be done through 
the language they understood as a medium. 
To prove that this was the only rational 
way of teaching children, memorialists 
thought it sufficient to cite the unanswered 
and unanswerable reasons advanced by Sir 
P. J. Keenan in his masterly reports. 
Memorialists never for a moment imagined 
that, when once the Irish was placed upon 
the programme, any hard and fast line 
could be drawn, such as to set at nought all 
Sir Patrick had said in respect of the value 

of the Irish as an educational instrument. 
The man whose opinions were valued so 
highly, that he was sent to two of our 
foreign colonies to draw up s)'stems of edu- 
cation for the inhabitants, the memorialists 
believed, could not but be listened to when 
giving a solemn opinion on what he knew 
best of all — the system of instruction best 
suited to the poor little Celts of the Irish- 
speaking districts of Ireland. It is not 
necessary here to cite for you any of the 
reasons advanced by Sir Patrick in his 
admirable reports, and to which he adhered 
in his sworn evidence before the Royal 
Commissioners a dozen years later. But 
there is another portion of the evidence 
given at the same Royal Commission not 
so well known, though of equal authority. 
Mr. Cornelius Mahony, Inspector of Na- 
tional Schools, and previously Professor of 
Irish in the Queen's College, Galway, being 
asked : " Has it ever struck you whether it 
would be advisable in an Irish-speaking 
population to employ their knowledge of 
Irish as a means of teaching them the new 
language they are to learn ?" he replied, 
" I think so. I consider that amongst the 
Irish-speaking population one of the most 
valuable agencies would be the use of the 
Irish language, in one particular in which 
the education in our schools is perhaps most 
defective — that is to say, in making them 
understand what they read. I have tried 
the experiment in portions of Donegal, 
where the excuse sometimes given to me 
when I found the children deficient in 
understanding what they read, was that 
they only spoke Irish. I often asked them 
to explain to me what a word or a sentence 
meant, particularly in the case of children 
of the First Book ; and I almost invariably 
found them hit on the right idea with 
almost metaphysical precision, when they 
explained it to me through the medium of 
the Irish. I tried how they could be taught 
the elements of mental arithmetic by 
naming the figures in Irish, and I think 
they could acquire a knowledge of arithme- 
tic through the Irish better than in the other 
way. Within the last few months I tried 
the same experiment in the south of Ire- 
land in the presence of the Duke of Devon- 


shire and his agent, Mr. Curry. The same 
excuse was given as regarded the children 
— that their backwardness was owing to 
their speaking only the Irish language. Mr. 
Curry, who understands Irish, and I put 
several questions to the children of the 
lowest class in Irish, and they answered 
them to our satisfaction." Nor was the 
utility of teaching the knozun language in 
the first instance a matter of opinion only. 
Our kinsmen of Wales, like ourselves, had to 
fight many a battle for their language. They 
succeeded with difficulty in getting the chil- 
dren to learn Welsh first, and this is the re- 
sult as described by the Rev. Thomas Charles, 
of Bala: "The time necessary to teach 
them to read the Bible in their vernaai/ar 
language is short, not exceeding si.x months 
in general. . . Teachingthem English re- 
quires two or three years time, during which 
long period they are concerned only about 
dry terms, without receiving one idea for 
their improvement." Similar results might 
be cited from the Highlands of Scotland, 
from the Isle of Man, from different parts 
of Germany, had time permitted. 

Now, Brother-Teachers, I think I can 
affirm that the memorialists have not got 
all they asked for. The children in the 
Irish-speaking parts of Ireland are still 
taught in an unknown language. These chil- 
dren, before coming to school for the first 
time, are sure to have learned to pronounce 
incorrectly every English word they may 
happen to pick up, and to translate 
literally eve.'-y Irish idiom they know, 
and the teacher's principal difficulty with 
such children, is to make them unlearn all 
they have acquired at home ; but so long 
as the illiterate parents go on struggling to 
communicate their ideas to the children b}' 
means of the few English words they can 
pronounce, all the teacher's efforts are so 
much labour lost. What then is the re- 
medy? Let it be once seen by the parents 
that the Commissioners of National Educa- 
tion, the Managers, and other persons of 
influence, have a respect for the Irish, and 
the parents will at once talk to the children 
in the mother tongue, and will gladly leave 
to the teacher the task of teaching them the 
correct English pronunciation, and the way | 

ot expressing the Irish idioms in English. 
The great majority of the teachers in the 
Irish-speaking localities know Irish well 
enough to do this much for the children in 
the lower classes, and those who do not 
will soon learn it. To teach the higher 
classes, let the present grammatical tests be 
insisted on, from the teacher. Without any 
knowledge of grammar, he could teach a 
scholar, or an Irish speaker, to read the 
language, but to instruct the pupils of the 
Fifth Class or Sixth Class li/ell, he 
should know Irish grammar fairly. Forty 
years since, 7ione, or very few at least, 
of our best Irish scholars or poets had 
any theoretical knowledge of grammar, 
but I do not believe that any illiterate 
person now has such a practical know- 
ledge of Irish as to know it well or 
critically. There may be some such per- 
sons, but they are so very few, that they 
need not be taken into account. 

Questions of all kinds are now asked. One 
asks why did not the Commissioners of 
National Education at once act upon Sir 
Patrick's suggestion, and " not leave the 
clear Celtic intellects of our poor little ones 
to be dwarfed and stunted for the last 
thirty years?" Perhaps the reply is, that 
Sir Patrick was half a century before his 
time in Ireland; and that but for his 
reports we would be groping head fore- 
most in the old idiotic way that "dwarfed 
and stunted" the Irish intellects of hundreds 
of thousands. Even from the managers of 
National Schools a fierce opposition would 
be given to the teaching of Irish in schools. 
Ploughing by the horse tails, plucking the 
wool from the live sheep, had to be put a 
stop to by fines. Ploughing with two horses 
instead of six, and with one ploughman 
without his two attendants was believed to 
be a ruinous innovation even in England, 
and not very long since either. In reply to 
the Gaelic Union Circular of October last, 
a pious and a zealous clergyman of a south- 
western diocese wrote : " I beg to state that 
much though I admire our ancient language 
(speculative), I am opposed on principle to 
this revival movement, as 1 have met with 
no greater obstacle in m}- missionary career 
(now 1 8 years) than the people's being 



neither Irish nor English speaking, thus 
rendering my efibrts to conve}' the Gospel 
truths to them almost nil!' Another clergy- 
man in a southern county, a good many 
years since, exclaimed: " I wish the Irish 
tongue were forty fathoms down in the 
English Channel." The author of this fret- 
ful remark was a ripe Irish scholar, and 
probably the best Irish preacher in his dio- 
cese. But being appointed to a mission 
where the young people were making more 
than ordinary exertion to forget the old 
tongue, and to learn English and gentility 
together, he found their progress in the 
Catechism " almost nil" The good priest, 
as his brother clergyman of the south-west, 
became convinced that they could never 
learn anything until they had acquired a 
stock of English words sufficient to enable 
them to think in that language. But bury- 
ing the Irish tongue any number of fathoms 
would not make these children, nor their 
children, nor their children's children, the 
equals of those little ones whom the Most 
Rev. Dr. Abram examined in his mission 
forty years before. 

When the people who loved the language 
had this way of thinkmg respecting it, it is 
not wonderful that the reports of Sir P. J. 
Keenan should be looked upon with dis- 
favour, as he says in his evidence that they 
were. Professor Connellan, so far as I know, 
was the only other Irishman to recommend 
that Irish should be taught before English 
in the Irish-speaking localities. 

The other reason advanced by the me- 
morialists why Irish should be taught to 
children at first, was in order that the chil- 
dren taught in this way might be capable 
of transcribing and editing our voluminous 
manuscript materials. Any of )'ou who can 
make a call to the Royal Irish Academy 
will be well satisfied that by such persons 
only can any use ever be made of these 
materials. Ask for the lithographed books 
there. These are, of course, reproductions 
of the fac-simile transcripts made by the late 
Mr. O'Longan — an Ex-National Teacher — 
from the old manuscripts. Compare the 
transcripts with the old half-illegible manu- 
scripts. Think of the scholarship required 
to read so many contracted, illegible words 

by their context ; look then again at the 
st\-le of the penmanship, and say whether 
any person could do this work except a 
person speaking and writing Irish from 


To THE Editor of the "G/ 


Dear Sir, — I Imve noticed in the second number of the 
G.u-Iu- Journal a lettci- d.ued from Inverness, and sigr-ed 
(.'■■lin Chisiiohii. I presume by the address and name that 
tlie writer is a brotlier Gael of Scotland. Mr. Chisholm 
adduces several apparent arguments in favour of the use 
of the ordinary Roman type in printeil Irish books, and 
the disc.irdinc; of our own ancient national character. 


si'c'i ,1 ^".■-■:iti..ii ^1-1 'n! 

1 pr 


from a Scot, ac- 


Ill , ■: ; ■ " , . , :• 

le of f 

"s, its abTencTof 


si~, '",:':, 1 r,'\, r. ni ' : 

oes not so much 


ise me: but that sin ; ! i 

. -Mi,:! 

iiave come from 

e Irishmen, some ol i 

Miut some know- 


of the ancient Ian-;, 

.Muntry, fills me 

nly with surprise, but i 

Ill n. 

,,.eeially as the 


dity of the proposal hi 

s al 


leeii so often de- 


trated. Will you, there 



me to reiterate 


more the reasons why 

ve s 


retain our native 

Irish characters. 


.—We air know the .i 


>, '■ 1 

i^scssion is nine 


s of the law;" and ll, 

,,;eh.asbeen in 


ssionofthecharacte,- i 

'in, at least, the 

centuary uiiinterrui.;. ■! 

y " 

to ; 

. present. The 


MSS. at St. Gall, .M.l 



urg, &c., on the 


nent, those in the Brit 

sh Museun 

and Stowe Lib- 


in Englan.l, and in tlie 


lies o 

Triniiy College, 


oval Irish Academy, tlv 

iilir I' 

liversily, andthe 


ciscan Monastery on \ 

niv, in Dublin, 

are .all written in this chi:: 

number OÍ Irish 


s printed at Rome. ; , 

1 ■. Dublin, and 


places, are likewise pi 


nr! ir Ills been 


in Dictionaries, Gr.uimi 


:, ' 

' • ■■ '■': in,, anil 


us other works as tlie 

. , ■'ifthe 


lage. The reasons, ther 


.: -i nnluence 

us to 

abandon our ancient let 



be very powerful 

to ha 

veany effect on our pr 


e. Let us see whether 


have any force whatever 


I— The first argument 


iced against the Irish 

char.acters is, that they are harder to learn than the 
Roman. Now this I totally deny. There are only 
eighteen Irish letters, while there are twenty-six Roman ; 
and it seems to me evident that the difficulty in learning 
them is in the ratio of their numbers, or that the Irish 
alphabet is easier than the Roman in the proportion of 
nine to thirteen. The one form is just as distinct and 
sharply defined as the other ; they closely resemble each 
other in shape, the only difference being in the letters 
■o. 5, )\, p. and c, which, after all, are not so very differ- 
ent'fiom the corresjionding Roman letters. Would any 
one for a moment think of using such an argument for 
(Jreek. Russian, or any other European alphabet, al- 
though It would, if applicable at all, apply as well to 
tlio-e alphabets as to the Irish? Of course the Irish 
alphabet presents at first some slight difficulty to a person 
acquainted only with the Roman ; but this difficulty is 
very soon surmounted, and the eye, when once accus- 



o el o I e 

e 1 

f n 

hi of I 1 e h e 1 ed 

h e 



a 1 "^ n 


1 e 

d tti I h c c e 


e e 

n f h e ne r n 

le y e ort n 

no e 

no 1 e 

He r f n h Ze ss 

Gl Eb 1 \\ 

11 e o 

bo e 

a e N r a d M 1 c e 

f G 

pe 1 

f le I 

cha acter b r he 

e I )pe e? 


e s -xbb e a on of 

p m Is 

ch s 


t e e perence of all who 



h 1 b u api e n e of 

I I e as 

h t 

n e no 

B k 


V o % 


e e no 


o 1 o 

M C 

^ d d s ed our 

k he o 


k Ö 

w of 1 e e 

I ose I si nen -nl o c y ou fo Ir h 1 ool s n Toman 

) n 

h Í 

ye 1 no 

udy or e d e f hey h d hem 



f f 

of 1 

1 s 

1 e I 

o e 











u 1 


4 — 

fo s 


1 > e s 


n a one to 

a i a u 


r k 1 s 


\ o y» le 

Cl n C ob 

1 n 

b ao d 

1 y el 

of I 

f C L s 

Fo AL B\ R^Ck D BL N 

ei h 

e I 

y 1 

6 7 ; iSS, 


S — T 

n p el 

a e e 


) ' t 


1 le e p 
1 e ele e a 


A f c reie 


n e f r 

ore y Dot on 


on ha so 

a I 

ny o he erm tha a 


ed y e oked 

P «■ 

fly I se e no 


lo ed 


on 1 not e c ude e 



fo 1 

b 1 

e c 


la Sr JO f Ifu ) 


. ° 



1 n 1 ob e r 

royal Horse Art llery 

o e IF 

P 5e 1 

[Tl e G el c U on vo Id be p oud to have a thousand 

because it had no compulUui 

not because It was punted 

such members.- 

-£/U. Lr. y.J 

in Runian type, which was o 

nly a/;./ of the Reverend 
not only clear and distinct, 

N.B.— Th 


5th— The best Irish type is 

e Reports of Proceedings of 

but it i, artistically beautiful, 

which is more than can be 

Council, two or three literary contributions 

SaiM .,1 ,.M:n:r, l:.i,„,l, 1N|. 

■. In fact Irish type cmn- 

of interest. 

several important letters, the 

bi„ I. . 1. ,,,: .,: !■ . , 

General Ai 

nual Reports and the List of 

]-„'iir',.,i ih-'i I :.' i , . I,-, 

icly pleasing to'lhe artistic 


liave to be held over. 

eye, as mi. 'lit lie e\iicctrd \ 

lien it is remembered that 
and purposes, the same as 

the letters °are, to all inteiits 


D, Peintek, Dame-stkeet Dubi.i.n. 

iiiislev\bAU iu\ s^vetjilse. 




-Vol. I.] 


[Price Sixpence. 

süâiT) iK\ SAe-oilge ^\5iis ueAnj- 
fvXu eile ins luv sUvVTOib v\oti- 
ruijue (^.v^iis saii s-c^nAüd). 

Le üoniÁ]- 11a lleill 1lui]-eiil. 


If el Jin ■bi'nnn |iÁ-ô nÁp' cÁinic Aon cine 
üAomeA'ô 'DO cuin ha 1i-ŵme]iiCA, ■do liijne 
rjioiD bA riieA]"A aiji fon a 'o-ceAnjAn lonÁ 
A ii-DéA]\nA-ó lei]" 11 A 1i-Ói]ieAnnAi jib. 
Co luAC a')- cijeAiin éi]\eAnnAC cinn ha 
ri]ie f o, 111Á rÁ gAeoilij Aije, tieAnAnn ye a 
xncciotl ' •o'Á ■oeAiniiAD ai)\ ŵn m-bAÌb. 
b'ýéitii]! 50 b-fuil leiceACA]-A ó'n iHAJAilfo, 
AccT)eA]\bui jeAnn nA teiceACAfA An jaiajaiÌ. 
til cói)i -DÚinn nA -OAOine boccA bAbAijieAT 

JaCDiIiJ too loCUll JA-Ó IllAJI jeAll A1)\ An 

j-cioiinuA I'o, ói]i TOO iiniineA-ó iat) td'a ■öéAnA'ò 
le jAC tiile ciieo]\iiii;ceoi|i no bi aca ó 
Airiii-i]\ 111 C01111A1II, Agti]- ill 111Ó]! An c-ion- 
j;nA-ó 50 b-yuil a td-ccaiija ciohaiìiaiI 
beAjnAC iiiAjib ; ']'e An r-ionjiiA-ò i]" mo ^d'a 
b-fuil 'fAn TDOiiiAn, goniAini-ó ]'i yóy. 

1fC)iiiA5 An ni-o é 50 b-yiiil éijieAnnAije 
An iiAnjA liieAbonAij in]" An <\iiie]\icA co 
neAiii-cú]\AiiiAC cíincioll nA ^«-'^e-óilje a']" a 
rÁ -OAome An ]u\n5A ceuDnA YAn ni-bAile. 
'SiAt) nA -OAOine bA boicce in éi]\inn a cá 
Aj conjbÁil ]"iiA]- nA fjol ^Ae-óilje m]" An 
-Anie]iicA, Agii]" -oÁ ni-bei-óeA-ô nA cléi]MJe 
CAUOiliceACA beAjÁn ni'o]- cújiAinAije xi'Á 

üAOib, i|" jeÁ]!]! 50 iTi-bei-òeAD aii j^-^e-òilij 
leAcnuijce ó bun 50 biin iia ci'iie. 1]" 
DeACAi)i le ciii5]"in cneut) ].-Ác iiac u-rAb- 
Ai]ieAnn y^■^v ni'o]' nió Ai]ie Do'n 5-*'^'òil'5, 
ói]\ •Dob' U]iii]' leo ŵ]im 5eu]\ neA]iriiiA]\ x>o 
•ôéAnA-ô -oi 111 A-o-c]\oiu m ajai-ò An foeACAit). 
tlí'l Acc ■ÓÁ bliAT)Ain ó ]"oin ó cujAt) ]"eŵn- 
11101)1 1 ngAe-ôilij 1 ri-bo]"con ; ni ]\Aib ]iiAni 
]ioiiiie An iiieut) ceiitinA T)A0ineA-ò ']"An 
eAjlAi]" in A -D-cujAt) 1. "Oo cÁmic céA'D a'j" 
CAOgAt) Dinne Ai]"DeA]i beAjnAC r]ií |"có]i 
iníle, d'á clo]" ; Acc — ajii]" 'ye yo An c-ion- 
jnAD 1]" 111Ó d'á rAOib^ní ]iAib ]"eAniiiói|\ 
JAe-óilje 1 in-bo]-con no 111 Áic ai]\ bic eile 
in]" An <.\ineniCA ó'n lÁ ]"in 50 -o-rí AnDui ! 

'Si' All C]iioblóit) 1]" inó 1 D-C1111C10II nA 
jAe-òilje in)" An <.\iiie]\iCA ^uy DeACAi]i 

omroe iiiAice xii d ŷA jo 

50 leo]! 

■OAOineA-ó le ]:Á5Ail 1 iii-beAjnAc jac bAile 
1110)1 'y&n ■o-rí]i, le eolA)" oi]ieAiiinAc ai)i An 
njAe-òilij ü'Á iiuimeAD DOüAOinib Ó5A ; acc 
cÁ nio)" mó 'nÁ coIa)" )iiACCAnAC -óóib i^o 

1 iA)i]iA)' reAiijA 130 liuinieAD. buD CÓl]lDÓlb 
beic cuiiiA)"AC DO lAbAi)ic nA ceAiijAn -Dob' 
All leo iiiúineA-ó, Acc i)" -oeACAi)! le )."Á5aiI 
m)" An v\iiie]\icA, üAome ỳeuDA)" 1 )"5)iiobA-ô 
Aju)" lAbAi)ir 50 beAcr. IIuja-ó aii cliid i)"iiió 
•òíob ]-o A léijeA)" ^Ae-óilij, 1 J-Cúije 

1 lllniiiAn, A511)" niiAi)! ciii]iceA)i DAome ó 

j ConnAcc aju)" UIIad Tio lAbAi)i jAe-óilij 
')-An 111-bAile, y<xoì oroeA)" yi)i ó •òei)"ceA)ic 
nAli-éi]ieAnii, 1)" iiiinic Abi-óeAnn "ü)iioblóiT> 

! 'y.w )-50il." 1)" niui)- le riii5)-in 50 m-beiT. 



jAC oiT)e Aj iinìmoA-ó 1)Iai)- a cinje |-eiii no 

IIA f5olÁl]llb, AgU]' git) 50 Ij-I'llll ACC Atl- 

beAg T)icp)ie iüi]\ "blAj-Aib n<\ g-cúigeAü 
ei]ieAnnAC, 1]' leoji 1, 50 iiiío-Á-òriiA]i, no cii]i 
imneA]"Áin ai]\ UAijiib mi]\ oi-oiuib aju]- 
l'5olÁi)\ib ; A5U]'TininA 111-beTÓeA-ó 111 a)i jcaII 
Ai]\ An c]\ioblóix) ]-o 1 •o-cniicioll ah blAif, 
-00 beinewn niónÁn niój' mó ■OAOtneA-ò Ag 
iiieAmiuiJAt) riA ^''■e'ôil'je in]' aii Ame]\icA 
'iiÁ cÁ Anoi]-. 

*Oubfuẁ 'yAn 5-céAt) rpAcrA 50 )\A)b 11 a 
1i-tiile ceAiijcA cói5C]\íocA aj; }."Á5aiI bÁi]- 
50 iiiaII no 50 lnAc m]- aii ci'h ^o acc ah 
■pHAinci)- AtiiÁm. 1]' yu:)]\ 50 b-|.niib cló 
ciniiAc-0Ac5eA)niiÁnAC in)- Ati v\iiie]iicA, aju]' 
50 b-]:uil -oeic b-pÁiiJen]u\ 5eA]iniÁn aca mnci 
111 AjAi-ò Aoin fDÁi]3éi]i PnAncAij, 'ye pn 
uAob A11U115 -oe CAnA-OA. Ili'l Aon ScÁm ']\\n 
•o-cí]\ CAob Aiiunj -oe SrAmiVj nA SAC)-Ann 
lluAine m nAC b-pil Síaats Zeitung 'y^sn 
-o-ceAnjAin geAiiniÁnAij ; jineA-o, i]' ujuii' 
be yeicj-ni -^uy iaü nA nAome o'n c-]-eAn- 
■oiiccAij A coniienoA]' nA pÁi)DeunA S'^^'^l'- 
iiiÁnACA beo : ní léijeAnn nA nAonie Ó5A 
5eAj\niÁnc\cA iaü. lllmiA conjbm jceA)\ 
]'UA]- ceAnjA Ai)! bic 111]- An AnienicA lei]- nA 
■OAoimb ]\ii5CA]i mnn, ní yéiT)i)\ léi iiiAn- 
üAnin Acc^'Ai]i yeA-ò caihaiLI big. Hi'l Aon 
cineub5eA)\mÁnAC ai]i liioiiici)! nA 1i-i\nie]\icA 
Agu]' n A luijA-ó innn, no conjbAij a 
5-CAinc beo acc AiiiÁin nA JeAiimÁiiAije 
f An ScÁm penpbbAniA. ÚÁnjAnAji 50 n-ci 
An -dnieincA 1 n-cnncioll nA bliAnnA 1720, 
Agu]- rÁ A ]'liocc 'i'An Áic ceunnA m Ap' Á1C15 
•)-iAn A1)\ n-cú)'. LAbAi)ieAnn i'iAn a 
n-ceAnjÄ cíohaiìiaiI fóy, acc cá ]'i co 
ci\uAilli5ce ]-in, nAC b-].-éini)\ legeAiiniÁnAc 
ó'n c-i-eAn-ri]i í cmji-ni ai|i Aon co]!. 1lioi\ 
cui|i fiAn pÁipen|i ai]i bnn ]\\.\m, ajm]- ni'L 
jTCAU 1 5-céAn ACA yeunA]- a ceAngA pém 
no téi jeAn. Jin nAc H'sne piAn peAbAp 1 
b-pójluini, no pijne piAn mAic 1 neicib eile, 
Agup meApcAp iAn a beic 'nA b-peiltiieoii\ine 
ip peÁn]\ inp An ŵme]iiCA. *OÁ picin bliAnAin 
ó pom, bun neACAip Aon aca n'ýÁJAil be 
pocAl beiinlA in A ccAnn, acc Anoip 

ÌAbAipeAnn jac Aon aca l)eiii\lA, Ajiip 1 
iii-beAgÁn ne bliAnAnrAib bein a n-ceAnjA 
nu\pb 50 béi|\, Aju)- jAn Aon nóccA)' 1 

-ái]\ lotiipój Áp púb núinn cmii íocrAip- 



pAnA, peiciTiiin An nA aic 

AmÁm Aip cuAipceApc nA Tnóiiẃipe po CAob 
Annnj ne niecpico, m nAc b-puib bÁn-|\énii 
A15 dn ni-DeunlA. Ili' pi jncAn in Aon Áic eibe 
'pAn non'iAn, cómb]tAC ni'op uAt)-be 'nÁ no 
jiijne irpAncAije nA n-cíopcAnn po ai]\ pon 
A n-ceAn^An. Iliop cAilb An ỳ)iAincip Aon 
r)\oij ni)' nA rio]\cAib ]'o •çóy. ÜÁ nio)' nió 
nAomeAn aj lAbAi]\c Pi\AniciYe in Íocca]\- 
C An An A Ajup 1 LompiAnA Anmu 'nÁ no bi' 
]\iAiii ]ioniie po.lìlÁ cÁ Aon ACApjiuJAn ceAn- 
jAn '\~6.n 5-CAnAnA ip ACApnuJAn ó beu]\lA 
goPnAinci'i' é. 1)- ■(.■io]i5ob-puibbÁ]\pAccAi5 
imnnci|\ nA PpAinci)-e ó]- cionn nAomeAn nA 
n-ceAnjcAneiletiiAp jeAÌb Aip ÁibbeAccAju]' 
nionjiiiÁbcAcc a j-CAnAtiitiA; acc iiinnA 
HAib ineipneAC, peAj'iiiAcc aju)' •gpÁn-cmin 
mó\\ A15 Vr^^iicAij.b íoccAin-CAnAnA, ní 
ýeiinj.'An j'iAn a n-reAUjA no cúiimAc in 
AJAin An ben]ibA. Ili'b Aon cmenAonieAn 
'pAn noîiiAn ni'o]' cpÁbAije 'nÁ ■pjiAncAije n* 
CAtiAnA, Acc n'ýeicyine ó neitib éijm, 50 
5-ciiineAnn ]-iAn ]-nnn in a n-reAnjAni 
tiiAHAon le n-A 5-c)ieineAiii, ó\\\ ni' péini]\ te 
nunie beii; acc CAniAbl beAj 'y^xn 5-CAnAnA 
jAnpeicpm AnpocAib-pAipe ]-o "-apn-ceAngA, 
Áp 5-c]ieineAiii Agti)- Á\\ n-nlijce," ói' 
cótiu\i]i A put, ip cniiiA CA h-Áir ni a n-cion- 
cuijeAim pe. Cinü0A]\ é ai]\ JAi]\iii-nuiL- 
beojAib pÁipeun Agii]- lcAbAp, aju)- ai]\ 
nómpib cógbÁib, &c. 

LAbAi]\eAnn aii cmn i)" nió ne nA 
Aijib nA jiAng ineÁnonAC 1 1TlonqieAl Ajiip 
Cuebec l-YAmciY co inAtc, no beAgnAC co 
niAic, A'pÌAbAipeAnn piAn beupbA. îli'l Aon 
pójpAn nÁ iMAJAib, nÁ cóniicionól ha 
in-bAilceAt) inón, nAC in-bineAnn yoiLli'i jce 
'pŵn nÁ ccAnjAin, ■p)\Ainci'p Agiip Uen]\lA. 
II1 pAJmAom co-poniplAine ne ]-o m Aon 
cAcpAij no bAile mó|i in a n-ÁinjeAnn nA 


geAHHKMiAije ']-'i>-^ SrAimb Aoncuijre. Hi 
yojluitneokiin 11 a li-AmepicÁtUMJe An 
UeAiijAJeAHni^-^nAC acc 50 1i-Aiu\iii ; bi-óeAtiii 
I'l '5Á ÍAbAijic jAC lÁ 'y^sn m-bliAuAin ó|- a 
j-cóiiiAi]!, Acc ni cmneAiin i"iAt) Aon c-i'iiini 
mnri. Hi'lAon Aicm aijaii f5)\iobA-oóijiŵcc 
Ain Aon v\iiie)iicÁnAc AẀÁm a cinjeA]' 5^'-^!'- 
iiKMiAc 50 niAir ; twlJAinit) ]'e ùíob ]-o hac 
b-piiil Ó j'liocc 5^^^!"''^^^''''-'^^. 'Se C. -«A. 
SpjiAjue All c-Ainni a ca ai]i, Agu]' 50 ■oeniiin 
if i:eA-|A lonjAiicAC é. Uui^eAiin ^-e Sl'éijir, 
LAiT)in, SpÁineAC, l-'iiAnicíi-, g^'^l"^^^"*''^ 
A5111- 5Ae-óiLi5. II115 re buAib ai)! JAeẃlij 
1 x)-r]\i mioj'Aib ; 1 g-ceAiin iia h-Aimj-ijie pii, 
■00 l'51iiob I'e liri]> 1 iigAe-ôibg, Ajuj' ni 
]\Aib ACC Aon eAii]iÁiü AiiiÁin innci. ÜÁ|'eA]i 
)iiA)i All b-]:eA]i ]'o 'iiA lo^njiiAt) iiió)( in]' An 
v\iiie]\icA, 01)1 T)e nA 1i-inLe cio]\rAib ah 
■oon'iAin Ain A b--(.'inb yio)' AjAinn, 'j-i An 

ccAnn m aü-chjca)! An Aijie i] 


Aon ]-û|ic yójLitniA nAc b-j-nnl jiiACCAnAc le 


I]- nnuAJ le HÁ-Ù 50 n-eipijeAnn nA 
b-éi]ieAnnAi5e bi-oeA]- ni]- An \.\nieniCA ai]\ 
yeATJ bcAgAin ve btiAWAncAib, uo beic co 
neAiiicv'iHAniAC 1 'o-CAOib ]:ó jUnriA a']' a cá nA 
1i-c\iiie]\icÁnAi je irém, aju]' niAjAnn '\-i<w 
\\\o\ nA ■OAOinib cin]\eA]' Aon c-]"unn in Aon 
niTJ nAC b-pinl CAii\beAC cum ai]\51'0 a 
•óéAnAü. 1)' p'on, jmeAu, 50 b--(:uit 1 
m-boi'con Ajuf 1 m-bAilcib nió]\A éijni eile, 
T3A0ine A jiiÁ-ôuijeAf An ỳójlnnii m]\ a fon 
yém. "OÁiii-bei-óeAt) éi|ieAnnAci iii-'bo]'cor. 
ie AiiAtii ni A cojip Aju]- le nmcmn m a 
CBAnn, 1)" ■oóijceAC j^o D-ciocpAü lei]', An 
5Aet)ili5 «0 cn)i ai|i clAn-ceAjAifj Tjo^ 
puiblit)e nA CAC]iAC ]-in, óiji cÁ niop mó 
■OAomeA-ô 1 111-Oopcon A cuigeAp ^«-^e-óilij 
'nÁ cÁ m Aon cachaij ai)\ liióipci'r -t\iiie]\iCA ; 
ACC ni'l Aon éi]ieAnnAC 1 111-Oopcon A15 a 
b-ytnl CÁ1I, A -óéAnyAt) lAifnACC puncAC le 
pAOiiAt) nA g^-^e-óilge ó bÁ]' ; cÁ nA -OAOine 
boccA Aju]' I'l'le nA cacjiac j'ln " pAllÁni '' 
Ai]i cei]'c A ■o-ceAnjAn, acc pA|\Aüi|i, ni 
peiiDAit) ]'U\T) Aon mb T30 -óéAnA-ó T)'á CAOib. 
1]- nib lonjAncAc é An iiieux) bcAj tie ciiiiiA)' 

Ajnp CÁ1I A CÁ A15 eincAnnAijib nA cijie 
]'o -00 ]iéi]\ A iVMbb]\ip Ajup A n-uniine. ÜÁ 
po]- A15 An -ooiiiAn 50 jiAib An 111ao]a 5l'<''r<'^c 
'nA ceu-o IIIaoh éiiieAnnAC tio bi jiiAiii op 
cionn nuA'ó-6Ab]\Aic. ÜÁ niu\b-6Ab|iAC 
beApiAC IcAC eincAniiAc, Ajii]- CÁ Do]-con 
boAjnAc IcAC éi]\eAnnAc, acc ni'l Aon 
ci'niiACC A13 éipcAnnAijib ni]- ha cAC^Aijib 
I'O, ACC ci'niiAcc An COJCA AiiiÁin. 'tluAin 
lAbAi]ieAnn tiAome 1 t)-ciiiicioll cúiíiacca 
nA n-éineAnnAc in]' An \,\me]\iCA lAbAi]iiT) 
cmicioll neice nAC tj-cmji-o. ÜAi]'beAn- 
Aiin lúb An c]iÁicnin cÚ)i]'a nA jAoice, aju]' 
An cAn cibeAnn -oinne lotiiÁije vie Scocc 
A511]' 'bii]in]' ']'An Central Park 1 ÎIua-ó- 
GAb]u\c, gAn Aon loiiiÁi j x> 11a IIIójtoa, ^00 
bü]\c, -oo 5olt)]'iiiic, no no "ÓAibip, 1]- ]'oilléin 
nAC b-puil ACC AiiiAüÁm no b]ieii5Ai]nüe 
lonncA ]'o lAbAi]\eA]-i •o-cmicioll ah cúh'iacca 
iiiói]> A CÁ A15 nA li-éiiieAniiAijib Ann]-o. 
'Si An pi)\inn 50 beAcc 50 b-puil niiriieAp 
A15 iiA li-nile bAoimb on]iAinn ne b]ii5 50 
b-pnil niiiiieA]' AjAinn o)i]\Ainn yém. Hi 
iiióji An c-iongHAb 50 miiiieA]-Ann ah ■ooiiiAn 
An cme tiO leij a ü-ceAnjA pém pÁJAil 
bÁi]-, ó\\\ tiumA b-puil An JAebilij iiiA]\b 

110 50 j-cmneAt) Ai|\ biin nA CiiiiiAinn 111 

111 A]i cAi]'beAncA)i le P]\AncAi jib CAnAüA 
An ]u\-ÓAHC 1]' b]ieÁ5A ']'An móincin po 1 
■D-CAOib CÚ1ÌTOA15 A -o-ceAnjAn, i]- ■oói j iiac 
■o-cinn]'eocA]i An léijceoi]i 111Á ■oei]\üeA]i 
beAjÁn nio]'iiió -d'á ü-cniicioll. 

tJA in-bei-óeAü Ai]-c]\ui5Ab uAomeAb ó'n 
b-PnAinc 50 ■o-cí nA CAtiAiyA, ní beibcAb Aon 
lonjnAb 50 j-cúiÌTOócAb 1--HAncAi50 iia ci]ie 
]in A u-ceAnjA; acc ip ceA)ic 50 b-puil 
■onme'oojíujAb 'pAn b-Vn^^'nc le pÁgAil ']-An 
5-CAnAT)A. 11 1 A^'CjiijeAnn nA Vl><'^"c<-M5e 
Acc 5o1i-AnAiii, Ajup 50 li-Áiinjce ni céibeAnn 

]'lA-0 511]' All CAnAÜA Ó CUl]ieA-Ó pAOI piTIACC 

nA SAC]-Ann 1 ; ni puAijv nA CAnA-OACAije, 
Ai]! All AbbA]! ]'in, Aon conjiiAb ó ii-a 5-C0- 
cme '\-w\ c-]-eAn--oúccAi5 le ciìiitoac a 
•o-ceAnjAn. ÜÁ j-iAt) ]-ca]Ẅa ó'n b-P]UMnc 



ó'n Am 1)1 A 11115 All ÜAOi]'eAC Doty buAit) 
6]- cionn ITIonccAtni aiji -diTOAib -c\b)iAliAiii 
'fAn ni-bliAWAin 1759, Ajtif 'OÁ iii-benJeAt) 
cine eite X)o bi Aim, tio bemeAt) a ■o-reAiijA 
niA]ib Aiioij'. -Ace 1110]! ■òeAnnunt) iia 
cléijnje fpAiTCACA ah PnAinci]-. Co litAc 

a'^- COnilAlUC pAD IIAC ]\Alb AOn UOCCA]' ACA 

•DO i-niUAineAT!) Aip AcnuA'ÒA'ô ]iéime riA 
b-'P]iAtiCAc, cui]ieAT)AH cúiii-QAc A 'o-ceArigAn 
HómpA, Agiif 1110)1 oibjuj uAOine ]iiAiii iiio|- 
1.'eÁ|i]i Aju]' ni'o]" i^eApiiAije '11Á lAt). Di 
iiiónÁn AiiieolAi]' 1-iiieA]-^ iia b-VliAHCAC 
CAji éi]' clAOi-óce A I'UiAij beii' iia SACj'Aiin- 
Ai jib, ói]i iii'o]! i'An 11A li-oipjiüe 'Pjiaiicaca 

']'A11 g-CAllATIA ; no CUAlt) I'lAT) Al]l Al]' gO 'O-CI 

All c-]'eAii-T)iiccAi5, A511)' nion v*-^5*'^'° "^^ 
VliAiiCAijib in)' An ■o-ci]i acc iia cléi|MJe 
A511]' iu\ ■OAOine boccA. 1)' p'oji gu]! ýAii 
T)0]iiiÁn 11A ■o-rijeAjuiAt) no Seigneurs 
■piiAncAc A15 A ]iAib iiió|iÁn loniinii]- 'yó.n X)-cí]\ 
1 jiiocc CAtiiiAn. II1 ]iAib AccciniciobL pceAT) 
■oiob i^o, Agii]' yeunAiiiAoiT) a jia-o 511)1 Ab lAti 
nA cleijiije vo fA0]\ An ll'iiAincí]' ']-^\n 
5-CAnA-OA, 01]! but) bcAj An congiiA-o yiuv 
llATJA)! Ó nA cijeAiuiAijib. 

in A]l A TDubjiA-o ceAiiA.TDobi nAPlUMICAl jet)' 
ỳAn in]' All 5-CAiiAt)A rA]i éi]' ]'51iio]'ca péinie 
iv\ PiiAince innci, ]io-AineolAc ; ni ]iAib Acr 
beAjÁn iDiob -D'yeii-o leijeAu no j-gjn'obA-ù : 
ACC iinmA b-yinl ]-iAn co eoljAC yóy a')- 
buw cói|i •òóib, CAicpiw pnn ATDiiiAib 50 
^iijnéA'OAH jAc nit) r>'Á ivAib 111 a j-chiha]' 
ciiiii A i-eAn-AineolAi]- -no -oibiiic. IIIÁ']' 
ceA]ic •01111111 bAjiAiinitb a ■óéAnA-ù 1 ■o-riiiiciobb 
^TAitie yójbiniiA ■OA0ineA-ó,ó'ii iiiiiii]i )DÁi)Deii]i 
iiuAi-óeAcc ACÁ ACA, -00 jeibcoA]! 50 b-i:iiil 
PpAncAi je iiA CAnATDA ó|- cionn nA couo. ip 
111Ó ve liuiinci]! eile, ói|i ni'L aoii cineiil 
■OAomeA-ó Ai]i All inóiiici]! i'o, 110 b'yeioiii m 
Áic Ainbic eiLe ■oe'n ■ooriiAH, A15 a b-f-niil ah 
nieii'o pn "oe pÁipeniw\ib tjo ]iéin a n-iiitii]ie. 
1]' bAHŵiiiuil coirceAiin í 50 lAbAineAnn 
■pHAiiCAije 11A CAnATJA •o]ioc-'P]iAincí)-, Acri)- 
t)eA]\iiiA-o 1110)1 é ]-o. I]- irio)! 50 lAbAiiieAiin 
■OAOine iieAiii-iiuiiiire nA CAnAüA, olc 50 
Leo]i, Acc ■oéAnAiin nAOir.e noAiii-iiiúince 

11A f-'iAAince l'éin, An ]\ox) ceiitinA. Ilí'l 
■pjiAinci]' 'pAn ■ooiiiAii nío)' ■pcÁ|i)i 'nÁ ÌAbAiji- 
reAji be ■OAoinib aii jiAnjA iheÁẃonAij 111 


ÜÁ ]'OTiipbA nA 5-CAnAT3Ac CAijibeAc ■oo nA 
li-éijieAnnAijib m ioihatd inót). 'Peicp'ó piAt» 
■oo)niÁn beAj "oe ■ÔAOinib Aip a juig a ]-eAn- 
nAiiiAit) buArá, •oeAbuijce ó ci'ji a pini'eA]! 
Al]! ye'XX) nío]' inó 'nÁ céAT) btiA'ÓAn, aju]- a 
TiieÁ-òon A n-tiite c|iioblói'oe, aj rAbAijic nA 
h-Ai)\e Ajuf An ciì]\Aini uob' ỳeÁ]\)i -oo bi aca, 

•00 CÚni-ÓAC AJtll'TlO ]-A0qllJ JAÜ A ü-ceAiijAn 

ciónAiiiÌA. O ]'o AiiiAC m' berò Aon C]iiobbóit) 
A15 l^iuvncAijib nA CAnA-OA 1 •o-caoiV> a 
■o-reAnjAn ; cÁ aii cac beAjnAC c]iiocnui5ce, 
ói)\ 1]' cme ciiiiiAccAC Anoip iat). Ó peAcr- 
liióJAT) iiii'le ■ouine tio bi' Ann miAiji juij 

IIA SACl'AlinAlje buAl-Ô 0|1]1A, -o'^ApA-oA]! TIO 

beic iiiiliiin 50 leiè Anoi]- ! llí'L a T)-ri)i 
beoii-ŷAini'inj ■oóib; cÁ pAice iiiójia -òiob 111 
llAccA]i-CAnAT3A Ajuf in)' IIA SrÁiT)ib -áon- 
cuijce, Ajnp 111 Á liieifotiijeAn piAt) ai]i yeAÒ 
All beAC-céiT) bLiATJAii A TÁ lo ceAcc iiiA]i no 
liientìiiij i'iAT) 111]' All Aiii ciiAit) CA]\]'rA, ni 
bei-ô tÁii-]iéitii A15 All iii-L)eii|\lA ai]i cuai]-- 
ceA]\c nA iiiói]ici]ie ]-o. 

111a]i a ■oub]\A-ó ceAiiA, bí iia yiiAiiCAi je 
CAnAtJACA ■oeAUnjèe ó ii-a j-cine-jAoil ']\\n 

60]1Ó1]3 A1]l yeATJ IIÍO]' HIÓ 'tlÁ céAT) btlATlAll, 

Acc iiiA)! 1]' ]:eA]'AC ■00 gAC Aon jwoileA]' 50 
ceA]ir Aji)]' 50 •ooniiin cinicioll iieiceA-ô ■oe'n 
c-]'ó]ir po, ní ].-éiT)i]i be ■oAoinib a lAbAi]ieA]' 
Aon ceAii^Abeic ib-p'Atim Aiiib]:io]-t)'Á céite, 
A511]' ].'A0i ■oeijie, 1 g-ccAiin cÓAti a']- tjiiocat) 
bliAtiAn, cÁ cÁi]it)eA]- Agn]- iiuiiiireA]TOAi' 
Aj ei]i5e eACoii]iA Agu]- Vl^ncAijib nA 
VjiAince. In Aiin]'i]\ c]iioblóit)e Agii]- 
clAOiúce nA ■pjiAince no f'iii iia Caha-oacai je 
A iigeiigA A111AC 50 5]iÁT)AC CA]\)" All r-]-Ái'Le 
cuni A g-cnii-ò-gAOil, A511]' ó'ii Aiii ]-in 50-0- 
n Anoi]' CÁ ]'iAX) A5 reAcc ni'o]' poi5]"e -d'a 
céile 5AC lÁ. ÜÁ pie b]ieÁ5 aij iia 
CAtiAT)ACAi5ib-o'A]ib'Ainin ir]ie]'clu'rre, aj»]- 
t)o liijiie 11A PjiAiicAi je bAlL ne'n CotÁij-oe 
iiió]i 1 b-pA]\i]--oé — All cÓA-n ýeA]i iiAC Iuijat) 

'j-All b-'P]lAlllC -OÁ n-t)éAHllAT) bALL -Oé ]\1A1Ì1. 



ÜÁ cuiiiAiin M]\ bun ceAtiA le piuoiii-AtnjeAü 
céŵ-o mile -ooIIa]! 1 lÁnii cum line lonj- 
jAile -oo cu)\ «M)\ Inin i-oip bjie^-c Ajti]- 
Ciiebec. ÜÁ ci.niK\]' n-x reŵnjAn aj li]>eir 
ẃn -oÁ JDobAil 1 b-yocAm a céile 1 j-cato- 
HCAiii aju]' 1 j-cÁijTOeA]-. 

By Rev. John J.\.mes O'Carkoli., S.J. 


Pleasing as all the story of Timanog is, 
so far as we have come already (that is, up 
to the part immediately bearing on the 
Transformation of Oisin), absolutely irre- 
proachable as this early portion appears in 
Dr. Joyce's version, we must however say 
we see in it, so far, nothing vcrj- particular ; 
nothing that might not be hoped for from 
a poet in almost any generation. We re- 
member how, when we read this piece for 
the first time, we read on and on in expec- 
tation. It was so that we had been accus- 
tomed to read some writers — Thackeray, for 
instance ; we used to feel from the beginning 
that something very striking and complete 
was due, and that it was sure to come. 
With Scott, indeed, it was quite otherwise. 
We remember vividly how, when studying 
his ways, we noted the wonderful skill with 
which he wove intricacy within intricac}-, 
until the confusion culminated in the arrival 
at Guy Alannering's house of " the man 
whom he supposed he had killed in India." 
We remember how it was at that most 
critical point of all, that the novelist's skill 
and power gave wa}-, and that he could find 
nothing better to crown the whole than 
making Colonel Mannering exclaim : " Mr. 
Brown — I have been seldom — never — so 
much surprised." It is not thus that 
Thackeray makes Baroness Bernstein speak 
when George Warrington appears suddenly 
before her, who she had thought was dead, 
" and is alive." 

There are writers who, when they at last 
put forth their pinions boldly, are sure to 
soar very high ; we thought this was 

signally the old Irish manner, and we read 
on in Timanog, enjoying indeed the ex- 
cursion to fairyland, but watching for a 
bolder flight. We found it in the return of 
Oisin to the land where all the associates 
of his early life had been lying buried for 
many ages, where the Druidic spells had lost 
their power, and the joyous pagan hunting 
life of marvellous adventure was only a 
tradition and a half-mysterious record. 
Here indeed was a subject for surprise, and 
the Irish writer treats it like Thackeray, not 
like Scott. 

We have seen quoted, from an Arabian 
poet, we believe, the exclamation — " I came 
to the home of my youth, and cried, ' The 
friends of mj' youth, where are they ?' And 
echo answered, 'where?'" This is short 
and eas}-. The poet who has recourse to 
silence and echo is like the painter who 
veiled his hero's face because he despaired 
of representing his emotion. The Irish 
poet gives us conversation to depict loneli- 
ness. Oisin, describing his return to 
Ireland, says to St. Patrick : — 

" I saw from the west approaching me a 
great troop of mounted men and women, 
and they came into my own presence. They 
saluted me kindly and courteously, and sur- 
prise seized every one of them on seeing the 
bulk of my own person, my form, my ap- 
pearance, and my countenance." 

It is exquisite art in the poet to commence 
by making Oisin surprise the Irish. The 
greater will be the sudden change of scene 
for the reader when the Irish astonish 
Oisin by their tidings. 

Dr. Joyce does not treat this matter in 
exactly the same way. He begins with a 
double surprise. In his version he makes 
Oisin notice the smallness of the people 
whom he meets, while they, in turn, marvel 
at his great size. We are willing to admit 
that this double surprise will appear very 
natural to a superficial reader, and that Dr. 
Joyce perhaps best served the important 
end he had in view, his generous aim of re- 
commending Irish narratives to the public, 
by modifying what he found in Irish here 
and there in accordance with some popular 
but superficial view. We do not blame 
what has thus been done. We desire only 


to point out that to reflecting minds the 
original Irish must seem sometimes a com- 
position of a higher order than the ever easy 
and agreeable translation. 

Wh\' should the people he met have been 
called little by Oisin ? Was not he a man 
of extraordinary size ? Surely a man of 
extraordinary size does not call ordinary 
people little because they are not of his own 
unusual dimensions ! It should really seem 
that Oisin and the great Fianna were 
supposed to have been, in their own day, 
men of unusually grand proportions, and 
consequently accustomed to look on smaller 
men as of the naturally to be expected size. 
In Oisin's Lament for the Fianna, there 
are no complaints about men's stature hav- 
ing generally degenerated. He complains 
bitterly of the new Christian training, but 
not of a change in the appearance of men's 
natural forms, and there really seems to be 
no reason why he should. 

At any rate, whatever be the common 
sense of Dr. Joyce's version, there can be no 
doubt that the original was far higher 
poetry. In the Irish, Oisin, full of anxiety, 
seems not to notice the stature of those 
whom he addresses, while they, on the con- 
trary, unpreoccupied by any care, and open 
to every impression, are amazed at his 
gigantic form. The tables will soon be 
turned ; the parts will be reversed com- 
pletely, so far as wonder is concerned. 

Oisin inquires about Fionn and the 
Fianna from the people he has met, and, 
according to Dr. Joyce, "one replied." In 
the Irish dramatic form, the answer — the 
astonishing answer — bursts upon us without 
any allusion to the speaker or speakers. 
This is best in keeping with the former im- 
pression that Oisin was not in a mood to 
be observant. The answer keeps up the 
interest ; it is as follows, in Mr. 
O'Looney's version, omitting for the mo- 
ment the conclusion : — •" We have heard tell 
of Fionn, for strength, for activity, and for 
prowess ; that there never was an equal for 
him in person, in character, and in mien. 
There is many a book written down by the 
melodious sweet sages of the Gaels, which 
we, in truth, are unable to relate to thee, of 
the deeds of Fionn and of the Fianna." The 

whole sense of this reply is modified by Dr. 
Joyce in a rather remarkable way. He 
makes his speaker say to Ossian, concerning 
the Fenian exploits — " We cannot relate 
them now!' 

This seems to show that it is only for 
want of time he does not tell Fionn's history : 
that he really knows it very well. This 
view is fully confirmed by his adding, as he 
does in Dr. Joyce's version : " We have 
heard also, and we have seen it written in 
very old books that Fionn had a son named 
Oisin." Dr. Joyce's speaker is clearly a 
lettered man, an historical student who 
knows a great deal about the Fianna. The 
reply in the Irish is surely a thousand times 
more poetical. There the people whom 
Oisin meets do not appear to know Fionn's 
exploits themselves clearly — theyare simply 
" unable to relate " them ; " the melodious 
sweet sages of the Gaels " indeed have 
written them down in books ; the speakers 
do not boast of having read or even seen the 
volumes. They are ordinary illiterate 
country people, and Oisin is a thousand 
times more a stranger amongst them than 
he appears in the pages of Dr. Joyce. 

The truth is, that Dr. Joyce is very well 
able to detect the oversights of our Irish 
writers when they err from unwitting sim- 
plicity ; but when they are at their best, 
when, full of their subject, they are putting 
forth their power, we honestly believe that 
neither he nor any other man can be ex- 
pected to improve their work, any more 
than the most consummate artist of our day 
may venture to retouch the pictures of 
Angelo or Raphael. It must at last be 
understood that our great Irish imaginative 
works are masterpieces — masterpieces in a 
sense in which the works of Homer and 
Shakspeare are masterpieces, not exempt 
from many flaws and faults and fits of wit- 
les.«ness, but full of glorious passages, where 
the thoroughness of the thought secured, in 
spite of every difficulty, the thoroughness 
of the execution. 

Necessary as such a translation as Dr. 
Joyce's was, unreadable as a truly literal 
translation must always be as a whole, still 
to know a great author in his grandest 
moods, it is necessary at least to study him 


in a literal version ; to appreciate him fully, 
he must, of course, be read in the original. 
We have no'.v arrived at one of those grand 
fits of enthusiastic thought in which an 
author appears not curiously inspired for a 
moment, but guided unerringly by his great 
subject from step to step ; and to make an 
accurate examination of him here, we con- 
tinue to use the literal translation. 

We have already seen that Dr. Joyce 
makes his one speaker tell Oisin that he 
had seen the name of Oisin, Fionn's son, 
set down in ancient books. Dr. Joyce 
makes the speaker add the following very 
definite categorical statement : — " Now this 
Oisin went with a young fairy maiden to 
Tirnanoge, and his father and his friends 
sorrowed greatly after him, and sought him 
long, but he was never seen again." 

ft is really like listening to the music of 
another world to turn from this accurate, 
business-like statement to the few vague 
and beautiful lines of the original, even as 
they sound in the literal translation. " We 
heard that Fionn had a son of brightest 
beauty and form ; that there came a }-oung 
maiden for him, and that he went with her 
to the Land of Youth." " We heard that 
Fionn had a son ; " instead of, " Now this 
Oisin," throws at once a remoteness over all 
that is said, and the remoteness of the back- 
ground into which Oisin's history has 
faded is wondrously kept up by the 
simple and sublime original. " A young 
maiden came for him — he went with her to 
the Land of Youth :" such is the whole, a 
matter of report, about one passage in the 
lives of two anonymous vanished beings ! 
There is here nothing indeed to make 
Oisin speak. This is telling him that he 
has no place in men's thoughts, that his 
very name is forgotten ; this is giving him 
cause to feel lonely in his own land. He 
will naturally turn away from these people 
without a word. 

On the contrary, a speaker like Dr. 
Joyce's, who knew Oisin's name and his 
friends' search for him, and their great sor- 
row, and the maiden's fairy nature ; who 
was well up in all this history, and had read 
documents relating to it, would almost in- 
evitably have made Oisin take him into 

his confidence, and reveal to him who he 
was. The Irish poet managed the matter 
in a grander, if less obvious way, and after 
hearing the vague reminiscence of indistinct 
reports, which is all Oisin can elicit, we 
can well understand what the disappointed 
man tells Patrick : — " When I, myself, heard 
tliat [iro] announcement, that Fionn did not 
live, nor any of the Fianna, I was seized 
with weariness and great sorrow, and I was 
full of melancholy after them. / did not 
slop on my course, quick and smart without 
any delay, till I set my face straight forward 
to Almhuin of great exploits, in broad 
Leinster." TItere had been his father's 
palace, but he found no relics of " the court 
of Fionn of the hosts ; " the place was over- 
grown with weeds and nettles. 

Nowhere is the poet's exquisite art in 
arranging better shown than in what follows 
here. There is a great deal more to be told ; 
the catastrophe by which Oisin changed 
suddenly into a decrepid old man, has to be 
related ; but the poet interrupts the narra- 
tion here. He has reached one of those 
great points where, as Shakespeare would 
have said, one should " give sorrow words;" 
and Oisin, after recalling the desolation of 
the site where his father's halls once stood, 
bursts out at last into a passionate cry of 

The Irish poet of Tirnanog understood 
as well as other critics that " nothing dries 
more quickly than a tear ; " and he does not 
allow Oisin's lamentation to last long. 
It is addressed to Patrick, and, with most 
accurate keeping of the characters as- 
signed to Oisin and Patrick in our poems, 
he makes the saint interrupt the old man 
sternly, and bid him not mourn for Fionn, 
and the lost pagan men past praying for, 
but rather offer his tears to the God of 
Grace. Now an appalling subject is brought 
forward, and the deep melancholy interest 
that had been excited about Oisin gives 
place, for a few moments, to that aroused 
by a more tragic theme. St. Patrick in- 
sists on the victory of God. All the old 
pagan bursts out in Ossian, and he de- 


mands, with powerful and blasphemous 
passion, to be set alongside of his Fenian 
comrades, wherever they be ; the love and 
partiality of a father break out together 
with the desperate spirit of the godless 
warrior, and he declares that if Oscar, his 
son, is but present, there is no host in 
heaven or in hell that that hero cannot 
destroy. St. Patrick sees there is nothing 
to be gained by urging Oisin now ; he 
proposes that their controversy be aban- 
doned, and bids Oisin go on with his own 

St. Patrick is regularly represented as 
anxious to hear the story of the pagan 
times from Oisin, as anxious to convert 
him, and as every now and then reproving 
him for his attachment to pagan ways. 
]5ut on the present occasion, all this is 
availed of to produce a most masterly di- 
version of sentiment ; to make one great 
and bold conception take appropriately and 
naturally the place of another. There is 
here shown surely no mere Curiosa Felicitas, 
but cultivated and judicious genius of the 
highest order. All this is of course lost in 
Dr. Joyce's version, where the dialogue 
form of the romance is, no doubt for im- 
portant reasons, not preserved. 

After the dispute with St. Patrick on the 
most terrible of all subjects, Oisin re- 
sumes his narration ; he has now to describe 
his own wonderful and sad catastrophe. 
He tells how he left unexamined no spot 
where the Fianna had ever dwelt, and 
how, then, passing through Glenasmol (a 
region identified by some with the Valley 
of the Dodder), he saw a number of men 
trying to hold up a great stone, and gradu- 
ally succumbing from the terrible exertion. 
Asked to help them, he put forth his ex- 
traordinary strength, and shot the great 
stone seven perches off from its place. 
The feat was dearly paid for : " the gol- 
den girth of his white steed burst ; " 
Oisin suddenly found himself standing on 
Christian ground, disenchanted for ever, in 
his own words, "an old man, poor and 
blind, without strength, understanding or 
esteem." This is a fine and impressive 
ending ; but love of unity in narration, and 
of completeness, made the author add one 

stanza more — a recapitulation or summing 
up of the whole, addressed by name to one 
of the speakers in the dialogue, and de- 
scribing the career of the other who pro- 
nounces it himself — 

" P.itrick ! there is to thee my story 
As it occurred to myself, without a lie ; 
Wy going, and my adventures in certain, 
And my returning from the Land of Youth." 

And thus the wondrous narration is 
regularly and very artistically closed in the 
epigrammatic or lapidary style, which Mr. 
Matthew Arnold looks on as a character- 
istic of the Celt. 

Our Irish anonymous authors could do 
such things as this, and did them, and left 
them behind them when they died ; but 
unfortunately it was only to be carped at 
and despised, or at best, moderately valued 
as vestiges of a rude and not very remote 
antiquity. We have seen it was signally 
an Irish art of composition to heighten in- 
terest very boldly, and to deal with delicate 
tact and varied grandeur with the strangely- 
heightened interest. Tales and poems, in 
which such power was put forth, were pre- 
served when their authors' names had been 
forgotten — preserved among uneducated 
peasants, when the cultivation of the old 
language had been laid aside. Where there 
were no Welsh Eisteddfods — no manorial 
petty patrons to deign to listen to the litera- 
ture that was once welcomed in the assem- 
blies of the chieftains of the land, despi.sed 
peasants used to gather together by the 
low turf fires of the hovels of their bogs, 
and enjoy the recital of the grand old 
stories in prose and verse, which a wonder- 
ful tradition still preserved. 

As the Irish language gradually changed, 
the forms of words in which the old tales 
were recited to eager listeners became 
gradually modified, as has been so well ex- 
plained by Mr. Standish Hayes O'Grady in 
his introduction to the tale of Diarmuid 
and Graine ; but even in modern Irish, like 
that in which we now read the story of 
Tirnanog, we find preserved not only ideas, 
but a spirit and a manner that cany one 
back irresistibly to a long vanished era. 
For a long time the tales preserved by 


peasants,* but belonging to an old tongue 
and school, were mocked or pitied by the 
imperfect scholars of the new English cul- 
ture. Men whose English was pitiably 
ponderous, whose literary taste was that of 
pedagogues, and whose powers of intellect 
were those of boys, conceived themselves 
entitled to look down on the literature of 

Scotland. And in section iii., after allud- 
ing very respectfully to " ancient verses 
of the sixth and seventh centuries, pro- 
duced in the ' Annals of the Four Masters,' 
or any other classical writings of the pos- 
terior ages,'' his humour overflows in a new 
kind of Ossianic dialogue, where he makes 
Macpherson say to Ossian, " Do, Ossian ; 

the Irish cabins, which no English precept i make you a collection of our old vulgar 

tales about the Tan-bo-Cuailgney and 
Fianna Ereann." 

We are already certainly improved with 
regard to such views as these, and we shall, 
we trust, improve still further. We have 
left far behind us, not in time indeed, but 
by our progress, the days when Charles 
O'Conor wrote of the "vulgar" Irish tales. 
Since then O'Curry has made the Táin- 
Bó-Chuailgne the chief centre-figure of the 
history of Irish literature, and learned 
academicians have broken up into parties 
about the honour of giving it to us in pub- 
lished form. The Ossianic Society has 
risen and fallen, but it has left its work be- 
hind it, and that work is one of those which 
" will not decay." 

No doubt O'Curry, with that modesty 
hich set off his learning, did not venture 

or example had trained, or helped 
modified. All the skill in composition 
which the Celtic masters had attained, dis- 
appeared as a living art, and among edu- 
cated Irishmen literature came to be con- 
sidered as a kind of English study. 

Then came the era of our antiquarians. 
A plea was found for Irish, it was Antiquity. 
The idea of intrinsic worth in Irish com- 
position was not entertained, but if any 
archaic Irish could be found, it had a special 
value as a curiosity. We are not speaking 
now of strangers — not of Macpherson nor 
the Highland Society, nor of Vallancey. 
Our own scholars seemed to have no spirit 
to feel the charm of Irish literature. They 
remind us to some extent of Byzantines 
sitting in judgment on the marvels of 
Athenian literarv genius. But in truth 

they were much worse than Byzantines. , to expatiate on the literary value of the 
We never heard that the critics of Con- I works for whose antiquity he fought so 
stantinople ventured to despise Demos- 
thenes or Sophocles because their Greek 
was younger than the dialects of Homer. 
But our own venerable Charles O'Conor 
actually speaks of the " romances and vulgar 
stories of the Tan-Bo-Cualgney war, and 
those of the Fianna Ereann," in section ii. 
of his Dissertations on the History of 

* Unfortunately we learn from Lord Macaulay that the 
act of the Irish peasants living in hovels and clinging to 
the old tongue of their traditions, had. no less than their 
diet, the effect of rendering equality between them and Eng- 
lish settlers impossible. " There could not be equality 
between men who lived in houses and men who lived in 
sties ; between men who were fed on bread and men who 
were fed on potatoes ; between men who spoke the noble 
tongue of great philosophers and poets, and men who, 
witit a perverted pride, boasted that they could not writhe 
their mouths into chattering such a jargon as that in 
which the Advancement of Learning and the Paradise 
Lost were written." — History of England, ch. vi. The 
reader will, no doubt, notice, possibly without surpiise, Lord .Macaulay does not allude to English settlers 
reading or listening to philosophers, or even poets, with 
any particular jeal, but simply to their .speaking their 
noble tongue. 

earnestly. No doubt the Ossianic Society, 
in spite of some general compliments, some 
using of the word " gem," and the like, 
seems positively to have thought most of 
what it published, because of some views 
of antiquity enshrined in the midst of 
tolerably late forms of language. The 
proof of this will be found in our text 
a little further on. And no doubt the 
antiquarian fit is hot upon us, even to-day. 
Even to-day Mr. Standish O'Grady, the 
historian, while protesting about " poor Ire- 
land, with her hundred ancient epics stand- 
ing at the door of the temple of fame," 
makes rather little of the whole hundred of 
them as epics, and is very proud of their 
being older than " the Swabian," as he calls 
the Nibelungen-Lied. But this must surely 
change. Now, that with Dr. Joyce's help, 
we venture to look on Irish compositions 
as integral works, and find the maiksof a 
high and thoughtful art impressed upon 



them, it will soon, we believe, be impossible 
not to recognise the fact that a lofty intel- 
lectual culture was stamped out in Ireland ; 
that the Irish mind was made a blotted 
tablet in order to receive the primary les- 
sons of civilization from another source ; 
but that of the great perfection that had 
been reached in its first career, there remain 
among us still some glorious monuments. 



We have seen what are the long, short, 
obscure, and diphthongal sounds of the 
simple vowel <\ in the standard Irish pro- 
nunciation of Connaught. Let us now 
make a short reference to the principal 
dialectical variations in the pronunciation 
of this letter. 

While the Connaught Irish has a few 
diphthongal sounds of the simple vowels, 
such as those to which we have already 
alluded, the dialect spoken in Munster has 
a much greater number. There is also a 
very considerable number of diphthongal 
sounds in the Gaelic of Scotland, especially 
in the Northern Highlands. With respect 
to the Connaught Á long, wherever it occurs 
in the forms au, aj, followed by a broad 
vowel or by the consonants I, m, ii, \\, c, 5, it 
is pronounced in Munster with a sound 
intermediate between the English 0/ in oil 
and the z in ire, but with the mouth more 
rounded and less open than either. There 
are subvarieties of this sound in each of the 
Munster counties. The same rule applies 
to c\ short in Munster, which, as we have 
seen, is modified into a diphthongal sound 
of a similar kind in Connaught, only before 
a broad vowel, and where the accent is not 
marked. But also before a broad vowel, 
with or without the accent, the same sound 
is heard in Munster. E.xamples of this 
sound are ŵü]\At), adoration, pr. i-rah ; 
Á-óinŵT), timber, pr. i-mudh ; ẃ-Òc\]\c, a horn, 
pr. both in Munster and Connaught i-urk ; 
Auluic, bury, pr. i-lic, the i in each case in 

Munster having the long English sound. 
But this diphthongal sound, approaching to 
the long English z, does not obtain in 
monosyllables in Munster, so that the word 
At), luck, is pronounced alike in the two 

In Ulster and a part of Meath Á long is 
pronounced as in the English words far, 
father, which Walker improperly calls the 
Italian a. This is also the sound of long a 
throughout the Highlands of Scotland. 
Stewart gives the long a in Scotch Gaelic 
as in the English words far, star, and not 
as in call, awe. In Man.x the long a may 
be considered as nearly the same as that 
pronounced in Ulster. In the latter pro- 
vince there are two pronunciations of the 
diphthongal sound of au and aj heard in 
Munster. In South Ulster and a part of 
Meath this combination is pronounced like 
the French e with the grave accent, or the 
a in the English word ware ; thus, a-óahc is 
pronounced as if written a-urc in English. 
But in North Ulster it is pronounced almost 
like iveeoo, or what we may conceive the 
vowels in the Greek word huws, but very 
quickly, in one syllable. The sound in the 
Highlands of Scotland is nearly the same 
as in North Ulster. Stewart divides the a 
into three sounds, each of the two former 
having a long and a short subdivision. It is 
the above peculiar diphthongal sound that 
he names the second. Of the long sub- 
division of the second sound he gives as an 
example, adiibltar, a cause ; and of the short, 
magli, a field. In these two words the a is 
pronounced long in Connaught. 

We must now notice a very peculiar 
diphthongal sound of A, characteristic of 
the language of the southern half of Ire- 
land. This approaches to the ow in the 
English word now, though there is more of 
the so-called Italian a in the English sound, 
and more of the a in all in the Irish. This 
sound is heard before the consonant 111, or 
before the double consonants II, nn, 115 in 
monosyllabic words, and before nr, no in 
dis.syllables. E.xamples of this Munster 
diphthongal sound are heard in such words 
as Aiii, time ; b^ll, a member ; bAn-pijeAn, 
a queen ; CAtn, crooked ; cÌAnn, children ; 
5 All, a stranger ; iiuvng, a bag ; I'oAnj, 


slender ; neAiicuj, nettles, pronounced in 
Munster owm, Bowl, &c., nearly, and in 
Connaught am, bal, &c., nearly, with the 
regular analogical short sound of the a in 
the latter province. This iTi' sound at once 
distinguishes the Munster dialect from 
those of the rest of Ireland, as it occurs very 
frequently in speaking. But what is very 
singular is that, although this sound does 
not occur in Ulster, it reappears in what 
may be termed an aggravated form in the 
Highlands of Scotland. Thus, in Inverness 
the preposition gAn, without, is pronounced 
gown, which is carrying the Munster diph- 
thongal practice further than in that pro- 
vince itself. Ulster and North Leinster 
agree with Connaught in rejecting this oiv 
sound in the situations stated, and the short 
sound is evidently more distinct and ana- 
logical, though the Munster people main- 
tain that their diphthongal sound is more 
musical and sonorous, with which opinion 
the rest of the Irish-speaking people do not 

There is another difference between the 
southern and northern halves of Ireland in 
the pronunciation of the combination -aI:), 
the A in which approaches to Walker's 
Italian a in Munster, except Kerry. In the 
latter county it has the diphthongal sound 
previously referred to ; in Ulster the a is 
pronounced like o, while in Connaught the 
regular analogical long sound is preserved, 
being the medium between Ulster and 
Kerry. Examples are found in the words 
AljAinn, a river ; lAbAi)\c, speaking. 

It is to be remarked that the short a of 
South-Eastern Munster, when immediately 
preceding two consonants other than those 
mentioned above, has somewhat the sound 
of the English o in hot, being broader than 
the same sound in Connaught. The dif- 
ference in this case is, however, very slight. 
On the other hand, the same sound in 
Ulster and the Highlands of Scotland ap- 
proaches the short English a in that, with 
which Stewart identifies it, but in our opi- 
nion erroneously, the difference, however, 
being slight. Spurrell, in his Welsh Gram- 
mar, has some very acute remarks on a 
similar difference in sound between the 
English and Welsh short a, which latter 

appears to correspond to that of the Scotch 
Gaelic and Manx. 

One more sound of <? must be mentioned 
before we take leave of this vowel. In dis- 
syllables and polysyllables throughout Con- 
naught, Ulster, and North Leinster, a-ò 
final is pronounced like the English oo, but 
with a nasal sound at the end, or as if it 
were expressed in Irish orthography by mil. 
This has, consequently, become the standard 
sound for this combination, though it is less 
analogical than the Munster pronunciation, 
which is simply the obscure a in the Eng- 
lish words, regular, general. 

The above are all the sounds of the 
simple vowel a of any importance through- 
out Ireland. When we come to the consi- 
deration of this vowel as forming a portion 
of a diphthong, we shall have to notice the 
effect of other vowels upon it. At present 
we may remark that the consonant imme- 
diately preceding or following it takes what 
. is called a broad sound. What the broad 
sounds of the consonants are we shall treat 
of when we come to each of them in turn. 
We shall now give a table of the standard 
sounds of the vowel a, with examples, and 
an approximate English sound : — 

1. A long, as ill bjf. death, appr. sound, call. 

2. A short, „ gl-sf' green, ,, wad. 

3. Ji diphthongal, ,, poi-Dipc, sight, ,, mire. 

4. A obscure, ,, ,, murky. 

5. A-ô, final, ,, buAlaiD, striking, ,, do. 

The above are the standard, as distin- 
guished from the dialectical sounds. We 
would advise students of Irish, who are 
natives of Munster or Ulster, to abandon 
the latter, and to accustom themselves to 
the standard sounds, just as the English 
and other nations do not use their respec- 
tive dialects in society or literature, unless 
in exceptional cases. Not but that the 
study of dialects is useful in its wa}', nor 
that we should desire them to be neglected 
or despised ; but if a language is to possess 
a literature, and to be revived as a general 
medium of communication, it must adopt 
one uniform standard. There is as yet too 
much sectional and provincial feeling among 
Irish scholars to permit us to hope much 
from our appeal to their nationality as 
Irishmen yet ; but we think that common- 



sense in this respect is fast gaining on the 
minds of the rising generation, and tliat the 
necessity of unity and some degree of uni- 
formity is presenting itself to them daily in 
a clearer light. 

We should advise those who have not 
had the opportunity of hearing Irish much 
spoken, and who desire to acquire the 
sounds of the language, to procure an ele- 
mentary book on Irish pronunciation, and 
to get a native of Western Connaught to 
pronounce the examples given in it, or 
those wc have furnished and shall furnish, 
repeating those words after him till the two 
pronunciations agree. They .should com- 
mence with words containing the several 
vowels and diphthongs, and then proceed 
to practise the pronunciation of the con- 
sonants, simple and aspirated, confining 
themselves to one thing at a time, and using 
frequent repetition. 

In reference to the vowel a, we may re- 
mark that it has been oftener changed into 
other vowels in Irish than other vowels into 
it. This might be expected from the fact 
that in the primitive Indo-European or 
Aryan language there were only three 
vowels — a, i, ii. We may conclude our re- 
marks on this vowel with the words of 
Zeuss concerning it : — " Vocalis ^, vocalium 
centrum et principium, divergendo duobus 
radiis, extremas contra se positas habet 
vocales ex una parte /, ex altera Í ', qus 
religantur per intermedias in principium, 
i scilicet mcdiante E, atque u mediante O!' 
He also remarks that the added a in diph- 
thongs was less frequent in old than in 
modern Irish. 

ClAtin ConcolJAi]i. 
(To be continued.) 

Le Tom as OFlannaoile. 


I. (a) Cu agus geinidin anma dhilis fir 
in a dhiaidh. Do shaoil me air d-tus nar 
bheag an lion d'anmannaibh do cumadh 
mar so, acht tar eis moran do leigheadh 

agus ni cigin geirbhreathnuighthe do tha- 
bhairt, ni fuair me fa dheoidh acht ceann 
amhain — 'se sin Cii-Cliulainn, ainm treun- 
laoich chluthamhla na n-Ultach. 

Ni fliuil acht aon Clutclutlainn amhain i 
stair uile na h-Eireann o thus go deireadh. 
Feadh dha mhile bliadhan do mhair an 
t-ainm ceimeamhail so, nir goireadh do 
dhuine eile 'na dhiaidh e, agus uime sin ni 
dearnadh sloinne dhe riamh. Ni h-iongnadh 
dar n-doigh go bh-fuigheadh an t-ainm 
oirdhearc so tosach air na h-uile " Cu- 
anmannaibh " eile : ainm priomh-laoich na 
Craoibhe Ruaidhe, ainm an te ba chrodhacht 
na " g-Con " uile, gile na ngaiscidheach, 
" fortissimus heros Scotorum " mar do 
ghairm an croinicidh Tighearnach de, mile 
bliadhan iar n-aimsir an treinfliir. 

Dubhairt me go maireann an t-ainm so^ 
'seadh go deimhin, ta an t-ainm air marth- 
ain fos againn, acht is cuimhne cheomhar 
linn e agus is fir-bheagan eile seach an ainm 
as eol duinn andiu. Leath amuigh d'ar 
innis an Ceitingeach air — agus is anamh a 
chimid sin fein — is fada, fada o do scriob- 
hadh sceul Gaedhilge air an treunlaoch so. 
Is fearr a ta fios ag aos og na h-Eireann 
andiu air Achuill Greugach, air Eachtoirna 
Traoi shoir, air Uilis agus air Eneas — is 
fearr aithnigheas siad Alfred the Great no 
Robin Hood no mar as cosamhail fos Dick 
Tiirpin no Freney the Robber — 'na Eibhear 
no Eireamhon, Cu-chulainn no Conall Cear- 
nach, Fionn mac Cumhaill no Goll mac 
Morna, Diarmaid Donn no Oscar aigh. Conn 
Ceud-chathach, " Daithi mor do sheol tar 
tuinn," Brian Borumha, Art Mac Mur- 
chadha, Aodh ONeill, Aodh ODomhnaill, 
Eoghan Ruadh, Ruaidhri OMordha, na 
Burcaigh buadhacha, na Gearaltaigh gle- 
geala, na Sarsaoghlaigh soillseacha — no fear 
do na ceudtaibh eile d'a bh-fuair clu agus 
ceim riamh 'san oilean arsaidh so, o n-a 
ceud ghabhail go d-ti an la 'ndiu. 

Is ro mhaith gan amhras, eolas do bheith 
againn air an iomlan, idir a m-baineann le 
h-Eirinn agus a m-baineann le tirthibh eile, 
acht ma's eigean duinn cuid do leigean 
tharainn na treigimis ar leighean fein, na 
treigimis sceulta agus filidheacht agus 
seanchas na nGaedheal air son d'a bh-fuil 
diobh ag na gallaibh. 



Cia an t-adhbhar fa bh-fuil an t-ainbhfios 
so le faghail ag muintir na h-Eireann ? Is 
iomdha na h-adhbliair. Adlibhar dhiobh, 
Eireannaigh do mheas gur b'fhearr gach ni 
gallda 'na aon ni ba leo fein, ionnas go 
d-tarla gur leigeadar an chuid as mo dhiobh 
a d-teanga fein uatha agus go n-dearnadar 
maiairt deagh-GIiaedhiige air son droch- 
Blieurla. 'Se an meas bocht suarach so, an 
meas amadanta so, an t-adhbhar as mo. 
Do threigeadar a d-teanga agus da bhrigh 
sin ni frith aca o shin suas an t-eolas nach 
raibh le faghail acht air n-a scriobhadh 'na 
d-teangain fein. Is fior gur muineadh le 
fada dhoibh a d-teanga duthchais agus a 
leighean do chur i n-dimheas ; is deimhin 
go n-dearnadh foirneart ortlia go minic 
chum d'ualach do chur ortha a d-teanga 
fein do threigean ; acht 'na dhiaidh sin nil 
ar b-pobul fein gan locht. Adhbhar eile, 
nuair a bhi Gaedhilig ag ni as mo do 
mhuintir na h-Eireann 'na ta san tir andiu, 
is beagan diobh dar muineadh leiglicadli na 
teangan leis an lucht ler b'fheidir agus d'ar 
coir a dheanadh. Adhbhar eile fos, cia go 
raibh daoine ann le a d-tainic Gaedhilig do 
leigheadh fein, ni raibh moran do leabhraibh 
aca le leigheadh ; oir is e do ghnidheadh na 
h-eolaigh Gaedhilge — agus do ghni cuid 
diobh fos — iad fein d'fliolughadh 'sna sean- 
mheamramaibh agus dul thart do leigean 
don t-saoghal, amhail da m-beidheadh Eire 
gan Gaedheal, gan Gaedhilig air bith. Is 
fior gur aistrigh siad o am go h-am cuid do 
na sean-leabhraibh i m-Beurla. Acht creud 
do rinne so air leighthcoiribh na Gaedhilge ? 
M. Henri Gaidoz, P'rancach foghlamtha — 
no is cora a radh Breatun foghlamtha — 
beagan do bhliadhnaibh o shin 'se d'tliiaf- 
ruighse : " Fait-on quelque chose en Irlande 
pour prevenir I'extinction prochaine du 
Gaelique ? Et pourtant si 1 on porte quelque 
intérét à une langue, ne doit-on pas d'abord 
veiller a sa conservation ? "* Nir thuig an 
duine-uasal sin an glor mor agus an gniomh 

Ni h-iad aistrighthe Beitrla on t-sean- 
Ghaedhilig do dheanfas an coimeud so, ni 
h-iad sin do theastuigh o lucht-labhartha 
agus o lucht-leighte na Gaedhilge, acht 

Rr.'ue Celtique, 1 870. 

saothair fhorusa gnath-Ghaedhilge do scrio- 
bhadh dhoibh, no — an chuid as lugha dhe — 
aistrighthe no tionntodha na seanleabhar 
i nGaedhilig na h-aimsire laithrighe mar 
tuigthear agus mar scriobhthar andiu i. Do 
mheasfa dar mo chubhas nar mhian le cuid 
do na h-eolachaibh Gaedhilge air ar labhras 
anteangado leathnughadh nodochoimeud ; 
muna b'flieidir gur leor leo-san seanchaidh 
no dho chum an teanga do " choimeud " 
agus gur mheasadargur danacht do-mholta 
bheith aig iarraidh uimhir na droinge sin 
do mheudughadh. 

Acht ta laethe as gile ag teacht, in a 
m-beidh daoine na tire so ni bhus Eirean- 
naighe agus ni bhus eolaighe air cuisean- 
naibh Eireannacha ; agus in a m-beidh 
scolairidh Gaedhilge ni bhus tuigsionaighe 
uim an riachtanas a ta ann chum ni eigin 
do dheanadh air son na h-aimsire laithrighe. 
Taobh an ''extinction" do b'eagal le M. 
Gaidoz da bhliadhain deug o shin, nil focal 
don bhrigh sin a bh-focloir I risleabhair na 
Gaedhilge, oir se a chiall ni eigin le nach 
suil againn agus nach eagal linn anois no 
da eis so. 

Ni raibh i g-Cn-Ckidaiiin air d-tus acht 
forainm — no badh cora dham kasaiiun do 
radh — agusiscosamhail mardubhras cheana 
gur b'amhlaidh sin do mhoran d'anman- 
naibh eile d'a chineul. Ba Scatanta a cheud 
ainm, agus nuair a thuill se an t-ainm as 
gnathaighe ni raibh ann acht buachaiU beag 
in aois deich m-bliadhan. 

La d'a raibh Conchubhar mac Neasa 
ardrigh Uladh agus maithe an chuigidh uile 
maille leis ag cathadh fleidhe moire i d-tigh 
Chulainn flathghobhann airighthe gar beag 
siar o Eamhain Macha, do bhiodar ag ol as 
ag aoibhneas, ceol na g-clairseach aca agus 
imirt fithchille. Agus as amhlaidh do bhidh- 
eadh teach an Chulainn so faoi thuitim 
na h-oidhche, agus cu mhor, gharg air scaoi- 
leadh taobh amuigh an duin, do ghnidheadh 
faire ann sin agus do choimeudadh muintir 
agus maoin an fhlathghobhann feadh na 
h-oidhche. Mairg don ghadaidh, mairgdon 
choimhitheachdo lamhfadh dul isteach 'san 
dun sin agus an madadh mor so ag faire air 
taobh amuigh, oir ba bheag leis greim do 
bhreith air fear d'a mheud agus a shracadh 
o cheile. I d-tus na fleidhe do bhi suil ag 



an righ Conchubhar 's ag a chuideachta le 
Seatanta do theacht in a n-dail ; acht ni 
rainic se fos gus an tigh agus le cathadh na 
fleidhe do dhearmad siad e. Is ann sin do 
chualadar go h-obann tafain gharg an 
mhadaidh agus glor buachaill faoi flieirg. 
" Is Seatanta a ta ann " ar Fearghus mac 
Roigh oide-gaiscidh anbhuachaill. Ü 'eirigh- 
eadar 'na seasadhf a cheudoir, oir bhi 'fhios 
aca go maith go raibh an malrach i bh-fior- 

Gleo mor amuigh agus iarsin uaillfeart 
uathbhasacli na con. 

Creud do tharla dhuit a Sheatanta ? Do 
foscladh na doirse gan moill agus ritheadar 
na curaidh amach d'a chobhair — oir ba 
h-ionmhain leis an g-Craoibh Ruaidh an 
t-ogan meanmnach sin. Annsud thall faoi 
sholus na gealaighe do chidhid Seatanta og 
agus e 'na sheasadh go breagh, buadhach, 
a chaman maith in a laimh dheis agus an 
chu marbh air lar. Do thogbhadar uile 
annsin gair mhor maoidhte d'athas faoi 
bhuaidh an ogain agus faoi n-a bheith 
slan. Acht ba h-adhbhar broin le Culann 
a chu bhreagh luachmhar do bheith marbh, 
agus uime sin dubhairt Seatanta leis " Na 
bidheadh buaidhreadh ort, a Chulainn 
uasail, faoi do choin, oir beidh mise fein 
am choin duit no go bh-faghair madadh 
eile in a h-ionad, agus deanfaidh me faire 
air do thigh agus air a bh-fuil ann chomh 
dileas le coin no madadh air bith." Annsin 
do ghairm na curaidh uile " Cu-Chulainn " 
don laoch og, agus o shin amach do lean an 
forainm do. 

Marsodeir nasceuIaidhthe,marsoinnseas 
seanchaidhthe na h-Eireann. 

{Le bheith air leanamhain.) 

coiiiuÁit)üe ■oeijbeusACvX: iinii. s. 

wtyi ti-A i-spiob™ 1 SAci-beupli Uif ah úcAip pÁx)i\Aic 

V.& CAOiiii, ó <\iTO-ýAH\ce COii]-il, : 

Äjlir ûii-oiujre 50 -bAewilis le SeÁg.Mi pléimion. 

"Oo lÁ An bjieiceAiiiiiAi]-. 
CAicniii]- iiAnin', unne ]-ni, oib]>eACA An 

T30]\CA'0A11-, AJU)- CllllHtlli]- lltllAnin Ó1T)C All 

r-i'oliin- flîóiii. xiii. 1-). 

A.\ b|\Áièiie, roinnje-jnii Aii GajIai]- le n-A 
btiAt)Ain yém An-tJiu, An Cent) 'OoninAC'oe'n 
<\-obenc ; aju]- i)- é cú]iAni 1]' nió uimie, cu]t 
1 5-cói)\ 50 h-AiiicAC, -oo'n ỳéil liióin ^-o nA 
IIotjLaj a cá aj ceAcr. CinjiCAnn I'l ai]i leic 
cum All jnó j-o Ainii-iji ái]ii jce, ai)\ a tiglAot)- 
Ann ]■! -t\-obenc, no ücacc au UijeAjinA. 
1|- iiiüp All 1111 All A cÁ Aice 50 n-t)éAni:AT3 
A clAim 50 léi]i 1A-0 yéiii ü'ulliiiuJAt) 50 
niAic Yaii Aini)-i]i ]'o, 1011110]- 50 n-t)éAiij:An!)e 
ío]-A Cnío]-c -00 b]ieic 50 ]-]Dio|\At)ÁLcA 111 a 

11-AtlAtlinAlb AI5 All IIo-oIaIJ, AgUp 50 
njbACpAIT)!)" All C-fíOCCÁltl l'lt) A CÁ jeAÌbcA 

•00 "•ÒAOiiiib neAJ-colA." "lllliiiuiji-ò," A-Dei]i 
fi le nA clAiiin inie, " iilliiiuijiü l'lijce ŵn 
üt jeA]uiA,T3éAiiAiX) A CA]'Áin •oi|\eAc" (11. t^uc. 
iii. 4j. " bi-óeATÌ) A \\o\ AjAib gup Ab í 
Aiioi]- All UAiji cum éiiiijce ó couLa An 

peACAlTJ. . . SuiblAlllAOl]' 50 lllACÁnCA 

iiiA]i 111)' An lÁ, ni 1 5-c)\A0]- nÁ 1 nieii'ge, ni 
1 ]'eom]iAt)ói]\eAcc nÁ 1 T)-qiUAilli5ceAcc, ni 
in AC]iAnn 11Á 1 b-i:o]imAt), acc cui]iit) uiriAib 
All UijeA^niA iof A C]\ioi'c " (Hoiii. xiii. 13, 
14). bi-óeAX) An cé a ca p'peunüA niof 
ppeunuA, Agu]' ■^ó\ 1110]' p']\eun'OA, Ajuj' 

All Cé A CÁ llAOlilCA, 1110]' nAOlilCA, AJUf 

l'ó]' nio)' iiAoiiicA. " Caiciü UAib oib]ieACŵ 

All T)0]lCAt)Al]', AJUj' CU1]11t) UlTlAlb elTje All 

c-]'olui]-" (K0111. xiii. 12). 

-Aju]', A b]iÁic]ie, Ai]i eAjÌA nÁ')i leo]! a 
cóiiiAi]ile ciieA]'t)A cum ]DeACAi5 ■óÚ]\a -oo 
con]\u5At) I'UA]' cum a ii--o]ioc-]'li5ce -oo 
cjieijeAii, Aju]' lAt) ].'éiti ■o'ulliiui JAü 50 
ceA]ic le h-ioiii]DÓj ]:i|iiiiiieAC, cui)ieAiiii ]"i 
ŵn-T)iu, 50 ]'iiniAinceAC, léiiuiieA]-üA, ó]' a 
j-córiiAi]! TieAlb UÄcbÁ]'Ac An DjieiceAiiinAi-p 
Coiccnm. "OeAnAun ]'i iiia]i ]'o, cum ciaII 
có)]\ VìO liiúineA-ó ■óóib le h-eAjlA uo cu]\ 
o]i|ia: 01)1 "'i'e cajIa au üi5eA]nu\ co]-ac 
iiA li-eAgiiA." [SAlm. cx. 10 ; SeAn]\. ix. 10]. 

^Xjuj', T3A]\ ii-'oóij, 1]' leo]i All 0]ieiceAiii- 
11A]' Cúicciüiiii ciiiii cajIa <^'^v^X UAcbÁ]' ■00 
cu]i 1 5-c]\oi-ùe Aoii vuiiie a C)ieit)eA]' 50 
5-CAic].'i-ù ]-e ]-eA]'Aiii 1 Iácai]\ CACA0i]\e- 
biieireAiiiiiAi]" "Oë aii lÁ l'nn, aju]' aiiii \i\vi, 

1 ]lAflA]lC All Cllll-Ó "OAOllDA Ullc, 50 


■o-rAbA|\|:AH b]\eic I'loiumje ai]» 50 1i-i|rnionn 
no 50 ]:lAicevMÌitiŵf. X)<\]\ ii-iDÓij, 1]' leoji 
cinriiniuJAt) ai]\ cinn ah peACAC i]' 'oúi)ie 
■o'ýeocA'ó le li-eAjlA. " -«Ajiif beiü cóiiiA]i- 
CAiwe 'Y<xf\ njiiéin, ajju]" 'j-aii njeŵtAij Agu-j' 
'fiiA ]ieulcAib; aju]- aii\ caIaü'i aiìijäii ha 
g-cineA-ò iiiAH jeAÌl ai]\ UAcbÁf búi]\pt) ha 
j-'Ainje A511]' iiA •o-roiin. Ha -OAoine A5 
•jreocATi) t\\é eAjlA Agii]; qié peireAiii lei]MiA 
neicib ■00 ciocpAit) aiji ah ■ooiiiAn (llAoiii 
tucAp, xxi. 25, 26j. 

-Ace, Ab]iÁièneACA, IIIÁCÁ IIA cóiiiAiẂAiẃe 
]"o jioiTÌi ATI Tti-D)ieiceAiiinAi' Cotccionn coiii 
c]\ic-eA5tAc a']' pv, 50 n-'oéAiTi.'Ai-ò pAT) riA 
■oAoine " 'o'ýeocAt) be b-eAjbA," cpeAt) é 
itAcbÁj'Aije An t)neiceAiiinAi|' yéin ? " lie, 
A 11AIH ciiic-eAjÌAC," x>eì]\ 11aoiìi épnem ; 
" CIA be ]\-Ab yéit)))! mn]-iii, no cia be ]\-ó.h 
yeìvìyi éi-|xeAcc bei]' An ac-iiatd t)ei jeAnAC 

C]\1C-eA5bAC ÚIO ? " " C]\eATD ■oéAni'AiTÍ) 

nni-e," a)i lob nAoriicA, " nnAi]i ■o'ei)\eocAn3 
tDiA cnm b]ieic t)o CAbAipc, Ajiip An CAn t)0 
•oeAnpAit) ]'e yiAj-'iiuije Ajii]' ciia]\cu JAt), 
CIA An ]:)\eA5HA T3obéAH]:Ait) iiieAii\? (lob. 
xxxi. 14.) -áüÁ A ỳiof AjAni inÁ üéAnAnn 
TJinne imiieAi'An be "Oia, nAC ■o-ci ocfA-o bei-p 
yUeAjHA-o vo CAbAi]\c Ai)i be b-Aon piniAin- 
eATÌ), b]iiArAi\, nojnioiii 111AIC AiiiÁm ni ajaio 
mile (-oiob a rÁ obc) " (fob, ix. 3). 

.La An t3|\eiceAiiinAif -i-ei-op-o An ]~ooc 
■oeijeAnAC, be yuAini if Ái]TOe 'nÁ cói]meAc, 

Ag pÁTÌ) : " él]ll J1-Ô, A ŴA]\bA, AJU]" ClglÙ ClUII 

b]ieiceAiiinAi|" !" lAc-buAibfi-ó An ýuAnn ]-o 
r]\é uAniiib nA iiiA]\b uibe ; aju)- gAn iiioilb, 
" be CAI'ATÌ) fúb," CAbAliyAlü An ci']\ Ajup An 

iiiin]\ uACA coi]\p nA iriA-nb a cá lonncA, Agu-p 
béA]iyAi-ó neAiii, aju]^ pungA-oóin, Agiif 
i|.')\ionn iiACA nA 1i-AniiiAniiA a cá lonnrA, 
tiiA]i All j-ceuTDiiA, cum ^AC AnAiii üi'ob ■o'aic- 
ceAn^Ab ■oo'n conp in a p Aib ye ai)i An pAoJAb 
•po. IIac Aoibmn é Aic-ceAnjAb AnAin nA 
b-p']ieun le n-A 5-co]>pAib T)í)-be ! a\cu, 1110 
beun, if -ooibjioi-AC é ac-cacaü nA n-AnAiii 
■OATiiAncA beif iiA cofpAib r]\uAibbi5ce no 
bí corii-AoncAC beo m a 5-cionnrA ai|1 feA-ò 
A m-bcACA ! -Asuf peAi"i:Airi An cmeA-ó 

t)Aont)A «ibe be céibe 1 ngbcAnn lofAJaAC 
cum b|ietce -00 b]\eic ohha ! 

-Agu]', i-'eiic, cAifbeAnfAit) neAbb nA 
Cpoipe, "A511]' ciẃpeAn 111 ac An "Omne A5 
ceAcc 1 neubüAib neniie ]ie mó|TOACc Agn]- 
mon-ciitiiACC," Aguf nA b-Anijib 50 béi]\ 
mAibbe beip. (llAom IÌIÁüa, xxiv. 30). 
Oeit) nA CÚ15 C]íeucrA ■o'ýnbAinj ye cum 
fbAnuijce An cmi-ó -oaoitoa aj foibbi'iuJAO 
mAji CÚ15 5]iiAnAib jeAbA : üéAnfAi-ó ftAt) 
cAjbA A^uf UAcbÁ]' Ü0 cuf Ai]\ An ■ojiomj 

lilAbbuijce, ACC CUljlfl-O flAT) ÁCA]' -AJUf 
bÚCJÁip Ŵ1]l nA p'|1^^'"**'^^- ^ÓjfA]! |"UA]' 

nA p|iéin 'y^n Aef 50 búcjÁiiieAC cum ceAj- 
rhAbw beip An m-bneiceAm, acc nA peACAi j, 
Tjo ceuplllAC An "Oume be n-A b-peACATòib, 
Agu-p nAC n-'oeAjmAiTi) Aicjiije, " yeocfATÔ 
pAT) be b-eAjbA." 5''*-^o'ÔF<-^''° ^^T "**■ T^éib- 
cib cuinm ojiiiA, aju]- <\ì]\ ua CAi)i)i5ib iau 
■00 ceibc Ó jnúi]' An t3]ieicnii ýeAfjAig. 

'"Do jnnt) All "biieireAiiinAf, Ajuf t)0 
b-ofcbATD tiA beAbAi]\ " ("OAn., vii. 10). -ArÁ 
cúi]'nA 5-cionncAC ẃj A ypoẁ<5''ò: ni'b Aon 
neAC cum cajhatd uo fiéAnA-ó ai]i a I'on. <\rÁ 
An bjieiceAiii cpuAuAbAc; ni fuib me<x]- Aige 
Aiji uuine peAC nuine eibe; ■oéAn|--Ai'ó ye 
b]ieic ỳí]i-ceAnc 130 CAbAi|ic: beApfAH cum 
fobui]' neiceceibre ah ■oo]icA.r)Aii". SjDionyA]! 
lAHUfAbem be bocnAUAib ; beiu jac 
5|iÁineAiiibAcc, a rÁ 1 b--|robAc Anoip An bÁ 
ÚT) be feicpin A15 ah 5-cineAü ■OAonüA uibe ; 
ciupo AicpeACA Ajuf mÁic]ieACA, cÁijTOe 
Aju]- nAnÌTOe iat). Ciupi-ó An peACAC ■ooua, 
iiiAji A T>e^]\ llAOiii -djuij-n'n, a peACAiw uibe 
in eAjAji Ó]- A cotiiAi)! ; inneofpAjy jac Am, 

JAC bÁ, AgUp JAC C0]l. 

"OéAnpAit) Á]! pniuAinre uibe,Á)i m-b]iiACHA, 
A)! ngnioiiiA, Agup Á|\ miAiiA peACAtiiÍA éi]\5e 
]'UAp A15 An m-b[ieiceAiiinA)' ; peACAiu 
puACA, Ajup cÁmce, ẃjup ■OÍOJALCAip, 
Ajup euüA ; peACAi-ò nA meipge, Agup 
nA neAiiijbAine, Agup ua b-eA5CÓ|\A, Agup 
•oíojbÁbA Á)i 5-coiini|ii\\n ; ]3eACAi-ó iiA 
h-oibbéiiiie, An T))\oc-poiiipbA, aju]' iriAj'bA 
Aim-roibeAiiiAib jjiÁpA. "OeAnpAH ua ]jeACAiT) 
)-o uile, Aju]- ]DeACAni) eile nAc iat), no 


ciiAobi-gAoileAt) 50 li-o)-5uiLce,-oo )-5|iu>.\üv.\-ó, 
Ẃ511)- biieic X)0 t-\hM]\c o]\]\.s. -A tnÁiciie, 
CIA cug <\]' A beACA coiii neinicionncAc yin 
Agu]' CIA A15 A b-j-'uit A AriAiii C01Ì1 jLaii ym 
50 ^iACAiü I'e A]' Aip lÁ An cúncui)' út> ! 
"IIIA']- Aiji éijin," ■oeijA llAorii peA-OAji " vo 
]-l,ÁineocA]i All p'neiin, ca ■o-CAij'beAtipAit) 
AI1 ■otntie neiiinJiAWA ajii]- ah pcACAc é 
vein ? " (1 n Aonii. peA-oAin, iv. 18.) Ili'l 
cAi)\be loib beic 'bun j-CjiioiXAijcib nÁ 
'bii]\ j-CACOilicijib iinitiA b-]."iiib T)eAJ- 
oibneACA |-]ieA5A)icACA A^Aib. ^^Jiil' ni 1i-é 
^ni AiiiÁm, Acc -oeAnpAib An 5ai]iiii )-o b]\ei]' 
üAiiiAncA onnAib. "Oo cmneAt) cenie ó neAiii 

AnilA]" A1|\ SoüOtll AJU]" Aljl 50"''01>1'A. ■^5"]', 

Ai]\ A ]-on ^m, !]■ c]\uAi-ôe An ciincn|- -oo 
bAmyeA]! üíbj-e ionÁ •oiob yúv. beib jAbÁil 
le Sinon ajii)- le Uimionii An 5-CAroiliceAC 

'OéA|\j.-Ai-ó Ciiioi'c lei]- iiA t)i\oc-t)Aoinib ; 
" Inicijn!) uAnn, a buonj liiAlLuijce Y*^" 
ceine ýíonunJe vo li-ulliiim jeAÚ ■oo'n 

■OlAbAb AgUf Tj'Á Amjllb" (11 .111 Ac A. XXV. 41). 

üuiryiü jAC yocAÌ Ai]! An rjuiAüÁn 
émeAnbrA niA)\ ^plAnic nnncije, ajii]- 
rmcp-ò ye yince ]-io]- 1 n-uubAijeAn nA 
ceineA-ó •ooriuìccA ! "Ajn]- ni )-5A]i].-ai-ò ac- 
ýuAnn nŵ bjieire ^-o lei]' 1 T)-C)\ÁCAiiilAcr, 
ACC hem y^ A5 a Ii-ac-iuw 111 a cliiAj-Aib ai)\ 
}-eA-ó iiA j-iopui-ùeAcrA. 

1\AC).-A1-Ó IIA IJCACAIJ 1 b-JJeAllAlt) flo]-,- 

nibe, A511)- IIA |.-íném 'y.\n 111-bpAfA iiiA]i- 
CAnnAij. "OeAiii-Afo ah b|\eifeAiii le nA 
I'lneutiAib: T^igib, a luce beAimuijce 
iii'<.\cA]i, glŵCAi-ó ]-eilb Aip An jn jeAcc a ca 
ulliinnjce -óíb (11. 111ÁCA xxv. 34). Ó ! nA 
bi\iAC)vA iiiill]-e, lÁn ve ceot Agu]' -o'áca]' 
1 g-cluAi'Aib nAb-yi|ieun. Ó ! ŵn Áic feun- 
liiAp Ú-0 nA n-tjeAJ-bAoineA-o, lÁnii le 1i-Á|to- 
CACAOi|i X)é 1 b-i.-lAiceAiiinA]\ UiuaIIait), 
jACA n-t)i]\eAC, Ai|i An Áic im, a b]u\ici\e, 
leAnAit) bcACA n'lAic ; uéAnAib Aicinje in 
buji b-peACAit)ib, 111 Á bi ye ne liii-Ab onpAib 
CUIC11H lonncA. 11lAi|iit) 1 5-cóiiinuiüe 1 
prÁno iiA nt;iiÁ|-, 1 iiuiinceA)\-ÓA)- "Oé, aju)- 1 
pórcÁin lci]' An 5-cómu|i)-Ain. 

!)■ 111 All ]-o, A bnÁicneACA, üo jéAbAi-ó ]-ib 
An c-]-ioccÁin út) a cá geŵllcA -oo •ÓAOinib 
iiA TieAJ-colA, Ajup géAbAi-ò pb c]\é jleAnn 
foi-ApAC le cnoibe iriAiü lúcjÁijieAc, ^-^My 
liACAit) pb ipccAc Y^" ni-beACA ponui-óe 
le buji g-cojipAib 5lónmA]iA tJoiiiAjibcA, 
iiiAji A 111-bcit) cinicioll o|i]iAib Uic5Ái]t 
Agu)- jlüine 1 b-pA-o ó)- cionn çac a ü-cig 
leip An inncinn a liieA]-, no lei)- An ceAiigAin 
■o'inn]-in. " Caici-ó UAib, uime i'in, oibpeACA 

An ■0O|lCAT)A1)' AJU)' CU1]11t) UIHAlb éfoc An 

c-polui]-!" (Uóiii. viii. 12.) A.\iiien. 

beAüv\ seás^Mii ilnc liéil, Ám-o- 
ev\spoi5 tiMtiuA. 

A^\\ 11-a i-5hìo1k\-ô -d'Aoitcncc ii..\ bOie-oiLse leif an 
■\ta\]\ lonuppAmcA, Uileoj 1. üe biijNC, Cj,tiúti<ic tu 
Cille móii\e 1 -o-CuAitn. 

[All\ leOktlAlilAlll ó'ii •OAp<\ uiiiiip.] 

-c\n SeAcciiiAb CAibixul. 

Agu]- 'o'ýÁ]- SAtiiuel, Aju]' bí ah üi jeA]uiA 
lei)-. I. ixijce, 3 c. 19 )iAnn. 

1]-buAn All cuiiime Abi A15 aii -AipueAi-pog 
Ain iiA ỳnAiicAiJAib Aj ceAcc ó CiIIaIaiu 50 
CAij-leAn-An-bAniiAij. "Oo peolA-OAH ca]\c 
CAob ct je A ACAji. ü'imcij ■oAome aii bAile 

111A]1 ]-CAOC CAOpij ]\Ó11ipA ]-lA]\ JO CnOC 

neniipnn, Agu]- cuaüah ).-aoi pgÁc asuj- 
yAoi j^'aIac in)- iia 5leAnncAib,nA cluAiiCAib, 
Agu]' nA i-eoni]\Ai-óib a bi jeAnjicA aiiiac 1 
iiieAj-j UA 5-CA)i]iAi5 Aju]' nA n-Aill beAn- 
nAC. "O'imtij SeÁJAn 05 iiia]i au j-ceu'onA 
A n-AOinỳeAcc le lucc An bAile. bí ]-e 
A111U15 ].-Aoi An pceilp Ajuj' 1.-A01 iiA h-Aillcib 
ó rij A ACAn Aiji >-eAt) oibce aju]- Iac. 
puAiiAUAn All iiiuitiri]i ]-ü concu)' iiÁ'n buAin 
iiA ^"iiAiicAije le nit) ai]i bié, no le üuine 

A1)V bit, ACC 50 ]\AbA'OAl\ geAnATÌIAll, CA]IC- 

AnAc, |'o-c|\oit)eAC le -OAOinib nA cí|\e. Uaji 

él)- po t)'ýllleA-OAH At)! A ll-Al]- 50 h-Á]!!!]- A 

t)-reAllAC yem. üa y]oy A15 gAC uile 


•óinne a\\\ ah toinjeA]- ŵJW]' a'i nii'te ẃju]' 

C]\1 ].'1C1T) yCA]! A bl AI5 All 'O-ÜA01]"eAC HnVl- 

bert niiAiji tio I'-eot |-e AfceAC ah ■oóiìiat) Iá 
A1H pc^x> -oe 1111 iiA LiijnAi-A 1798, 50 cuAn 
Cille-Cuiniiti. 11Í ]\Aib lonncA buAiü ỳÁJAib 
Ai]! n'n Ai]i bic. iDiweAuA)! iiA I'AijxiniitiTOe 
boccA, — HA ■pnAiicAi5e — cuinfeAc 50 \.eo\\ 
tntAtu bi-òeA-OA)\ Ati i-eifeA-ò lÁ ỳicit) 1 ni- 
bAile üobAi|\-nA-b-'PiAiiii. -^^juf "oubAinc 
SeÁJAn til AC héii 50 jiAib ^'e be CAOib a 
ACAji An qiÁc ■oo bi-oeA-OA]! ]ioinn ne riA 

yCAJlAlb AJ fÁJAlb 11A1-Ó bit) AgUj' f^ije be 

11-A j-congiiAt) Ai]A An ftije a bi ]ióiiipA 
A5 uul fUA]- qie beÁimA-nA-jAOite 50 Caij'- 
leAn-An-bA^ilAAij. ConnAijic ]-e ia-o ati bÁ pn 
Aj -oiil fUA]- 50 bA]!]! An beÁpnA Agti]" An 
lÁ 'iiA weig (An i"eAcciiiA"ò bÁ yicit)), cua- 
ÌAit) i^e jbóji nA ngunnA moji aj ituajhau 
coip j An cóiiib]iAic. "O'éiiiit; bei]' nA l-'jiAn- 
CAijib ; Acc ni'oji buAn a iii-buAi-ó. 

U]!! iiii'oj'A 'nA 'óéi j iin no connAi]\c \e 
Aj reAcc Ó CAi]-leÁn-An-'bA|i]iAi5, AnuA]- 
An üeÁ]inA ceiiunA ]'ocnAit) longAncAc, m 
A ]iAbAt)A]\ T3Aoiiie An pAiijiÁijtie 50 
li-ioiiilAii Aj 1'itc nA n-t)eo)i, Aju]- j'gjieATDA'ó 
IIA 5-cAoinceA-ò, of cionn coijip a pAgAiiic 
pAfnÁii"oe, Ain-0]AiAif Hi lilAoibconAipe. 

"Oo cjAoc 'OonncA'ô bjiún, feA^i-ionATO An 
]uj 111]' An 5-concAe, An pA^AjlC jeAHA- 
1Ì1A1I •oeAJ-ciioiTieAC fo Aip cpAnn 1 iii-bAibe 
iiió]\ CoiiCAe lilAi jeo niA)i jeAÌb ju]! bAbAiji 
1"e lei]' nA li-oii'ijiuib 'PjiAncACA, A51.1]' niA]i 
jcaII gu]! iiiA]\bA-OAii iiA ]'Ai5-oui]n-óe beicij, 

— CA01]115 AJU]' 111A1]1C,— A5II]' 5ll]l ICeATIA]! 

Agii]' obAtiA]! 1 T)-ceAC-]Dobuib An ]jA]i]\Ái|'ne. 

Oi AlilA]lC Alil5A]lAC llA ]'OC]lAl'Oe ]'in m A 

]-úilib, Agii]' cAoiweATJ c]iÁi-óce biicc iia 
b-eujCAOiiice m a cluA]-Aib ai]\ ^e^-o a 


'SAn c-feAn-]ieAcc "oo ceA]0 "Oia aiiiac 
c]ieAb Ái]\i jce, — cbAnn-niAC Lébi, loiinoj' 50 
ni-beineAt) ]iat) iiiA]t cléi]v Aije yéiii A5 

].']\10CÓtA'Ò AI5 An AÌrÓl]! AJU]' AJ CAl]15]'in 

iot)bAi]ic ■ÓÓ. In]' All ]ieAcc iniATJ 111 ]>i5iie 
IDiA ]ioJA T)e cmeAt) ai]i bic, ne cjieib ai]i 
bic, Tie liniinci]! ai)i bic, ne f'liocr ai)i bif, 

be beic 50 biiAn 'nA p'ob rA5A]ic Aige. 
'SAn eAjlAi]- A citi]\ C]m'o]'c ai]i bun, neAnAnn 
"Oia ]-'eA]i 05 ■00 coJAt) aitiac, — jbAoiweAnn 
]'e Ai]\, inA]i injne ]-e be Ájión Ajuf be 
niAOi]-, A511]' iiiA]\ roj ]'e 111 AC 1e]'i-e, — ]'e 
pn "OÁibí, — le beic 'iiA ]H5 Ó]' cionn a 
]3obuib péin. 

tli'b AiTi]Aii]' Ai]! bir iiAC b-i-'uil nuiiiiriji nA 
cbAnn ÁiiMJée Ann, Aiji a iii-b]ioiiAnn "Oia 
5]iÁ]'A A beic Aj T)éAiiA-ô A oib]ie i-ein ; 
b]io]'cui5eAnn ]'e iaü po leic 111 Aim]-i]i a 
n-oije be beic 'nA ]-A5A]icAib Aije. 1]' 
iiiA]i ]'o fijiie ]'e be nAOiii pól \ém, le 
nAoiii pÁ-o]iAic, be beiiin 05 a leAn ü'Ácoil 
péin ^]3]'col nAb-é-i]ieAnn; lenAOiii IajiIac a 
cbAon A ceAnn no nAOiii Oenin ajii]' a jugne 
].'Ó5Uiiiii tiAi-óe. Sm AjAinn llAoiii Cobniii- 
Cille iiiA]i All 5-ceii-onA a bi ó b]\oiiiii a 
iiiÁCA]\ ceApnijce A15 "Oia A511]' -ounie be 
belt 'iiA f-AjAHC A511]' 'nA ýeA]\ cujca 
]-iiA]' 50 1i-ionilÁn ■o'i'ójnAt) "Oé, aj aò]ia'Ô 
AgU]' A5 AlcugA-Ô All üi5eA]inA A511]' A5 
poii'jeulA-ó ■oo'n •ouiiie, aju]' aj iiidolnJAt) 
A C]10TOe 11A1II15. 

bi' bei]\c •oeAjibnAcAi]! A15 acai]i SeÁJAm 

015 11110 llélb, SéATHll]' A5II]' 1xlOCA]TO, — 

A51J]' Aon ■oei]\bf'uì]\ AiiiÁin, — 111 A]i5A|iéA-o. 

bí 11lOCA]lt) 'nA Ì'A5A]1C ]DA]l]lÁl]-Oe 1 

n5beAnn-í1ói]"oij 1 •o-ciniciolb -061]^ nA 
li-occiTiAu Aoi]-e ■oetij ca]i éi]' b]ieice Áji 
■o-UijeAjinA. puAi]! tviocAft) bÁ]' An cuigeAU 
bÁ Ai]i ỳiciü -oe liii' nA 111Á]ica 1812, 'nA 

]'A5A]1C ]DA]lHÁl]'Tie A1]l ^Xjl-OACAU, ÁlC A CÁ 

]'uni)ce ^x>^\ bAilcib béil-ÁCA-Aii-peÁt)A 
Agu]' C]ioi]'e-l1lAoil-i:ionA. Ay po peicceA]i 

50 ]lAlb fAJAlllC AI5 A liU1inCl]A— AJU]' ]A011Ì1 

An ACAi]i IxiocAnt) bi pA5Ai]AC eile tie'n 
clAinii ceiiDiiA Aj conjbÁil puA]' cjieiuiiii 
C]\io]'c A511]' 51IÁ-Ó Vie i'oi]A iiA ■oAoiiiib. 

11Í A-óbA]i lonjAncAi]', iiia]v ]'in ne, 511)1 
liiocmj SeÁJAn a ctioiue 05 aj clAonAt) 
cum aIcó]ia C]aio]'c ó bAecib a beAn- 
biii-óeAccA. 11lA]\SAimiel, bi I'e 50 1110c A5 
PjaiocoIa-o A15 aIcoi)! All rijeAjiiiA: bi piop 

Alje 511]! Ó bllllA-Ù I'AJAIICAIÌUmI 130 CÁIIIIC 

]'e. ■0'éi]\i5 puAC in a c]\oni)e m ajaió 


ini-ÁT) A11 •ootiuMti : bi yotin aiji, obAi)> 
tiAoiiicA A •oeAiuw "00 iu\ -OAOinib my Ati 
5-CA01 lit) AiiiÁm A cuj "00 cúriiAcc ój- 
córiiAi]i "Oé A511)' ó]' córiiAin 'ODine, CAlbAiji 
A5iifi.-uiicAcc A 'biionnAt) ai)\ a iiniinri]i yéni 
A5111' Ai]\ iiutinci)A riA h-éiiieAiin. 

Ill ]\Aib i'coib LAitine ni'o]' yoig^-e •óó 1011Á 
1 5-CAi]'leÁn-Aii-tJA]i]iAi5 : ai)> aii A-óbAi\ 
l'in, bi 1-e piACCAHAc -oó -oub •oo'n bAile ym, 
A bí tìeic mile ó C15 a acah. In)- ah 
111-bliÁ-OAin 1804, An r-Aiii tio cui|\ An 
r-1mpi]ie llApoleon co]\óin ÁiiroiiijeAiiiAil 
InipnieACCA An lA)ièAi]A aijí a ceAnn, •00 
fopmj SeÁJAn 111ac íléib yojltnui t/Aiune 
Ó liiAijipüm x)'Á]i' b'Ainni pÁ-oiuMC ScAnt)iin. 
^í An yeA)! )-o 1 ü-cnncioll -oA pcm 
bliA-ÒAm io'aoii' inp An aiti pn, aju]- 
ctiumni5eAT)A)i cmje ó jac céA]iT)A rnc- 
léijin Ó5A be bumeobA]" iD'yAjAib 1 l/AiT)in 
Api]' 1 n-Jlẃijip. til nii]~oe nomn niobcA a 
bnontiAü Aiji pÁt))iAic ScAnünn Annpo. 
ÜÁ A Anitii mmeA]-cA iinniA n-ueAniTAW ye 
Acc AiiiÁni SeÁJAn 05 111ac 1léib a ceAjAi'j 
Ajii]' A liiinncA'ò; acc cai]ii]' ]"ni, bi pe ai]» 
yeA-ó leice céiü A^iip nAoi bliATDAm A5 
nnnneA-ó ]-coibe inp An m-bAibe cenünA. 
Aì]\ i'neAriiJA'ó nAOi Agu)' ceiè|ie yicm 
bliATJAni, ■o'eului j ye ó nA beo-ÓAib •oo'n 
nAij. beAimACf "Oé be n-A AtiAin. 1)- 
)otii-ÓA veA]i 05 A puAi)! be bmn nA beice 
céio bbiA-ÓAm )-m eobAf Ldi-one aju]- 
gl'éijtpe UA1Ü, iiiAp |.niAi]i uAit), 'y^\n m- 
bbiA-ÓAin 1844, An cé a ]'5niobA)- n a lince ]-o. 

Le bheith air leanamhain. 

V^^ilre T)'iuislev\bc\n ^^A ^vxe-oilje 
50 pouulcMuse. 

üo'n i|\i]-beAbAii pÁibce, 

Anoi]' ArÁ AjAinn ; 
•A'p •oo nA -OAOinib binẃeACA]- 

*Oo ciii]\ üúnin é m\\ bun : 

"biuOA-o bcArA biiAn-]'A0JAbAÓ, 

lonjAncAC, jbó|\iiiAi\, j'Áiii. 

■pÁilce, yÁibce, pÁibce, 

■pÁiLce, peAt), ó'ni cnoi-òe, 

"Oo'n i)iii"beAbA]\ yo Ábumn, 

50 inAi]>yfô pe 50 jnoi-òe. 

ümbleAnn An boAbAii\in]-o, 

Á\\ mobcA-ne 50 beiji ; 
•A'|- rnibbeAnn nA b-Á]i-o-t)Aome 

beic mobcA fUAp -oo'n pi3éi|A, 
"Oo cui]i óy cionn a cétbe, 

Cuni CAipbe nA n^AeueAb, 
-Án r-i|\ii-beAbA]i j-o lonJAncAC 

1 •o-üAbAiii 5l'<>''""e-1ÌlAol. 
■pÁibre, yAibce, ere. 



"Oo'n i)\i)'beAbA]i Álnnni, 


1' ^-^ 5^ 

Rev. J. E. Nolan, Hon. Sec. of the Gaelic Union, has 
received the following communication from Marshal 
MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, and ex-President of the 
French Republic, to whom Father Nolan had sent a copy 
of his Irish Prayer Book, " An Casán go Flaitheamhnas :" 

"Paris, le 11 Janvier, 1883. 

" Monsieur le Marechal de MacMahon est 
très reconnaisant de I'envoi du Livre de 
Prières en Langue Irlandaise, qu'il vient de 
recevoir, et addresse tous ses remefciments 
pour ce precieux Souvenir au Fr. Elie de 
Saint Patrice. II y joint ses voeux de 
Nouvel An. 

" L'Aide-de-Camp de Mons. le Marechal, 
" R. DE Merdres." 

( Translation.) 
"Paris, Wth January, 1883. 
" Marshal MacMahon is most grateful to 
Fr. Elias of Saint Patrick for the presenta- 
tion copy of his Prayer Book in the Irish 
language, just received, and returns his best 
thanks for so precious a souvenir. He also 
sends his New Year's greeting. 

" R. DE Merdres, 
" Aidc-dc-Camp to the Marshal," 



ulie 5<\etic ioiiiinv\l. 

Our Journal has now seen its fourth num- 
ber, notwithstanding the sinister warnings 
of certain prophets of evil, who would have 
limited its term of existence to three 
months ; and despite of some, perhaps 
reasonably grounded, apprehension on our 
own part at the commencement of such an 

In consequence of the pressure on our 
last number, we found that, even with the 
enlargement of its space, we were obliged 
to hold over all the reports of proceedings, 
and several important letters included in 
them, bearing on the progress of the move- 
ment. These, consequently, occupy an un- 
usually large space in this number. Of 
course such records of progress have a 
claim on our attention second only to the 
excellent articles of our able and valued 
contributors, which have already secured 
for this Journal no mean literary position. 
This literary position, though most desir- 
able,is not all that is required for the progress 
of the Gaelic Union, or for the well-being of 
the important patriotic movement it foun- 
ded, and still so worthily leads. The absolute 
necessity for some record of what we may 
venture, without offence, to call the " politics" 
of that movement — its struggles, failures, suc- 
cesses, and the growing interest daily evinced 
by the people in the work being done — 
will surely be admitted. Thus, for litera- 
ture, and for such " politics " — the only 
politics it owns — this Journal exists, but 
for neither department exclusively. The 
fact of its existence relieves the Gaelic 
Union from the necessity of endeavouring 
to influence the country through un- 
sympathetic media, and at the same time 
still free to avail of the aid of the friendly 
public press, without imposing undue bur- 
dens on those who are already heavily 
taxed by the care of so many important 

To the expressions of opinion by the 
press which we quoted or referred to in 
previous numbers, we are now glad to see 
joined the testimony of such renowned 

Celtic scholars as Drs. Windisch and Zim- 
mer, and of many others, eminent in 
various walks of literature in different 
lands, as well as of the learned in our own 
countr}^ These expressions are most en- 
couraging, many useful suggestions are 
made, and information imparted by the 
writers : and we think it of importance, 
whenever practicable, to cite in full these 
opinions of the press, and of scholars. 

We would also instance the letter of Mr. 
John Murdoch, to show how much our work 
is appreciated by that worthy Gael, who has 
himself done such good service to his nati\'e 
dialect. We look forward to the re\-ival of 
the High/ander, in whose columns he 
laboured so strenously for the cause on 
which his heart is set. 

We hope to enlarge our next number, so 
as to be able to keep several promises, the 
fulfilment of which, not our will, but neces- 
sity, has prevented. We must beg the 
exercise of patience on the part of many 
friends who have favoured us : in a short 
time all arrears will be cleared off, and our 
work will go on smoothly. The people of 
Ireland have waited some centuries for the 
establishment of a periodical in their own 
language ; they can now afford to be toler- 
ant with us, to support us in our effort, and 
to wait yet a few months for the full develop- 
ment of our plan. Of course our Journal 
at present has many imperfections : no 
human undertaking is free from them ; but 
we think, on its behalf, we can venture to 
say, in the words of the Irish proverb, 1110L 
An óije <\y cioc|-c\it) fi. Our Journal is very 
)'oung yet ; there is, undoubtedl}-, room for 
improvement, but we are confident, seeing 
the willing aid given to us, that it will be 
long indeed before any critic can perceive 
in it traces of deterioration or decay. 

In the last number, translations of several 
of the Irish articles in this Journal were 
given, a very general wish for such having 
been expressed. This course is agreeable 
to the intention of the founders of the 
Journal, who recommended that it be ad- 
hered to, subject, of course, to the exigencies 
of our space, until such time as the transla- 
tions, which at present are necessary and 
useful to Irish students, shall be no longer 


required. At the request of several friends, 
we have suggested to Mr. Flannery to trans- 
late his articles on the " Oi-names." The 
English of Mr. Fleming's " Cómhráidhte " 
is available in the original work of Rev. P. 
O'Keefe, C.C, Fethard, Co. Tipperary. 

We have been favoured with a copy of 
this work, of which it does not, of course, 
come within our province to give any 
lengthened or detailed notice, or to express 
any opinion, save on its literary merit, 
which is very high, and of which nothing 
has been lost in the worthy Irish version ; 
it is upon this ground alone the discourses 
can find a place here. Being " with a 
moral view designed," they have nothing 
of controversy in them, and we will be able 
to print all, save one or two, without in any 
way receding from our position of non-inter- 
ference in matters of religion or politics. In 
the ancient manuscripts of Ireland, from 
which we may draw information and instruc- 
tion for our readers, we would not, surel}', be 
expected to reject many of great interest, 
which touch upon religious subjects. The 
rev. author of these " Discourses " would be 
happy to issue the Irish version in book 
form, if support were assured ; and this, 
we think, will in the near future, be within 
his reach. A book of Irish sermons, such 
as these are, could not fail to prove most 
welcome to clergymen in Irish-speaking 
districts, who have at present, outside of 
the famous work of Dr. Gallagher, scarce 
any book of the kind available ; and the 
publication of such a work as this volume 
of " Discourses" will soon, in the develop- 
ment of the Irish language movement, be- 
come more than a desideratum — it will be 
a necessity. 

We have again to hold over the review 
of the translations of Dr. Windisch's Gram- 
mar, which is ready, and will appear in our 
next issue. 

" The Gaelic shall be yet in esteem." — 
0/d Saying. 

" The Gaelic shall be yet in great esteem 
in Dublin of the goblets of rosy wine." — 
Old Saying. 

" The man who knows two languages is 
twice a man." — 0/d Saying. 


To THE Editor of the "Gaelic Journal." 
Mount Florida, Scotland. 

Dear Sir, — Allow me to congratulate you on the good, 
clear, varied and interesting appearance which you have 
made with your Irislmbhar na Gtudhlige. This is one of 
the most hopeful signs your country lias put forth for some 
time ; and from the success which has attended your efforts 
so far, I am sure you will do much to bring out the foliage 
of learning and the blossom of native culture once more 
on the rugged stem of that political life whicli nothing has 
been able to wither. Yours is a vital work. Supposing 
that every peasant had his own homestead — and no one 
values that more than I do — with good house, good cloth- 
ing, good furniture ; what, after all, are the millions of 
sucii comfortable peasants without that mental culture and 
growth which in Ireland and in the Scottish Highlands 
must be in, and with the Gaelic tongue and tlie treasures 
whicli it contains ? Thii must be a real growth, from within 
the nation and the individuals, in order to the carrying 
out of the Divine design written in the constitution of the 
race. Without this our people will be but imitators ; they 
will not be acting out ihcir own genius, and the treasures 
and the mental acliievements of the past will be all so 
much waste materials lying about. The Celts have to take 
up the work of education where it vvasinterrupted centuries 
ago ; where the attempt was begun of substituting the mere 
mechanical schooling of another people for what should 
have been tlie harmonious growth of the native soul. The 
education of the race as such must be gone into at the fire- 
side, at the smithy, at the school, on tlie platform, and in 
tlie press ; and for some time to come you will have much 
to do in bringing the pupils up to the standards of the dis- 
tant past. 

This last consideration makes me favour the use of the 
old letter, in order that the said pupils may find it easier 
to pursue their work among the ancient MSS. By all 
means use the Roman letter also, that the entrance to the 
temple of Celtic learning may be the more easy for the 

I trust that when the next census returns are before us, 
they will show an increase in the speakers, and readers as 
well, of Gaelic. I would have the Celts to take warning 
by what struck Burns so forcibly in his own part of Scot- 
land and in neighbouring Lowland counties — that he did 
not know of a song or even of an air which, by name or 
occasion, could be said to belong to them ! The only old 
tune which Ayr had preserved was, he snid, "Johnny 
Faa," the tune to which " Wae's nic for Prince Charlie," 
is sung. Now, how did it happen tliat tlic people of Ayr, 
Wigton, Renfiew, Lanark, Kukcudlni-ht, and Dumfries 
shires were thus so poveity-strickcn in literary products? 
The answer unquestionably is, that from the time when the 
Gaelic language and lore died out there, until the coming of 
Burns, there had been nothing metrical or musical pro- 
duced in the Sa.\on tongue which supervened. Since then, 
Burns and Hogg, and Cunningham and Tannahill, and all 
the rest, have, in a measure, filled the void ; but for all 
their wealth of sentiment and abundance of metaphor, 
they had not anything approaching the ample, flexible, 
and musical medium which they would have had had their 
lot been cast in the times of the sweet, rich and noble 
Gaelic language ; and to the Lowland Scots, all the trea- 
sures which their forefathers had in that sweet speech are 
lostforever; they have nothing remaining beyond a phrase, 
1 or a line or a name, as rare as fossils, and as difficult for 



Saxons to interpret. Vou in Ireland, and we in the High- 
lands may — no doubt, you «ill— help to avert such a loss as 
this ; and we may well be further spurred to save what 
can be, by a consideration of what we have allowed to be 
lo>t, even while our language lives among us. 

One thing more and Ì have done imposing on you. You 
are doingwell in casting yournet among theGael of Albyn, 
and you will do immediate good to them in more ways 
than one, in cultivating their knowledge of your branch 
of the Celtic tree of ancient learning ; and who 
knows but you will pick some fruit from our 
branch. Searching among dialects, even within 
the Scottish Highlands, is a very important part of the 
work which has to be done before a dictionary or a gram- 
mar can be brought out worthy of the language. We 
must learn not to despise, as many do, any dialect. There 
are valuables in them all — words, phrases, idioms, and 
compositions, which are constituent parts of the wealth of 
the whole. 

How I regret not being able now to give you a hearty 
welcome in //if Highlander 1 But I am thankful that 
although we have allowed the Gaelic flag here to drop, 
you are hoisting yours. May you be able to keep it to 
the breeze, and ever higher going. 

I am yours very sincerely, 

John Murdoch. 

The Irish Alphabet. 

Dear Sir, — Many of your readers besides myseh are 
thankful for the long and friendly notice of the Gaelic 
journal which appeared in the Irishman and United 
Ireland, 13th January. [See page 133 in this Number.] 
Though I have but little time, and less inclination, for 
newspaper correspondence, still, as the writer of that 
review has found fault with a matter in which I must share 
some responsibility, I %\ ish to make no delay in avowing 
that responsibdity. and will thank you, therefore, to allow 
me to make, once for all, a short explanation. 

Most of the Irish in the Gaelic Journal is printed in the 
Irish chai-acter. One or two pieces, however, are printed in 
the ordinaiy Roman character. For the use of this character 
in the piece bearing my name, I believe the responsibility 
lies primarily with me, and not with the editor of the 
journal, and any consequences of this responsibility I am 
perfectly willing to accept. While not absolutely insisting 
that my contribution should be so printed — an insistence 
which would be as unbecoming as it would be unwise — 
the reasons I gave for the use of the ordinary type were, it 
appears, sufficiently worthy of regard to induce the editor to 
kindly make an exception in my favour at least. But why 
does the reviewer speak of these ordinary Roman charac- 
ters as "English letters?" Surely, they are no more 
" English " than they are Welsh or French or Spanish. 
And as ours is a Celtic language, and as our Celtic 
kindred in Scotland, Wales, and Brittany all use this same 
common Roman character, would not this fact in itself be 
some reason for so writing and printing Irish ? 

The writer of the article in United Ireland must be very 
simple if he thinks that any member of the GaeUc Union 
would urge as a reason for the use of the ordinary type that 
it makes Irish easier to read. I, for my part, never believed 
in the reality of the excuse — heard mostly from illiterate 
men, or from men who are given to make excuses — that 
the use of the Irish characters makes the reading of the 
language difficult. If a man knows a language at all, he 
can read it in almost any character, no matter how 
"uncouth," or how fantastic such character may be. I 
never yet found a Frenchman or a Spaniard who had the 

least difficulty in recognising and reading at once a French 
or a Spanish sentence written in Irish characters — such 
sentences, that is, as could be made with eighteen charac- 
ters. Nor can I well understand yet why some of the 
Scottish Gael make such a difficulty of the use of the 
Irish characters — on such a ground as this at any rate. 

But has the re\'iewer never heard any other reason why 
some of us prefer the ordinary type for printing modern 
Irish? I will mention two or three reasons then — reasons 
which, not being at all new, I thought every one who ex- 
pressed an opinion on the subject would be cognisant of. 
I have not yet seen any fair consideration given to them. 
For me they are strong enough to make me wish that the 
whole of the Gaelic Journal were printed in the ordinary 
Roman characters. The first and principal, then, is that 
it would make the printing of Irish obviously easier and 
cheaper ; as easy to print it in Cork, Galway, Derry, 
Athlone, Kilkenny, or any other part of Ireland as it is 
done in Dublin : and not merely in Ireland, but in any 
part of Europe, America, or Australia. This alone ap- 
pears to me an all-sufficient reason, and I marvel much 
that it does not commend itself more to those who have 
the practical interests of the language at heart ; to those 
who, like myself, would seek to popularise the language ; 
to those who do not wish to see all Ireland, and all the 
world depending on Dublin for a bit of printed Irish. Are 
there any Irish types in Ireland outside Dublin ? Are 
they not very rare and very dear ? Do you not discourage 
the printing, and even the writing of Irish elsewhere if all 
the printing has to be done in Dublin, and all the writing 
has to be sent there ? Do you not encourage the false and 
mischievous opinion that Irish cannot be correctly and 
perfectly printed except in the Irish character? The 
second reason why I consider the Latin characters pre- 
ferable for practical work in Irish is that foreign names, 
foreign words, and quotations from foreign languages 
could be easily and conveniently used without giving a 
strange and grotesque appearance to tlie Irish text in which 
the occur. This I feel to be not nearly so weighty as the 
first': but it has its weight. Living in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and wishing to interchange nineteenth century ideas, 
we cannot be eternally talking about Fionn mac Cumhaill 
and Brian Boruniha. We must often speak of the outer 
world, and if the older characters are used, words and 
sentences from foreign languages — which in many cases 
cannot be rendered by Irish letters — having to be written 
in Roman letters, would certainly give an oddly confiised 
appearance to the whole. Of course this difficulty might be 
obviated by inventing and striking oft'eight new characters 
to be made after the analogy of some of the other Irish 
letters ; but no one as yet seems to have proposed such an 
innovation as this. A third advantage the employment of 
the ordinary character gives is the command of italics, the 
want of which is often felt in writing the Irish character. 
The same effect could, indeed, be produced, as in Ger- 
man, by printing emphasized words in open type (I don't 
know if this is the technical phrase), but I have never 
seen any book in which this is done in Irish. Of course, 
if Irish is not to be written — ifwe are merely to serve up 
the past, if we are always to be arraying ourselves in the 
plumes of our ancestors, if no more is sought than the pub- 
lishing of our tales and old poems, or, at most, the use of 
the language for an odd epigram, as the dead languages 
are used to this day — if this be all that men want, let them 
tell us so at once and we shall understand them. To such, 
no doubt, the question of the writing or printing of Irish 
is simple enough. I am aware that many good Irishmen, 
lovers oflreland's living language, stand by the old cha- 
racters because they art Irish, because for some centuries 



1 1 5 1 

1) Tl 1 r 1 s 

encouraging, and as true, if the reviewer told us that in 

I 1 — 1 1- f 

In 1 lly n 1 

spite of proscription, suppression, denial of education. 

f 1 1 1 

11 p 11 da 1 
I 1 h 1 g 1 I 

exclusion, neglect, and ridicule, on one hand, and (I 

h 1 1- f 

fear we must admit) a far too ready compliance, much indif- 

p ) 1 1 

\ n 1 I 11 

ference, and a great deal of apishness and snobbishness on 

P f 11) - 

1 I h 1 g n t 

the other, the Irish language is still understood and spoken 

a I 11 

I I h 1 1 le 

by nearly a million of people,— more than half the whole 
population of Wales, five-sixths of the population of the 

1 1 

1 f le 


1 1 f r 

independent kingdom of Greece— especially as the re- 


viewer gives at the end of his article so many excellent 


1 ly 

reasons why Irishmen should be attached to the "still- 

I 1 

1 1 

living " speech of their fathers. 

h 1 
b 1 

1 P 1 

1 1 1 1 f f 


h 1 11 
1 11 n 1 1 f r 

1 11 Ik V 

1 I 1 1 1 f he 
U 1 1 f f h 

y f 1 1 h q n, 

3Ó Eardley-crescent, Kensington, W. 

1 1 
C n 1 f h O 1 

1 f 

E]}C Gaelic 31 n Í n , 

1 I 1 

PI 1 J y f 1 t 

I n B 1 I 1 1 

f I e f y I , 

wl n b d hi 






11 d 11 b g 1 r 


1 f I q P P 1 

n h q — nl y 

1 11 1 1 aj > f le 

11 n s 

p n d n le 

/-h f u e 

1 I y 1 , 

1 1 1 1 1 11 


Recent Meetings of Council. 


The Council of the GaeUc Union met on 

111 1 

Saturday, 23rd December, at 3.30 p.m., at 

n I 1 1 11 

' , , , T ,'^i ' 

No. 4 Gardiner's-place, Dubhn. 

p 1 f 1 If 
/hi 1 1 

L 1 1 nil y. 
11 f 1 s 

In the unavoidable absence of the Right 

11 1 B b d 1. 

Hon. the Lord Mayor (who had arranged 

Inny n 

lib 1 he 

to preside), the chair was taken by Mr. A. 

ol 1) 

11 n I d b I 

K. O'Earrell, Central Secretary of the Irish 


f 11 f 1 s 

National Teachers' Organization. There 

h Ig 

1 \ )1 g 

were also present — Rev. John E. Nolan, 

e 1 1 

1 1 n ) n 
1 ) L 1 h n \\ 1 1 p. 

O.D.C. ; Michael Cusack, John Morrin, 

h - 
e y 1 

I I 1 n 1 E 1 1 ,. 

Michael Corcoran, T. B. Griffith, H. C. 

- 1 In 

Hartnell, R. J. O'Mulrennin, D. Comyn, &c. 

1 1 1 n 
I 1 le 

Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. (who had given 

d H 1 1 

1 1 f I's 

the usual notice of motion) being absent. 

1 ll 1 
O 1 1 
L 1 1 1 1 

11 t. 

Mr. Comyn proposed the election of Henry 

1 I d 

1 - b- 

> 1 1 of 

BcUingham, Esq., M.P., and Professor 

Gcissler, Queen's College, Galway, as Mem- 

1 1 

111 IN 1 1 a 

bers of the Council, which was agreed to 

1 1 1 
1 / I 1 
1 I 1 

1 y b f d h a 
11 n n of o u nl h 


Mr. R. J. O'Mulrennin moved, Mr. T. B. 

\\1 1 1 1 w f lly 

Griffith seconded, and it was unanimously 

1 a b It 
1 J he 

resolved : — 


ly 1 o 

" That the best thanks of this Council be 


1 1 1 ha b n, 

voted to the home and foreign press, 

al by 1 1 

1) 1 1 g h f but 
gl 1 f 1 e 1 o e t. 

which have so ably supported every under- 

P 1 

1 kn Tl p h 

taking of the Gaelic Union since its incep- 

ep I h W 
a a 

L 11 of g f n a d 

tion, and in particular for having so favour- 

af 1 la e 1 1 f he 
ley ay be Bu o Id be 
would it not be more cheering, more 

ably noticed the issue and contents of the 

more to the purpose 

first number of the Gaelic JournaU^ 



Rev. John E. Nolan moved, Mr. H. C. 
Hartnell seconded, and it was unanimously 
resolved : — 

" That Rev. M. H. Close, W.A., and Mr. 
David Comyn be requested to audit the 
accounts of the Gaelic Union for the year 
ending 31st December, 1882, so that same 
may be published in accordance with the 
usual practice of this Society." 

The Editor presented the meeting with 
copies of the second number of the Gaelic 
fouriial]Ms\. issued. 

The Council adjourned to Saturday week, 
6th January, 1S83. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturday, 6th January', 1883, at 3.30 p.m., 
at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor having 
taken the chair, 

The Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., Hon. 
Sec, read the following important letter 
from His Grace the .Most Rev. T. \V. Croke, 
D.D., Archbishop of Cashel, Patron of this 
Society : — 

" The Palace, Thurles, Jan. 5. 

" My dear Father Nolan, 

" Several influential persons who take a 
deep interest in the preservation of the 
Irish language, and approve highly of the 
publication of an Irish Journal, have spoken 
and written to me on the subject of merg- 
ing the t-Lvo Irish Societies, now acting in- 
dependently of each other, into one, having 
a powerful Irish Journal as its organ and 

" I am entirely of that way of thinking ; 
there is no room for two Irish Societies and 
two Irish Journals. 

" Why not take steps to have this desir- 
able amalgamation brought about ? You 
surely ought to be able to effect it. 

" I remain, 

" My dear Father Nolan, 
" Your faithful servant, 
•Ì- " T. W. Croke, 

" A rchbishopr 

Rev. Father Nolan then handed in the 
following notice of motion : — 

" I beg to give notice that, at next meeting 
of Council, I will move that — Whereas re- 
presentations have been made to this Coun- 
cil by His Grace the Most Rev. T. W. 
Croke, Archbishop of Cashel, Patron, and 
other influential persons, whose opinions it 
would not be prudent to ignore, to the effect 
that an amalgamation of the Gaelic Union 
with the Society for the Preservation of the 
Irish Language would be not only desirable 
in itself, but beneficial to the movement for 
the preser\-ation of the Irish Language ; 
and whereas certain Members of this Coun- 
cil have learned with satisfaction that cer- 
tain Members of the Council of the above- 
named Society are not only willing, but 
anxious to effect an amalgamation, we, 
therefore, the Council of the Gaelic Union, 
acting on the suggestion of Professor Casey 
and Dr. Ryding, Members of the Council 
of the Society for the Preservation of the 
Irish Language, propose — ist. That two 
Members of each Council who are not 
Members of both Councils, be elected by 
their respective Councils. 2. That the four 
Members so elected elect a Chairman, who 
is at present Member of both Councils. 3 
That these five representatives constitute an 
Amalgamation Committee. 4. That the 
decisions of the Amalgamation Committee, 
signed by each Member severally and 
singly, and countersigned by the Patron, 
the Most Rev. Dr. Croke, and the President, 
the Right Hon. The O'Conor Don, P.C, 
D.L., shall be final and without appeal." 

Mr. M. Cusack then moved, Mr. D. 
Comyn seconded, and it was unanimously 
resolved — 

" That the standing orders of this Society 
be suspended, so as to allow this notice of 
motion to be now put to the meeting as a 
formal resolution." 

The resolution was then moved by Rev. 
Father Nolan, seconded by Re^•. M. H. 
Close, M.A., and agreed to unanimously. 

Mr. O'Mulrennin then gave notice — 

"That in the event of this proposition 
being accepted, I will, at next meeting, 
propose that the Rev. John E. Nolan, 
O.D.C., and Michael Cusack, Esq., be 



elected to represent this Council on said 
Amalgamation Committee" 

The Hon. Sec. presented to the meeting 
a Report for the past year, the considera- 
tion of which, owing to pressure of other 
important business, had to be deferred till 
next meeting. 

The Council then adjourned to Saturday 
next, 13th inst., same place and hour. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturda}-, 13th January, 1883, at 3.30 p.m., 
at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

A. K. O'Farrell, Esq., Central Secretary 
of the National Teachers' Organization of 
Ireland, presided. 

The following Members of Council were 
also present — Rev. INIaxwell H. Close, M.A., 
M.R.I.A., F.R.G.S.I., Vice-President of this 
Society; Mr. Michael Cusack, Hon. Treasu- 
rer ; Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., Hon. 
Secretary; Mr. David Comyn, Editor Gaelic 
Journal; Mr. John Fleming, Mr. R. J. 
O'Mulrcnnin, Mr. M. Corcoran, Mr. John 

After the minutes of last meeting had 
been read, confirmed, and signed, it was 
announced that the following gentlemen 
had been recently admitted Members of this 
Society under the new rule, being also sub- 
scribers to the Journal : Professor W'in- 
disch , Leipzig ; Professor Zimmer, Griefs- 
wald ; Professor Geissler, Galway ; H. A. 
Bellingham, M.P. ; Rev. Edward Barry, 
C.C, Youghal ; Messrs. Alley and O'Reilly, 
Dublin ; Edward O'Byrne, Esq., Rabastens, 
Tarn, Prance ; Count O'Byrne, do. ; Rev. 
J. Lonergan, C.C. ; Rev. Thomas Hannigan, 
P.P., Powerstown, Clonmel ; Rev. F. Mac- 
Cullagh, P.P., Clonmany, Derry ; Mr. J. 
O'Neill Flanagan, Royal Horse Artillery, 
Dublin ; John O'Duffy, Esq., Rutland- 
square, Dublin ; W. A. Mahony, Plsq., Na- 
tional Bank, Dublin ; E. H. Devitt, Esq., 
do. ; P. J. Hanly, Esq., Dunfanaghy, 
County Donegal ; Air. Michael Gallagher, 
Cloghan, Banagher ; Mr. Richard Walsh, 
Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. 

Mr. Comyn proposed, and Mr. Fleming 
.seconded, the election of Drs. Windisch and 
Zimmer, the distinguished Geman philolo- 

gists, as corresponding members of the 
Council, which was unanimously agreed to, 
the rules not requiring notice of motion in 
case of members residing abroad. 

The following letter was read by the 
Hon. Secretary from the Right Rev. Wm. 
Fitzgerald, D'D., Lord Bishop of Ross, 
Vice-President of the Gaelic Union, in re- 
ference to the proposed amalgamation of 
the two existing Irish Language Socie- 
ties : — 

"Bishop's, Skibbereen, 

''January 11 th, 1883. 

" Mv DE.vR Father Nol.\n,— I enclose 
you my subscription for the Gaelic Journal, 
and sincerely trust that the circulation of 
the new newspaper will be such, at home 
and abroad, as to realize the best expecta- 
tions of its promoters, and to secure for the 
study of our venerable language a wide- 
spread and effective encouragement and 
support. The effort you are now making for 
an amalgamation of the Gaelic Union with 
the Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language is an effort in the right direction, 
and must commend itself to all who care 
for, and wish to see preserved the language 
and literature of Ireland. There is no one, 
as far as I know, who would not prefer to 
see one society, rather than two, working 
in behalf of a cause which, in its very begin- 
ning, demands united counsels, and which 
for its ultimate success must be so depen- 
dent upon harmony of action, and well- 
defined singleness of plan. 

" I am, dear Father Nolan, 

"Yours sincerely and faithfully, 
" «fi Wm. Fitzgerald." 

A communication was received from the 
Secretary to the Council of the Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Language, 
sending copy of resolution in favour of 
amalgamation with the Gaelic Union, 
adopted at their last meeting ; also resolu- 
tion appointing three Members of that Coun- 
cil to represent the said Society on the 
" Amalgamation Committee," which Com- 
mittee, the Council of the Society for the 



Preservation of the Irish Language decided 
should " report to both Councils." 

In consequence of this, it became neces- 
sary to add a third representative of the 
Gaelic Union on the Amalgamation Com- 
mittee. Mr. R, J. O'Mulrennin moved the 
resolution, of which he had given notice at 
last meeting, adding the name of Rev. J. J. 
O'Carroll, S.J. Mr. John Fleming seconded 
the resolution, which was adopted unani- 
mouslv. Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C. ; Rev. 
J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. ; and Mr. Michael 
Cusack, therefore represent this Council. 

In view of the limited powers given by 
the Council of the Society for the Preserva- 
tion of the Irish Language to their repre- 
sentatives on the " Amalgamation Commit- 
tee," Mr. David Comyn moved, and Rev. 
M. H. Close, M.A., seconded the fol- 
lowing resolution, which, after some discus- 
sion, was unanimously agreed to : — 

" That this Council, with the object of 
hastening the conclusion of the negotiations 
pending for an amalgamation of the two 
existing Irish Language Societies, hereby 
confirms the powers given at last meeting 
to its representatives on the ' Amalgama- 
tion Committee,' viz., full powers to deal 
with the question, subject to the approval 
of the Patron and President of both Socie- 
ties, and suggests that the Council of the 
Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language confer similar full powers upon 
the three gentlemen elected to represent 
that body, so that the joint committee may 
be enabled to carry out the object which 
both societies are desirous of accomplish- 

The following letter in reference to the 
Gaelic Journal was read from Dr. Ernst 
Windisch, of the University of Leipzig : — 

"Leipzig, -^^rd January, 1883. 

" Dear Sir, — My time being occupied by 
much work and business, I was not able to 
read as soon as I wished the first number of 
your j ournal, which you were kind enough 
to send to me. Meanwhile, also the second 
number reached me. Allow me to state 
that I take a very great interest in your 
undertaking. Such a journal of mere lite- 
rary character ought to be welcomed by 

everybody who knows, or who wants to 
know something of the language, the style 
and .spirit of the Irish literature. I should 
think that there does not exist a second 
periodical which gives so good an insight 
into the peculiar Irish literary character. 
Your journal has a truly Irish type, and 
hence its interest and importance also for 
literary people on the Continent. May I 
venture to suggest one thing. As far as I 
see, the Irish given in your journal is the 
modern language of the books, what we call 
' die Schriftspreche.' Now it would be 
very interesting to get also an idea of the 
different popular dialects spoken in the 
different parts of Ireland, but as they are 
really spoken, e.g. in tales, not translated 
into modern literary Irish. I suppose that 
there are many scholars who would be 
very grateful for such specimens. 

" I am. Sir, yours very truly, 
" Professor Dr. Ernst Windisch. 

" P.S. — I send my annual subscription by 
post office order." 

The meeting then adjourned to Saturday 
next, 20th instant. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturday, 20th January, 1S83, at 3.30 p.m., 
at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J., occupied the 

The following resolution was proposed by 
Mr. John Fleming, seconded by Mr. R. J. 
O'AIulrennin, and passed unanimously : — ■ 

Resolved — " That whereas, after having 
received a communication from the Most 
Rev. T. W. Croke, D.D., Archbishop of 
Cashel, Patron of the Gaelic Union and ot 
the Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language, recommending the amalgama- 
tion of both Societies, it was resolved by the 
Council of the Gaelic Union (the Lord 
Mayor presiding) : ' ist. That two members 
of each Council who are not members of 
both Councils be elected by their respective 
Councils. 2nd. That the four Members so 
elected elect a Chairman, who is at present 
Member of both Councils. 3rd. That these 
five representatives constitute an Amalga- 
mation Committee. 4th. That the decisions 



of the Amalgamation Committee, signed by 
each member severally and singly, and 
countersigned by the Patron, the Most Rev. 
Dr. Croke, and bv the President, the Right 
Hon. The O'Conor Don, P.C, D.L., shall 
be final and without appeal.' A copy of these 
resolutions was sent to every member of 
each of the Councils. 

" And whereas the Council of the Society 
for the Preservation of the Irish Language 
elected three, not tzvo, members of Council to 
represent them on the Amalgamation Com- 
mittee, suggesting to the Council of the 
Gaelic Union to elect a similar number ; 
three members, Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J., 
Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., and Mr. 
Michael Cusack, were accordingly elected 
by this Council to act on the Committee, 
with full powers. 

" But whereas the Council of the Society 
for the Preservation of the Irish Language 
declined to confer similar powers on their 
representatives on the Committee of Amal- 
gamation, the Council of the Gaelic Union, 
believing that without such powers any 
scheme of amalgamation would inevitably 
fail, requested the Council of the Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Language to 
reconsider their decision on this point. 

" And whereas, in answer to this request, 
the Council of the Gaelic Union has been 
informed by the Secretary to the Council of 
the Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language, that the Council of the Society 
adhere to their resolution of refusing decisive 
powers to the Committee of Amalgamation, 
the Council of the Gaelic Union, believing 
that under such circumstances there is no 
possibility of a successful result to the efforts 
for amalgamation, feel themselves obliged 
to suspend their action in this matter for 
the present." 

The Council adjourned to Saturday next, 
same place and hour. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturday, 27th Januar}', 18S3, at 3.30 p.m., 
at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

Duglas Hyde, Esq., occupied the Chair. 

The following Members of Council were 
also present : — Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., 
Hon. Sec. ; Mr. Michael Cusack, Hon. 

Treasurer ; Mr. David Comyn, Editor 
Gaelic Journal; Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. ; 
Mr. Thomas L. Synnott, Mr. Michael Cor- 
coran, Mr. John Pleming, Mr. A. K. 
O'P'arrell, Sec. National Teachers' Organiza- 
tion of Ireland ; Mr. John Morrin, Mr. R. 
J. O'Mulrennin. 

The Minutes of last Meeting were read, 
confirmed, and signed. 

With reference to a communication re- 
ceived from the Council of the Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Language, 
the following resolution was proposed by 
Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. ; seconded by Mr. 
A. K. O'Farrell ; and unanimously adopted : 

" That with regard to the interesting 
subject of the amalgamation of our Associa- 
tion with the Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language, we are convinced 
that the only real hope for amalgamation 
lies in the appointment of a Committee, 
with complete powers to decide upon that 
question and its conditions, and, conse- 
quently, the Council of- the Gaelic Union 
must decline the invitation of the Council 
of the Society for the Preservation of the 
Irish Language to establish an Amalgama- 
tion Committee with inferior powers; as 
this Council feels that it should not be 
really and worthily seconding the earnest 
wishes for amalgamation which have been 
expressed, by joining in the appointment 
of a Committee of a different kind from 
that they have already proposed." 

The Council is glad to learn that nearly 
800 subscribers have been enrolled for the 
Journal, the third number of which will 
soon appear. 

The Irish classes, under the direction of 
Members of the Council, are now in full 
operation, having resumed work for the 
session on the 20th inst. 

The following letter was read from a dis- 
tinguished German professor : — 

"Gl.\tz, Silesia, 

'■'January 20th, 18S3. 
" Sir, — I send you a P. O. O. for los., 
and beg you to receive me as a member of 
the Gaelic Union. On linguistic grounds 
I take great interest in your movement my- 
self, and besides, I wish to represent my 



wife, who, an Irishwoman true to her native 
country, is deUghted with your highly na- 
tional undertaking. 

" The journals for November and Decem- 
ber have been sent me by a Dublin friend. 
Wishing every success to the Gaelic Union, 

" I am, Sir, yours truly, 

"Dr. C. Deveniier, 

" Professoi- at the College." 

The Council adjourned to Saturday next, 
3rd February, same place and hour. 


The Gaelic Union was established to en- 
courage and spread the study of the Irish 
language by giving prizes, publishing books, 
and founding a Gaelic Journal. How much 
of this threefold means of saving the lan- 
guage the Gaelic Union has carried out the 
following report is meant to tell. However, 
as this is the first report issued by the 
Gaelic Union as a regularly constituted 
society, it may not be out of place to go 
back on the work done by the Gaelic Union 
from its inception to its transition into a 

In March, 1880, the Gaelic Union was 
founded. Thirty pounds were then offered 
to be distributed in prizes amongst the 
students who should obtain the highest 
number of Marks in " Celtic " at the follow- 
ing Summer Intermediate E.xaminations. 

In that year the number of students who 
presented themselves for examination in 
Celtic was 117, whilst that of the previous 
year, when no prizes were offered, was only 
ig. Commenting on this subject the Frec- 
iiian's Journal sd^yi, — " To this action on the 
part of the Gaelic Union may be fairly 
attributed the marvellous increase of can- 
didates for examination in 'Celtic' this 
year, the proportion being over six to one 
as compared with the previous year. It is 
the greatest proportionate increase of stu- 
dents entered for any subject on the pro- 

The prizes were duly awarded to success- 
ful candidates. A like sum of £10 was 

offered for competition in 18S1 and 1882 ; 
the number of pupils presenting themselves 
for examination in Celtic in those years 
being 118 and 72 respectively. 

Hence it is clear that this part of the 
Gaelic Union system of encouraging the 
study of Celtic has been eminently success- 
ful. Before dismissing this subject, it may 
not be out of place to mention that the 
Gaelic Union presented a copy of John 
O'Donovan's celebrated " Grammar of the 
Irish Language " (published at i6s.), to each 
National School teacher who in 1879 or 
1880 obtained from the Board of Education 
certificates of competency to teach the Irish 

In the course of about eighteen months 
the Gaelic Union published in Irish "The 
Lay of Oisin," with vocabulary and notes ; 
" The Youthful Exploits of Fionn," with 
newly designed and lithographed map of 
Ireland in the third century ; first part of 
" Keating's History of Ireland ;" First and 
Second Gaelic Books in Roman letter. 
There are now other works \x\ press. Whilst 
these works were being prepared and put 
through press the Gaelic Union conducted 
a " Gaelic Department " in the Irishman 
and Shamrock ; " Lessons in Gaelic " in 
Young- Ireland, and in the li-ish Teachers' 

The work of the Gaelic LTnion thus 
briefly noticed soon attracted public atten- 
tion. Originally intended as a publication 
and prize-giving committee, at first but few 
in number, the Gaelic Union imperceptibly 
grew up, gradually assumed important pro- 
portions, and became so remarkable a 
factor in the movement for the preservation 
of the Irish language, that it was deemed 
necessary to alter its original constitution 
and transform itself into a society. The 
Gaelic Union is now a regularly constituted 
society, consisting of a President, Vice-Pre- 
sident, Members and Associates, under the 
distinguished patronage of His Grace The 
Most Rev. T. W. Croke, Archbishop of 
Cashel. Since the transition of the Gaelic 
Union as a Committee into the Gaelic 
Union as a Society, the achievement of one 
great success must be recorded, and a few 
remediable failures have to be noticed, 



The Society has established and already 
commenced the publication of a journal 
exclusively devoted to the cultivation and 
preservation of the Irish language, thus 
successfully carrying out the last and 
most important object of the Gaelic 
Union. The establishment of such a 
periodical is a fact which can be pointed to 
with legitimate pride — a fact which, up to 
a few years ago, was not expected to take 
place in this centuiy ; a fact which has no 
parallel in the ancient Annals of Ireland. 

Whilst in the field of literature the Society 
has been fairly successful, in money matters 
it has not been equally so. For want of 
adequate support, the ^30 Intermediate 
School Prizes advertised for this year 
have not yet been awarded. Early in 
the year A. B. Simpson, Esq., Birming- 
ham, offered to the Council a sum of 
;f 10 to initiate a Special Literary Prize 
Fund, on condition that nine others would 
be found to contribute a like sum each, the 
whole to be distributed in prizes for best 
compositions on certain Gaelic subjects. 
Co-operation was sought by letters, circulars, 
pamphlets, and advertisements, with the re- 
sult that only four were found to respond fa- 
vourably. These are: Right Rev. Dr. Croke, 
Patron ; Rev. M. H. Close, M.A., M.R.I.A., 
Vice-Pres. ; Rev. Euseby D. Cleaver, M.A., 
Romford, England ; and Rev. James 
Stevenson, M.A., Brinny Rectory, Co. Cork, 
Members of Council ; consequently these 
generous offers cannot as yet be availed of 
by the Council, and the country is deprived 
of valuable contributions to her literature. 

Perhaps the support required by the 
Gaelic Union would not be so limited if it 
were better known that the whole working 
of the Society is done gratuitously ; that 
not one penny of the funds is spent on 
officers or offices, and that ours is the only 
Society in Ireland which gives prizes and 
rewards for the successful cultivation of 

At present funds are needed to pay the 
£^,0 prizes of this year, and £2,0 more to 
offer as prizes for next year, besides con- 
siderable sums to pay off debts incurred by 
recent important and necessary under- 
, takings. 

Before concluding, it may not be out of 
place to have it stated for the enlighten- 
ment of our reviewers, that the object of 
the movement for the preservation of the 
Irish language never included, and does not 
include, the supplanting of English in 
Ireland by the general use of Gaelic as a 
spoken tongue. The members of the Gaelic 
Union are fully aware that the achieve- 
ment of such an object would be not only 
impolitic but impossible ; it would be in- 
jurious to commercial interest ; it would be 
opposed to the advantages of international 
communication ; it would deprive Irishmen 
of the share of government and position 
of emolument to which their political right 
and power of intellect justly entitle them. 

But the Gaelic Union would like to see 
the Irish people a bilingual people, for, ac- 
cording to Sir P. J. Keenan, now Resident 
Commissioner of the Board of Education, 
"The shrewdest people in the world are 
those who are bilingual." In those parts 
of Ireland where Irish is the only spoken 
language, the process of making the people 
bilingual would be comparatively easy. 
Referring to this class of persons, the above- 
named eminent educationist says: — "The 
real policy of the educationist would, in my 
opinion, be to teach Irish grammatically 
and soundly to the Irish-speaking people, 
and then to teach them English through 
the medium of their native language." Had 
this thoughtful recommendation been 
adopted, it is reasonable to suppose that in 
the west of Ireland the home of the poor 
would not have been visited by the assassin ; 
that the lakes and villages would not have 
been bloodstained ; that the painful scenes 
in the courts of justice would never have 
been witnessed, and that the law of the 
land would have had fewer victims. It is 
time that the legislator and the educationist 
direct their attention to the deplorable con- 
dition of education amongst the Irish- 
speaking peasantry of Ireland. Where 
ignorance is the cause of crime, duty is 
plain. In this duty the Gaelic Union 
means to take a part. 

The Gaelic Union publication series had 
to be abandoned this year for want of funds ; 
a considerable sum is still due to the pub- 


lisher ; £2,0 prizes for this year are morally 
due to the Intermediate students, and £^0 
more will be required for the same in 1883. 
No amount of " sympathy with the move- 
ment " will pay off those debts, nor revive 
the Special Literary Prize Fund. It is 
support — pecuniary support — the Gaelic 
Union stands in need of at present. If 
this be given, with a widely-circulating and 
highly-appreciated Gaelic Journal now 
satisfactorily established, brighter prospects 
for the Irish language may be entertained, 
and a more cheering report may be pre- 
sented for adoption at the end of next 

Unanimously adopted. 

©pinions of tljr Press. 

Our First Numher. 

" The Piioxographic Reporter." 


The first number of this journal, which has been estab- 
lished by the " Gaelic Union," and is to beexclusivcly de- 
voted to the preservation and ciiltivatiun of the Irish lan- 
guage, has just reached us, and we have much pleasure 
in directing attention to it on the part of those of our rea- 
ders who take an interest, philological or otherwise, in th(j 
venerable Gaelic tongue. It is impossible to exaggerate 
the importance of the movement which has been so suc- 
cessfully inaugurated. The immense value of a know- 
ledge of the Irish language to the ethnographer, or to the 
comparative philologist, has long been recognised by Con- 
tinental savan/s, prominent among whom stands the great 
name of Zeuss, though, perhaps, the first effective impulse 
given to the study of the Irish language outside the circle 
of native literati was imparled by Bopp. There are 
yet extant a large number of priceless MSS. and glosses 
scattered over various lands, and it would be an inter- 
national loss — a loss irreparable to the world of letters — 
if, through the utter extinction of the Irish language as a 
spoken tongue, these linguistic treasures should be left 
untranslated, or doomed to perpetual obscurity. Any. ne 
with even a slight knowledge of the Gaelic only tn 
take up the classical map, Orbis Vetcribiis notiis, and lie 
will be able to trace the footsteps of the impetuous Celt 
from the west of Ireland to the cradle of the race in the far 
East. Mountains, rivers, natural features of every kind, 
bear in their nomenclature undying testimony to tlie pre- 
sence of the intellectual and observant people who imposed 
those truly venerable names — names which, amid all the 
vicissitudes of time, war and rapine have survived as fossil 
remains of a period anterior to tire historical epochs of the 
nations of Europe. Some of the most gifted of the philo- 
logists of England are now, we are thankful to say, alive 
to the great importance of preserving from extinction the 
tongues which still remain as representatives of the origi- 
nal language of tlrose primordial races. In truth, English- 
men of influence owe in this respect a great reparation to 

the Irish as well as to the Welsh. The langu.ige of the 
former — expressive, sweet-sounding, terse and vigorous, 
though it is, even in the mouth of an illiterate pea- 
sant—was ruthlessly proscribed by English laws, so much 
so that when, at the Reformation, the use of the Book of 
Common Prayer was rendered compulsory in Ireland, a 
special proviso was introduced that those clergy who 
could not read it in the English were to read it in the Latin 
language ! We hope that all who take an interest in the 
work of the "Gaelic Union" — a society which is unpo- 
litical and unsectarian — will give their practical aid to the 
Journal, which is conducted by a very able staff. 

"Irishman" and " U.nited Ireland," 
iZlh January, 1883. 

The Irish, as a spoken'language, is rapidly dying out. 
In the beginning of this 'century it was spoken in a loca- 
lity only nine miles from Dublin. In the middle of the 
last century all the resident gentry, merchants, and people 
outside the capital, except in portions of Ulster and Wex- 
ford, spoke it. Up to the year 1845 nearly two millions 
of persons used it habitually. At the present time there 
are about nine hundred thousand who can speak it more or 
less fluently, but a large proportion of these habitually 
use the English language. The Irish tongue, too, though 
under the circumstances wonderfully preserved, has been 
corrupting and breaking up ; many words are rapidly be- 
coming obsolete and being lost ; English barbarisms are 
creeping into it ; it is losing some of the cases of its nouns 
and terminations of its verbs ; and, although less corrupted 
than modern Welsh or Scotch Gaelic, it has altered a good 
deal since the middle of the last century. It is, therefore, 
evident that if any step is to be taken to preserve it as a 
sjioken language, and from still more rapid decay, it is 
al>^ülulely necessary that such an effort should be made at 
once. Such an effort must commend itself to the philo- 
logist, antiquary, and patriot, and to every 
Inshnian having national aspirations. The society naming 
itself the Gaelic Union — the members of which are in part 
the same that founded another body, entitled the Society 
for the Preservation of the Irish Language — has effected, 
considering its slender means, a great deal towards the re- 
suscitation of our mother tongue. The Union has already 
published uselul elementary works needed for the Interme- 
diate course, and distributed prizes for proficiency in 
Irish, which have tended much to encourage its study. 
For a considerable time this society had it in contempla- 
tion to publish a periodical, chiefly in the Irish language, 
and it has at length carried its proposal into effect. We 
ha\e before us the two first numbers of " 7'/;? Gaelic 
y.'iK-iLi!. founded, conducted, and published by the Gaelic 
Union," and we must say that the new periodical, in get- 
up and contents, would do credit to a wealthy and long- 
established body, not to speak of a struggling and com- 
paratively new society such as is the Gaelic Union. 

The first number opens with an introductory article, by 
Mr. John Fleming, entitled " The Irish Language in the 
Nineteenth Century." In it he feelingly remarks that 
the learned men of France, Germany, and Italy show 
much more honour to the Irish language than is mani- 
fested by Irishmen themselves ; that many foreigners 
come to Ireland to study Irish manuscripts, while the na- 
tives of the country ignore the existence of these treasures. 
He suggests means whereby the thousands who already 
speak Irish may easily acquire a knowledge of how ^oread 
and write it, and his suggestions appear neither unreason- 
able nor impracticable. Touching on other topics con- 



nectfd with this subject, he refers to the ancient practices 
of Samhain, or All Hallow E'en, comparing Burns' lines 
on these to those in the Irish poem, Cui^xc An tíié-i'DOin- 
oi-òée. The article is written in classical Irish ; but theie 
is no straining after effect, by the use of strings of com- 
pound adjectives, a common fault with Munster writers in 
the vernacular, who were generally fond of "big words." 
We altogether agree with the veteran Irish scholar, in his 
view of the matter of Irish revival. In a subsequent por- 
tion of the journal Mr. Fleming enters more fully into the 
question of this revival, and we commend his remarks, 
written in English, in answer to the strictures of the Lon- 
don Ti,nes, to the attention «f. nil Iii-hmen anxious for the 
benefit of their country and the intellectual progress of its 
inhabitants. In the iirst number of the journal that dis- 
tinguished linguist, the Rev. J. J. C'Carroll, gives the first 
of a series of dramatic scenes in Irish, with an English 
translation. It is a monologue of Brian Buru before the 
battle of Clontarf. The second number contains a con- 
tinuation in the shape of a dialogue between Brian and his 
principal counsellor and confidant. The language in these 
scenes is, while equally classical, simpler and clearer for a 
person with a moderate knowledge of Irish than that of 
Mr. Fleming, though the latter writes in prose and the 
former in verse. The Rev. Mr. O'Carroll, in the first and 
second number, has also articles on the Ossianic poems 
viewed in connection with MacPherson's imitations and 
Dr. Joyce's translations of Irish tales. These essays, 
written in English, are very interesting, presenting as 
they do new and fresh views of rather a hackneyed 
subject, which had almost died out of the memory of the 
present generation. A very pretty poem by a contributor 
signing himself " Leath Chuinn " follows the article on 
the Ossianic poems. But why print this poem in English 
letters ? Of course the accents have to be left out, and the 
words are full of h's. giving ihem a most uncouth length 
and appearance. This \noki like inconsistency. It is 
well known that the outcry .against the Irish characters 
comes from only a few Inzy people, who, if they got books 
in Irish jirinted in K.Minn type, would not be a bit nearer 
to acquirin-,; .1 I )i"\\l< <'., ,,f the language. We therefore 
consider tl ' y.'urnal is acting wrongly in 

panderiiii; 1 • 1 '■ ine by printing any of its Irish 

in Roman l(i!( 1 , an I a r ^liould advise it to give up such 
a useless practice. There is in the journal a tmnslation of 
the " Exile of Erin," into French, which we think would 
have been better left out. The translation is not remark- 
able either for faithfulness or power, a portion only of it 
being in verse, and that not in the same metre as the ori- 
ginal. It is not to be compared with Collins' translation 
into Irish. A warm welcome from Iain Ban Og is given 
in Scotch Gaelic, as also a notice of the Gaelic Union re- 
port in Welsh, extracted from a journal of the Principality, 
so that the Celtic languages are tolerably well represented. 
We shall now expect notices in Manx and Bas-Breton. A 
sensible article on the teaching of Irish is furni--hed by an 
anonymous contributor, and as it is written in English, its 
perusal would be very instructive to numbers of people 
who have as yet given very sliglit consideration to the 

study of the I.I 
century I'lir 


the death of the 

of the writer on 19th 

n 1" ile. A letter in Irish, 

1 1 tate of the Irish and 

I' I nihil Si iiL-^ of America, though 

■11 iv. C'lniain^ some very per- 

: "11 ihe rapid disuse among the 

in,- I Ills of the tongue of their fore- 

I, iiiirrihing himself " Craobliin- 

tcs some very sweet elegiac verses on 

Archbishop of Tuam, considered es- 

pecially as a loss to native Irish literature. In the first 
and second numbers Canon U. Bourke contributes the 
first six chapters of the life of the subject of the elegy. 
This is partly a new life, not the same as ajipeared in the 
Iris/imati. We consider it superior as a literary work to 
the English life written by the same dignitary. In the 
second number commences a series of articles on the word 
Cii as used in Irish proper names, by T. Flannery. Arti- 
cle's on this subject had already appeared in the Gaelic de- 
partment of the Irishman by the same author, but those 
in the (7aíŵ 7í>í«7/í7/ are entirely re-written. Thereagain, 
too, the editor has had the Iri^h printed in Roman letters 
without sufhcient reason, as far as we can perceive. A 
commencement of a translation of the moral discourse of 
the Rev. P. O'Keefife is also given by Mr. Fleming. We 
would suggest to the translator the advisability of ceasing 
from the use of the expression ni b.puil, instead of ni f uiL 
or iii'L, as the former is entirely unknown in the spoken 
language, and contrary, moreover, to the rule that ni aspi- 
rates, not eclipses. We regard ni b-puiL as one of the re- 
mains of the pedantiy and affectation of the last two 
centuries, though there is no doubt that it is met with often 
enough in what are regarded as good manuscripts. The 
second number contains a short elegy on the late Arch- 
bishop of Tuam by D. Lynch, and a welcome to the journal 
by a southern. It also contains the first of a series of 
articles on the sounds and letters of the Irish language, a 
subject not yet exhaustively treated, nor likely to be for 
some time to come. The remarks of the editor in both 
numbers, the correspondence, and the reports of proceed- 
ings of the Gaelic Union, all contain very interesting 

It will thus be seen that the numbers of the Gaelic 
Your/iii/ unÚGT notice contain a great variety of interesting 
matter bearing on the language and literatureof our coun- 
try. For our part we should prefer original articles, 
rather translations, from the pen of Mr. Fleming, than 
wliom, and Mr. W. M. Hennessy, there are, in our opinion, 
no more competent Irish scholars at present existing. 
But it would indicate unreasonableness and squeamish- 
ness to show dissatisfaction at the fare supplied in such 
plenty and variety by the Journal, the type, paper and 
general get-up of which are, moreover, admirable. The 
Irish type, especially, is clear, artistic, .and beautiful, and 
there are f^ew printers' errors, a' circumstance comparing 
favourably witli so many other works in the Irish lan- 
guage. ]iarticularly those of the late Archbishop of, 
otheruise so excellent. We trust that the effort of the 
Gaelic Union to help on the revival of the still-living lan- 
guage of Erin may not fail through want of sufficient sup- 
port, as has been the case with so many Irish enterprises. 
It is an effort which cannot give umbrage to any political 
or religious parties, and to which all admirers of learning 
and literature nmst heartily wish success. But from Irish- 
men in particular it deserves encouragement and support, 
for there is no national distinction so striking, no bond of 
union greater th,an the possession and colloquial and lite- 
rary use of a native langu.age. Furthermore, the modern 
Irish language is the only complete key to that of the an- 
cient manuscript treasures of Erin. 

"Jersey Observer," iSt/i November, 1S82. 
We beg to call the attention of our readers to a new 
periodical, entitled, The Gaelic Journal. It has already 
enlisted the interest and support of many subscribers, 
amongst whom we notice eminent scholars and well-known 
dignitaries. It has met with the most flattering encou- 
ragement from the Press, in England, Ireland and America. 



When we see so many ancient landmarks falling before 
the materia! commercial exigencies of tliese practical, 
busineas-like, money-making dayi ; when we see monu- 
ments which recall the worthy achievements of the past, 
its spirit, its intellect, its artistic feeling, its venerable 
lessons, handed down through the changes of dynasties, 
the ravages of revolutions, and the fall, like autumn 
leaves, of generations after generations ; and then merci- 
lessly sacrificed, to make room for a railway or gin palace, 
we cannot but grieve and sigh, and seek even in the rav- 
ings and pulings of aesthetics for comfort ; since they, in 
this at least, have reason, that they deplore the loss of the 
sacred memorials of our forefathers, just as scientific men 
bewail the disappearance of some natural species of bird, 
beast, or flower. 

But of all losses, the loss of a language seems the most 
irreparable. A language, if modern, is only a link in a 
chain, which if lost still leaves the hope that the chain 
may be repaired. But a language which is radical — a 
language upon which all the links in the chain depend for 
support and existence — if this be lost, then, indeed, the 
chain becomes almost as useless as a rope of sand. 

Who does not regret tlie decay even of a patois, like 
that of Jersey French? and who does not applaud the 
efforts of the Jersey States to preserve it from utter ex- 
tinction ? What then are we to think of the impending 
annihilation of the Gaelic tongue? We know that the 
Kelts were the first of the Aryan race to arrive in Europe, 
bringing witli them a primeval language. W. K. Sullivan 
says : "To determine the common elements in the lan- 
guages, mythologies, legends, laws and customs of the 
several branches of this Aryan race, and thence, induc- 
tively, rehabilitate the primitive parent race whence they 
issued, is one of the most interesting and important pro- 
blems of historical science. For this end the study of the 
ancient language of the Irish race, their historical tradi- 
tions and legends, are most valuable." 

This is an enterprise which should not only stimulate 
the learned and the patriotic ; but which becomes a duty 
for the Keltic, inasmuch as it has been made a re- 
proach to it, that foreign scholars far outstrip them in 
knowledge of and enthusiasm for the most venerable and 
valuable of all languages. 

We are dealing, happily, with a matter which rises far 
above pohtical contest, religious prejudice and national 
rivalries, and such mere ephemeral phenomena, which are 
not more worthy of notice than the fleeting clouds ; but 
we are dealing with a subject more ancient than the hills ; 
with a subject in which are crystallised the first stam- 
merings of the human race ; which forms still one of 
the media through which all our emotions pass ; and 
wliich serves all the purposes of our colloquial, intellec- 
tual, scientific, poetic and passionate utterances. This is 
not a matter which need be necessarily abstruse. Under 
its able managers, there is every reason to hope that the 
f ournal will admit of much popidar interest . 

Considering the moderate price of this organ, devoted 
to so instructive and excellent a cause, it is scarce'y 
beyond the reach of even the poorer classes, who have at 
heart the Keltic race and the Keltic language. 

"Inverness Advertiser," Oct. ly/i, 1S82. 

The Gaelic Union of Dublin have issued a circular 
intimating their intention, provided they receive sufficient 
indications of encouragement, to issue a monthly periodi- 
cal, chiefly in English.'but with a department in the native 
language, and devoted to the creation and development of 

an interest in the language and ancient literature ot 
Ireland. Not only is the object aimed at one of great 
importance to Celts and philologists eveiywhere, but the 
source of the promised journal is one that entitles the 
project to the highest respect and a tangible welcome. 
The Gaelic Union is not by any means a merely idle and 
ornamental society. It has already commended itself to 
favourable consideration liy its work of practical usefulness 
and permanent value. It has issued a large number of 
neat, correct, and handy works in the ancient language of 
Ireland, as well as devoting a large sum of money in the 
shape of prizes to students and teachers of Irish in the 
national schools of that country. During the past year or 
two the distracting condition of affair^ in Ireland, as well 
as the absence of the learned and energetic secretary from 
Dublin, have had the effect, to s^ mic ex'.cnt, of interrupting 
the labours of the Union ; but now with the apparent 
respite from disturbance, and the return of Mr. Nolan, the 
Union has once more addressed itself to its vocation, and 
we cannot but think that its first symptoms of new life 
and vigour, namely, this purpose of issuing a Celtic 
journal, is one that ought to evoke a cordial welcome 
from the large family of Celts scattered over the whole 

In the circular issued by the Union, invitations are given 
10 all interested in the matter to offer any suggestions that 
may occur to them. We hope it will not be considered 
impertinent if %ve express the hope that the Irish depart- 
ment of the new periodical will be printed in Roman 
characters. The so-called Irish letters are no more Irish 
than are the Roman, and they are attended with the very 
great disadvantage that they are unknown, or at least 
unfamiliar, to the Gaels of Scotland, and we should think 
also to many of those of Ireland itself. Moreover, the 
Roman letters are found perfectly sufficient to represent 
all the sounds of the language as used on this side of the 
Irish Channel, and the two dialects are to all intents and 
purposes, after all, but one language. 

We cordially wish the Gaelic Union every success in 
their new undertaking ; and when we mention that the 
annual suliscription is only five shillings, we venture to 
believe that many of our Celtic readers will supplement 
our good wishes by remitting this amount, and any further 
contribution they may be able to add to it. to the Honorary 
Treasurer, Mr. Michael Cusack, 19 Kildare-street, Dublin. 

"The Paislev Herald," h/A Oct., 1SS2. 


This is a society, having a council, the object of which 
is to preserve the Irish language. It is undenominational 
— therefore catholic — as it ought to be. The society has 
been in existence for some time, but it has not received that 
amount of support to which its members think it is highly 
entit ed. It gives prizes to those who show the greatest 
skill in the Irish language, and it proposes to establish a 
journal in this lans;uage, and for its promotion articles 
written in it apart from politics. To obtain the necessary 
funds it proposes that there shall be afiiliated societies or 
associations, each of which is to consist of at least twelve 
members, including the president, etc. Each member is 
to pay IS. at least, or the entire association is to pay;^! 
per annum out of the funds of the association. Two 
elected members of the affiliated association to be members 
of the council at Dublin. Such are some of the means 
by which this council seeks to preserve the Irish language. 
There are many Irishmen in this town well able to give 



the money requiretl. Surely twelve of them could be 
found who could give;£'i2 annually, and if they think the 
language worth preserving, it will not be creditable to 
them if they allow this society to fail, from want of funds, 
in carrying out their view. It may cause diverse feelings, 
but the very existence of this council shows that the Irish 
language is fast disappearing, the same as Gaelic in the 
Highlands. In spite of all Dr. Blackie's exertions, the 
Gaelic in our country i^ 'loi>m^'l, nnd it it not improbable 
that in a hundred yen - < ;. ■ -■ h 'and will be a thing 
of the past, whether ;li n ii admirers of Gaelic 

likeit ornot; theEnyji^ii I.mi..;, . ; .. ;iig that of commerce 
and science as well a,^ ...1 luciauiif, ii will in the course 
of time be universally spoken in the Highlands and 

"The Scottish Guardian," lot/i A'ov., 1SS2. 

Those of our readers who take an interest in the pre- 
servation of the tongue of Old Gaul, as a living language, 
may be pleased to hear that there exists a society called 
"The Gaelic Union ;" it is under the patronage of the 
(Roman Catholic) Archbishop of Cashel, The O'Conor 
Don is president, and it seems to include Anglican and 
Nonconformist clergy and laymen amongst its members, as 
well as Roman Catholics. The Union has corresponding; 
members everywhere, ajiparently, except in Scotland. 
Why is this ? Very shortly the Union is to issue a literary 
organ, 7'/u- Gadic Union Journal : it is to come out 
monthly, is to cost sixpence, and is to include all that a 
monthly magazine usually includes ; it is to be written 
both in Gaelic and English at fiist, but is gradually to 
become exclusively Gaelic. All further particulars may 
be learned by application at 19 Kildare-street, Dublin. 

" Freeman's Journal," December 4, 1882. 

The Gaelic Union, in its noble object to preserve and 
cultivate the old Irish tongue, has deserved well of the 
country. Barely two years in existence, it has not only 
weathered the storms of an excited and distracting period, 
but it has also gone on scoring success alter success, until 
now it records its greatest, and, indeed, its culminating 
triumph. This, we need hardly say, is the production of 
its own periodical, the Gaelic Journal. We have seen a 
copy of the First Number, and prosperity appears to br 

it is ailmiiably printed in clear, bold tyi»', n: i < :i:,: n .1 
full supply of interesting and diversiiir. ,;,i': . I In 
letterpress, poetry and prose, is b..:l! :i; 1 ' -A 

may only direct attentiiin to them here; and wo Imp,' 
there is no necessity for us to make any long appeal in 
behalf of the Journal for general support in the country. 
We are constantly hcarini; romplaints of the vapid 
and immoral trash i^ -iilhr, 1 to Hood the country 
week after week. Ibn, iIkii, 1 1 h .arnal with merits to 
which the said trash hcmi \c1 1 ul ,1 claim, and certainly 
without any of the alkgcd atlriljale^ uf the latter. We 
shall be anxious to learn how the country receives it. 
Perhaps the promoters will permit us to suggest that a 
series of easy lessons in Gaelic should be forthwith com- 
menced in the Journal. It will give beginners in the 
language greater interest in it, and at present we are glad 
to believe that their name in Ireland is legion. 

"The Cashel Gazette. ' 

The Gaelic Journal. We have watched with much 
interest for the First Number of this Journal, and have 
great pleasure in finding that it is such a publication as 
we had hoped for, and not such as we feared it might be. 
The Irish part is, as it should be, printed in the Irish 
character instead of the dotted and accented Roman 
type, which is, in our humble opinion, an abominable 
substitute. It also starts as neutral in both religion 
and politics, and we therefore hopefully look forward to 
its being what our American cousins call a "live journal." 
We shall be happy to receive subscriptions for it, 5s. 6d. 
per annum, free by post. 

"Burnley Express," 
A little book has been issued by the above Union which 
states its objects in a very clear and concise manner. The 
Gaelic Union has been instituted for the preservation and 
cultivation of the Irish language, and its consequent 
extension as a spoken tongue ; to establish and perpetuate 
a " Publication and Prize Fund, and to procure greater 
facilities and better encoHra;:riiient fir ilie teacliiiig and 
learning of the language in tln' .< IhmiI- mÍ Ireland. The 
aim of the Socielymust havi :! r .viikmIiv iif all Irishmen, 
for where is there one ani'in^'-i ili< 111 hut is interested in 
the preservation of his mother tongue, which is one of the 
links which binds him, though perhaps only in memory, 
to his " dear little island of green !" Those who wish to 
become members may obtain all information on applica- 
tion by letter to the Secretary, Society's Rooms, 19 Kildare- 
street, Dublin. 

" Limerick Reporter." 

We have great pleasure in referring to another part of 
our columns in which the prospectus of the newly pro- 
jected Gaelic Journal appears. We are sure that the 
project in question will prove to be an undoubted 
success. The Gaelic Journal will supply a want which 
every one in Ireland must feel who wishes well to the 
noble tongue of a I'ciiplc who merit a better fate than that 
which has befallen iIkiii. In America certain journals 
devote a large quantily of space to Gaelic literature. In 
W.i!,-, ili.-h'' ,:ic journals wholly printed in the ancient 
1 , M : , . i: II akin to the Gaelic. In Scotland, the 
./ ■ and the Hi^lilana'cr, under the able 
. : ;., 1,L it tlic brothers McKenzie, of Inverness, have 

and which, with these aids, is'destined to out 
has been wrought against its existence. At long length, 
in Irelantl, the native home of the Gael, we have been 
hitherto bereft of such a medium as that which the new 
Journal proposes to bestow upon the country. We hope 
and trust that the projectors will receive the largest and 
widest co-operation on the part of every one who sympa- 
thizes with the admirable cause in which they are engaged, 
and of the uUim itc happy result of which we entertain not 
the remotest doubt whatever. \Ve should pay a tribute 
to the Tuam Xcuis as the only Irish paper which has 
hitherto given anything like efficient aid to the Irish 
language. The Gaelic Journal will be a credit to the 
country, and will spread a knowledge of the tongue far 
and wide. We again wish it every success. 


lUisleAbAR ^^^ sAe-oilge. 



No. 5.— Vol. I.] 


[Price Sixpence. 

be<\üv\ se<.\5v\iii lincliéit, Á^^vo- 


■diyv n-A i-jjm'oIJa'd •o'-Aon-o jcc ìis Jie-ôilje lei]- An 
•c\cjii\ 1onu]\i\Amcd, llileoj 1. t)e 'biipc, Caiiüiij,c iia 
Cille móife 1 t>-Cuiini. 

Afí r-OcciiiAt) CAib'-^il. 

5ac leAiib 111^)1 oilceA]i, — SeAii-yocAl. 

ÜÁ i'eAn-ỳocAÌ í ineA]"^ iia ii-'OAomeAt), — 
1"0 é, — "11Í -iTAjcAii téijeAii Af teAiiiiiAcc." 
111a)i ]-o vo bi ]'e le SeÁ jaii 11lAc1léil. "Oo 
bi CÚ15 mile beAt-Aij jac lÁ Ai^e le ■oul Aiin 
]'coile, Aiji coif no aiji iiiAHCuigeACc. 1]- 
lomúA UAi]t T)o nijne ye An c-Ai]"oeAH ai]i coip 
-Ai]; yeAü ciiÁc, yuAiji ]-e ue liiAom a aca^ 
yéin, AOiueAcc, -j-e I'ln h\<xó aju]' ui j 1 'o-nj 
•oei]\f-niHA A liiÁCAH, CAinlín II15IÌIA01I- 
CiA]iÁin A bí in]- An aiii ]"o 'ha cóŵnuije 
A15 cij-JDobiiil C)iuiiiilinne, bAile beAj a cá 
1 ]-eAn-fDA)\Ái]-oe An üoiiloic, jaji 50 bẁile 

fei]-eA]i •oeini'-iu]A A15 inÁCAin SeÁJAin 


Ó15; tiobi Á]my, Áic-cóiiinuije no jAbAlcAf 
ACA A1H leic, nion bA no-ỳA-OA ó'n m-bAile m 
A ]iAib iTiAc 05 A n--oei]ifnt|iA, 1ì1Áij\e 
niclléil, Aj ^rójUnni l/Aiune. II1 ^iAib ceAC 
ACA, iiiój-.An, nAC ]iAib ye ]-eAl jeA)!]! ai]\ 


ó'n lÁ rin ro ■o-ri ah Iá 

ẃn-t)ni, rÁ b]\ó-D aju]- lúcjÁin ai)! a linim- 

ri]l 5AO1I, AJU]- Al]l A C0lceArA]lACAlb, Ovjll]- 

Ai]\ clAinn nŵ iiiuina)ie A bí ẃnn ']'An Ain 
ym 50 jiAib niACAOiii co nuìince, inACÁncA, 
meAnnrnnAÔ Ag yAJAil irójluinA cpÁc 
1 meAf5 A CA]iAT). bi AtiiAnnA cinnce Ann 
Ajii-p bi 1'e i-eAcniiAni no b'yeit)!]! caoijí)- 
in Aon 05 A5 CAii-beÁnAü A5111- Ag l'ÁJAil 
cÁip-oi]', mó.]\ bini) jnÁcAc le üAonnb cojca, 
■o'Á CU1-0 5A01I, A5 -pinue leo, Ajuf A5 
^.-ójnijA-ò CAniAl le cÁc. nviAi^i vo cÁinic 
"Oia-Sacu]!!! X)' pll ye a bAile r]\ÁcnónA An 
Iab I'm 50 b-|:eic]:eAt) ]'e ẃ iìiácaih Ajiif a 
ACAi)i, ŵju]- 50 n--oéAn].-A-ò i^e ceileAbAji leo, 
Aju]' le n-A liiinnciji a bi' 1 njAji-jAol -oó. 
1)' iiiA]\ ]'o x>o CA1C ]'e lAece a i'coili-óeAccA ; 
tAiTJin Ajii]- CU1Ü beAj -oe jpéiji]- m Aom- 
jreAcc le AijieAiiiAcc -o' ỳójluini ^-e ó'n 

1n Aniipi\ An ýójmAi]i 1807, yuAìy ye 
ójTOu jat!) ó "Óoniiniic billeoj, CAi'poj Cille- 
aIato -oul 50 ColÁii-oe lÌlAige-HuA-ÓAC. 
"O'imtij lei]' 50 fonniiiAn. Hi ]iAib cóii'ci-ó 
iiif An A111 ]-in 50 coiucionn in éi)\inn. Sin 
í An bliA-ÓAin in a]i' coi'uij SeAjiliif biAn- 
coni Aj ootnÁinc cÁn Ajup cóij-ce puiblTOe 
Ai]\ nA bócA|iAib iiió]AA ó bẃile CluAnAmeAl<x 
50 popclAiiige. A^]\ inAHCUijeAcc mAji pn 
in AompeAcc le n-A ■óeApbjAÁCAin bmi fine, 
Aip ■ó]itiim eic, no cjiiaII ye ẃnn beAlAij 50 
colAi^-ne lÌlAije-îliiA-ÓAc: colÁifüe nuAÓ 
50 luce n A 1i-éi|\eAnn. 1n]" ah aiii i-in ni' 
|\Aib i'e 1 b-fAt) Ai]i biin, aj ■oul Ann a -óá- 
bliA-oAnvoeug. Hi le Jl'Át) t)o n.-. Caco- 
licijib cui]ieA-ó Ai]\ bun 6, — acc le Ii-cajIa 


fi]i Ó5A iiA h-G^oppA inf An Am pn, UoncA 
le -ppiotiAt) einje a •óéAriAt) in ajaiü píoj 
ẃju]' in AJAit) Apn-iiemie ajuj' Á]it)-ýtc\iCTp 
n A ]\k\5>.\Ia. m ah pn ■oé.le -oeAJ-coiiiAiiile 
éA-óinoni "Oe bú|\c, "oo ciU]\ fei]' SACf Ann 
colÁi]-oe lilAije nuAWAC m]\ bun, Ajuf 
fiiApATDAH -['eAbb A1]\ ■peAn-Áic-cómniii je nA 
nJeAHAlrAc 1 j-Cúije LAijeAn. So li-é An 
colÁii'Tje m Ai\' ciii|\eA-ò SeÁJAn niAclléil 
Aju)' AübAin pAjApc eile ó jac eAj-pojAcc 
M\\ yAiT) nA 1i-éi]\eAnn. 'Agu)- i]- iiiAic An 
obAi]!, bui-oeACA]' AjupmolA-otio "Óia, pijne 
ẃn colAij^oe ceuünA ó poin 1 beic 50 ■o-ui An 
La a CÁ Ann An--oni. 11 í jiAib ye -oeACAi); 
"oo'n liiACAoiii iinnnce eobjAC ]-o " niit-i- 
^'ceAC " 'o'j.-ÁJAib 1 'iiP^^l'5 iiiAC-léijin 

^iH An b--|:iceA'ò lÁ "oe liií-iiieÁ-òom An 
ỳójriiAi]> 1S07, -oo p5]\íobA-ò Ainm SeÁí;Ain 
Illic1léil 1 leAbiiAib pu;bli-óe An colÁii'üe. 
"Oo coj-uij pe Anoi)' 50 ginnn C]ió-ÓA A5 
c)\innnii5A-ó eotuip, -aju]' aj 'oéAnAt) 
yójUiniA 1 ÌAi-om, 1 nJnéijip Ajuf 1 
SAC]-beii|\lA. In]' An aiii pin ní pt\ib A15 nA 
peA]\Aib-léi jm, 1 iii-bAile, 110 a]' bAile, iiu\]> 
cÁ 1 bÁcAi)!, 5iiAiniéip 1 SAcpbenpLA. II1' 
pAib ACA Acc beAbAip tATome AiiiÁin, A5 
buAinc ApcA, Tio péi|\ A "o-cuAintni, ŵn liiéro 
but) ceA)\r, cóiiicnom, 50 SAcpbeu]\'LA. In 
eAlA-ÓAin UA pAOi, Agup in eolup -oia-oacca 
bí pe 'nA peAH nopAij a complAccA pém. 
11 i ]iAib ponn iTióp Aip bic Aip, a incteAcc a 
TAbAipc -00 UA IveAlAXiAnAib 5)imne. 1]- 
iiKv]! po -00 CA1C pe A ceAptiiA, — peAcc 
iii-bliAUnA, — 'yAn j-colÁii'tie, no jup buAil 
CAoni mimpAjup bpeoiceAccA An pio]i-OiT)e, 
— An c-OLLaiti 'Oe-lw-lloj. 

^nnpin, Aip An c|iiocat)iìia-ó lÁ -oe 1111 ua 
LújnApA 1 111-bliA'ÓAin 1814, — ApuutjeAt) 
SeÁjAn HlAcíléib, ■00 péip coIa An uAc-OAp- 
Ám Ajtip •oeAJ-ẁeAp a complACCA péin le 
pójlunii A rAbAinü 'oóib, Aguj- léijin a 
biionnATJ o|i]\A ó CACAOip An iìiaiji]ti|\ a bí 
Anoip ÌAj^ pAoi uaIac nnni)'. 

1 iiii-iiieAwoin An r-j-An'ipAnJ in]- An 

ni-bLiA-ÔAin ceuTDUA "oo pi jneA-ó ivvjApc ■oe 
pAO) tÁiiiAib &APP015 conjnAiiiCAi 5 AÌA- 
CliAC, "OorimAilL 111 liluiiiCAuAij, A bi 
jioniie pin 'nA GAppoj Aip IliepApolii' in 
pariibus infideliuvi, ó lÁp ah r-]-Aiii]KM-ó 
1809. ^noip cÁ pe 'nA pAjApc aju]- 'ha 
01-oe, A5 b)iipeA-ò bit) nA pójluniA tio 
riiACAib-léijm CACoiliceACA nA b-éipeAnn. 

O'n meut) •00 coniiAipc pe, aju]" cuAÌAit) 
]-e, Ajup iiieAiii]iui j j-e, ni li-iongiiAti ai]i btc 
50 111-beitieAt) pe A1H Ia]-a-ô ie üúil ah 
oipeuti <>1\ t)ob' péitii]i tei)- AtieAnAtS ai|\ poti 
"Oe Aj^up Aip poll cbAinne "Oe a bi pAoi. 
^Xju]' t)o pijne pe a -óócAin. 

^11 llAOtilAt) CAlblt)ll. 

" During the short period that has passed before my 
observation, revolutions have arisen that have no parallel 
in history." — Letters by (Hierophilos) John of Tuani, 
Feb., 1S20. 

1p iiiAp po bei]iceAp t)úinn eoUip (>.y a 
belli péin Aip An lÁn neiceAt) éA^pAiiiAil 
noc T)o connAi]tc Ajup cuaIaiw SeÁjAn ITIac 
hell Ó Aiiii]-ip A p]\ioiii-Aoi]-e 50 t)-ci An 
bliA-ÓAin 1820, An rpÁc Aip a b-puilniit) 
Anoip Aj cpÁcc. 

üpiT) An 6iipóip 50 léi)\ bi-ùeAt)Ap cojaid 

AJUp CÓlÌlb)lAlC AJU]' CpÁ-ÓAt) gAll CpíOC. 

SAOiLpeAt) neAC Aip bic 50 pAib Aii uoiiiaii 
móp Aip niipe. peuc An c-UApAl aju]- au 

C-1Y10I, All C-UACCA1\Á11 AgUp All C-íüCCA)tÁn, 

An pAoi Ajup An -OAOi, An oeAJ-TDUine Ajup 
An T)i\oc-t)uine, An C-Ó5 Ajup An c-AopuA, 
An cléipeAC Ajup An cuaca, aj rpoit) Ajup 
A5 cóiiibpAC 50 b-iopjuil All bÁi)\ 1p 
niillceAC An c-AiiiApc é — ip iiióp, ip tiuŵl 
t)ó, t)0 joilpeAt) peA]i 05 iiieAniiinAC 
iiieipneAiiiAib, Agup niAC-léijin iiiAOc-cpoit)- 

CAC Al]\. 

•ppuc Apí)-, iniAip iiAC ]tAib ]-e Acr An-ój, 
cuaIai-ó \e 5U]i buAineAb au ccAnn t)e'n pij 
Ajup üe'n bAin)\i05Ain, t)e ua pAgApcAib, tie 
gAc uibe liiAic, tie 5AC iiiie Í'aoi, tie jac inle 
peAp pniiiCAC, ne jac uile oLIaiìi, 110 neAC 
uApAÌ ti'Áp b' péitiip leip nA li-UACCApÁnAib 



iiiipiAJAlrA A b]\eic no a jaIjáiI ai]i. 5<^" 1"5' 
5A11 niẃjUijẃò, 5^11 ye^Y ŷio]-AC puncAC, 50.11 
eoijlẃii' jAn cléiji : éiiujeAiin riA PnAticAije 
in AJAit) HA li-Go]\pA Aip fAü — bjiifeŵnn 
fiAt) ]ióiiipA pioJACCA Ajuf ylAicif ; I'AJAnn 

I'lAT) buAIT) AIJl gAC CÍ|1 AgUp JAC CmeAU, 

beAjnAC : — An c-feAn-n'uiincin A15 a ^Aib 
l\ioJACCA Ajiij' AiTO-iienii bei]- iia ceAuCA 

bllAUAnCA, CÁlt) leAJCA A1H tÁ|1. 

"Oo bi éi'ne bocc, in|" An A111 ceuünA, -oonA 
50 leo]\ ; bi yuii a leAnb '5Á -ooncATf) jAn 
|-eit)m, 5An copAW; Agtif bi p yéin iiia]\ 

IxACel, Ag 511b AJUf Ag CA01-Ó, Ó1H t)0 bi ITIAC- 

Aoiiii A bponn ai]a lÁji piACCA óy a cóiiiaih. 
biTO cü]v\iiiAil An •ooiiiAn ini'An aiii I'ln lei]' 
An iiiui]i tiiói]i nieAj'jcA 50 iinibceAC yAoi 
T)i\oc-j'ioii, Ag AjiuiiJA-o A conn yAOi b)uic 
I'liAi- nil" An Aeii, A5111- '5Á 5-CACA-Ò 50 
VliAociiiAn, ve^rs-^c Aiji An qiÁis, no '5Á 
iii-b]ii]'eAü Aip nA cA]i]iAi5ib : yenc ha bÁiti 
Agu)" nA lonjA b]iifce, bjitnjce, ]xa]dca no 
I'liigcA fio]' m Áibéif An -oubAijin. Sm 

CUJAlb AJAIt) nA h-eoUpA, AJLIf AJAIt) Áfl 

■o-cí|ie -oiìccAif yein, ah qiÁc -oo bi SeÁJAn 
îllAcîléil A5 éii\5e fUA]' nA mAl]iAc. 

lUiAin t)o cuip An c-1nipiiie HApoleon An 
coiióin Ai]i A ceAnn, ■oo pAOib ye 50 ]iAib I'e 
Ó]' cionn An 'ooriiAin 50 béip. "Oo cjioro ye 
leip All b-pÁpA, piuf VII., Acc I'eAb 'nA 
■Ó1A15 pn X)0 leAjAt) Ai^i bAji é |'ein Ajup a 
cuiiiACC inp An ni-bbiAuAin 1814. 

1p inp All c]iÁc po tDO copuig An pAJAJIC 
05 SeÁJAn IllAclleil aj •oéAnA'ó oibpe 
niAice tio "ÓiA Ajnp uo'n ■ouine, A5 CAbAijic 
eolinp -00 nA inACAib-léijin niéineACA ■oo bi 
pAoi n-A pcunp, ■oo ^iéip 10111 lÁnie a cúiíiacca. 

■peiCCeAp JUp pÁp All ■OGAJ-'OAbCA pUA]' 1 

l-Aecib iÁn ■oe neicib eAjpAiiibA, Aip piece 
nÁ'p cAnjA-OAp A leicéi-oe cum ci\ice ó 
Aiiiipip peAii-lmpipeACCA nA llóniie. 11i 
longnAt), iiiAp pin x>é, 50 pAib a Aijne bpop- 
cinjce 50 mop ; a incteAcc gbinn, a c)\oi-óe 
A5 iiiAOcnJA-o cum niAiccAp a ■óéAnA-ó iiia]i 
bu-ó -óuaI 1 -o-üAoib "Oé Ajup ah -ouine. 

"OeipceA]! gup CU5 ye eolu]' poillpeAc 
po-cui5ponA, ■oeAjibcA, piop, in a ngnócAib 

■00 nA mACAib-léi jin ója noc -00 bi pe aj 
ceAjApj. ^y iiiinic ■oúbAipc nA pip a pijne 
pogluim pAoi, nA b|iiAcpA po. Do léi 5 ye 
50 beop 'pAn A111 ceu^onA po. Ilijne ye 
ineAiiipAcc Aip An njpéigii" niop peÁjip Ajup 
ni'op ■ooitime lonÁ ■oo pijne ye poitiie pin. bu-ò 
gnÁc beip, cuTO 'o' obAip cU'uiiAip jiobúin 
Aip An ImpipeAcc HoiiiAnAij ■oo lei jeA-ó pub 
■00 puijeA-ò ye piop cum pjpiobcA : Ajup ■o' 
AicpgpiobA'ó ye cura 'oi ó aih 50 h-Am. 
VeicitiiTO in A p5pi'binib péin, 1 njAC-oilig 
Agup 1 SAcpbeuplA iTiApAon, ni-ò éigin -oe 
liio'ó-pjpiobcA An pcÁpAfòe pin. "Oo cuaIai-ò 
An cé A p5piobAp nA bpiAcpA po é aj pÁú 50 
iiiinic gup lei 5 pe 'yó,rt ngpéijip Aip peATJ 
pice lÁ nA ceic]ie leAbAi)! ai]i picra a cá 
j-jpiobcA inp An obAip t)'Á]i b'Ainm " IIia-q 
llomeA)!." 111 Ap All 5-ceuT)nA, -00 léig pe 
A]up Agup Api]- IIA ceicpe leAbAip Aip 
picTO eile ■oo P5piob lloinéAp, Ajup "oaj» 
b'Ainm An " Oi^oipeup." "Oo léij pe a lÁn 
IcAbAp •oeAJ-pgpi'obcA 1 SAcpbeuplA ; Ajup 
pijne pe op I'pol 50 leop a cup 1 p5]iibin 
le blAp Ajup bpij Ajup blÁc. "Oo bi 
eolupmAic Aije aiji An ■o-ceAnjAin ŷpAincip ; 
óip buô jnÁc leip lAbAipc in a -o-ceAnjAin 
péin lei]' nA li-oi'oi'óib üo cÁinic ó'n 
b-Vl^Ainc, Ajup -00 bi A15 An aiii ]'in inp An 

Inp An in-bliA^ÓAin 1820, ■o'euj An c-oIIaiìi 
pójluiiiCA Ajup oi'oe onói]ieAc, aii c-c\cai]i 
TDe-lA-llog; Ajupm]' An m-bluWAin ceutinA, 
1 mi ■óei^eAnAij An c-SAmjiAi-o, -oo li-Áji-ouij- 
eA-ò An c-ŴCAip SeÁJAn lllAc-lléil ó beiè 
'nA peAp ceAjAi]'^ le beic 'nA buAii-ome aj 
CAbAi]ic eoluip Ajup Aj iiiúineA-ó incleAccA 
■00 nA peApAib-eAjlAipe, -00 bí,i pcAl jeÁjip 
lA-o yéiii, le clAnn nA 1i-éi]ieAnn ai]\ pA'o a 
■òeAlpuJA-ò Ajup A ]UA5lu5A-ó. 

An "OeAciiiA-o CAibmil. 

1 m-bliA-ÔAin occ céA'o ■oeug AJi-ip pàe 
]'ul pijneA-ò buAn-oi'oe "oe'n acai]i SeÁJAti 
IIIac lléil ■oo co]'ui5 pe aj cu]\ pspibm 
]Duibli-óe óp cóiiiAip All üoiiiAin aj caij'- 



beAtiAu 111Á bi-òeAt)A|i ha p]\ rueutiA a cuaiw 
l\óiniDA iioniie ^-o, mA]\b no leAjrA Aiji lAji, 
50 HAib pn cueumiiAiiA Ó5A eiLe aj 
yu.\y A5111- A5 jIaca-ó ^-eilbe m]\ a n-Áic 
coj-Ainre. "Oo f5|n'ob ye, m^y -oeipceAH, ni 
Ó)- cionn A Ainme A^iq- a -I'toirTne fein, acc 
ó|- cioiin i'cÁc-Ainme Sliéigi]' " nieiiopiio-)'." 
^511]- 1]' in AJAit) boii\be, Ajiif bueuj-cpAi- 
bcACCA nA ng^^^l-l SACfAn, ■oo fjliiob ]-e a 
fo]\ioriilirneACA cum Sajajiü «a 1i-éi]ieAnn 
50 li-tiile. 

1onno]" 50 ni-benJeAu eotu]' Ẃ15 ah cé a 
beijeA]', Aip An 5-CA01 ■00 bi iininiri]\ nA 
li-éi]\eAnn, aju]' 50 h-Áinijce CAColicije 
iiA ci]ie ni]" An Am I'o, ca -pe ]iiACCAnAc awajic 
]-'i<x]\ Ai]i An iii-bl)A-ÒAin 1800 aju]' bueAc- 
niiJA-o A xiéAnA-ó Aiji Pin'om-ỳeA]! ye^'e nA 
SAC)-An — tlitliAm picc, Aguf aiji Piiioiii- 
KvinATOe nA 1i-éi)ieAnn, üijeA)inA CAi]"béin- 
liiAbAij. "bliA-ÓAncA poniie ]-o bi ]-e 'nA 
5-c]ioi-ótib cónriceAiijAl <.\ -óéAnAt) in Am 
Á1H1 jce iT3i]\ éi]\e Ajuf Sac^'a, aju]' ^iijneA- 
•OAn é. CÁ poy A15 An TDomAn ctA An caoi 
— le jliocAf Ajuf éi5ceAi\c, le ^-eAll aju]' 
ycAlcAnAf, le ■oún-iiiAnbA-ó no. n--OAOineA-ó 
bocc, be yeAll-beAHC ai]\ nA ueA j-t)Aoinib, 
Ajni' be yóJAib i:)\AocmA]i, yiA-ÓAni a 

•ÓéAnA-Ó Al]\ An üi]\ A1]l yAt). 

Ili'l Aon jAp Aj CAinc nio]- ■(.•aitdo ai]\ An 
5-cleA]- c]\ÁnJce ]-o. ÜÁ I'e CA]\r. -<.\cc ni 
]\Aib A i"Áic m)- An menu ]-in ; bub tiiiAii beo 
50 leo)i 1110]' mo 'nA ]-in a -oeAnA-o. <\5i-']- 
CAT) é An niu é ? 

Ou-ó linAn beo Gijie CACOibiceAC a Acinij- 
Ab 50 li-iombÁn ; aju]' mmiA n-TieAnpAibe 
jAill'oiob, ]\ov éijin eile a -ueAnA-o -oiob a 
beic CO mAic no co T)onA; — a g-ciieibeAm a 
buAinc 11ACA, iDAjÁnAige ■(.'uincACA AWeAnAb 
•óiob — Agu)' lAü A beic Ann]in jao cuoibe, 
jAn cneiüCAiii, jAn cojua]'. t)eibeAt) yww 
Ann]"ni jAn eolu]' ai]\ "Oia, ajuj" j.-a ■òoi)\e 
gvxn me A]' Aip An xiinne. 

Caü é An CAO) A)\' cin]i pirc aj^u]- 
UijeAiniA CAi]-bém-]nAbAi5 jiomiDA ah meinj 

^-111 t)0 béAnATÌ) ? Ill]' All J-CCU-O Á1C, AJ 

jLacai) 111 A lÁiiiAib }"éin ha ii-eAj-poj 

CACOibiceAC gAn ceAt) a cAbAipc Aon eAfpoj 
AiiiAm A beAnAb acc An peAjipA-eAglAipe úx> 
lén' liiiAn uvo-pAii A f-ÁpuJA-ó Ai)! 5AC nof. 

Inp An -OAllA Á1C, CUA]1ApCAb A CAbAlJlC "00 

cbéi]i nŵ li-éijieAnn ai)i pAt). Inp An cjiioiiiAt) 
Á1C, pcoilibeAcc Ajup ceAjApg a CAbAijic uo 
muinci]! 015 nA cipe Ap IcAbjiAib eijiiceAccA 
Ajup -00 peiji eoUiip nA minipreijub jaIIxja. 
"Oo bi An ]ii'in po in a n-mncin ó cup poitii 
An cóini-ceAnjAl a ■oéAiiAb it)ip éipe aju]' 
SAcpA, A51.11' 'iiA biAi j I'm. -dec ciAnnop a]\' 
cpAobpgAoib piA-o All ]\ún ]-o t)o'n n'n ? I]- 
mA]\ po no pigneAtJA]! é :— 

"Oo cui)! UijeApnA CAi]'léin-]iiAbAi5 pio]' 
Ai)\ GAppojAib nA 1i-éi)\eAnn ceAcc in 
AoinpeAcc 1 iTi-bAile -dcA-CliAc ; nuAip 'oo 
bi -oeicneAbAp aca cpuinn, pe pin nA ceic]\e 
Ái)\-oeAi-poi5 Ajup peipeAH eile, loubAinc 
ye leo 50 pAib Aije pjeiil 111 aic le 
li-mnpeACC üóib, a cui]ipeAb UìcjÁip in a 
5-c]ioibcib : — bub liiiAn le Ápio-iiiAjUiij- 
ceoip nA SAcpAn, -oubAipc pe : (i?), pAoi]i- 
peAcc A CAbAipc •DO nA CacoiIici jib ; (ò) 
cuApAj'CAl A bjionnAb jac bliAüAin Aip ua 
pASApcAib; (c), léigeAn ajui" pójluim a 
pgeic 1 iiieApg tiA ii-TDAomeAb. Dub liiAic 
An p^eul, X)úbt\A'0A]\ nA h-OApiDoij, a 
cui]ieAb ]iómpA. ^y Aoibmn lioni, a]\ 
CAi]-leÁn-]iiAbAC, guiiCAicneAiiiAC lib é Ajup 
50 nglACAnn pib co pÁ|-OA nA b)ionncAiiAi]- 
cÁiiiAOio-ne péib le CAbAi]ic bAoib-pe, m Áic 
nA b-piAncA Ajup ha 5eu]ileAnAiiinA -co 
cui]ieAb opjiAib Ajup ai]\ nA CAcoilicijib 
lei]" nA ciAucA. DeAiipAiiiAoixi-ne 50 ponn- 
iiiA]i An meut) ]"0 'oo jeAll me bivoib : acc 
CÁ Aon yim beAj Aii'iAm le li-iAH|u\ib 
opiiAib-pe Aip An -o-CAOib eile, aju]' cá piop 
AgAin 50 -o-CAbAppAib pib An nib pm tdaiii 
jAn bAC : — ni mó]u\n é, acc 50 ■oi'i'eAc, le 
]"inn-ne, Ajup iiiuinciii ha Sacj^aii, aju)" ha 
neAiii-CACoilicije a pÁjniJAb ; aju]-, iiia]! 
An 5-cou-onA, le CAij'beÁnAb 50 b-yuil I'lb 
]\éib pójnAb A CAbAijic üo'n jiij aju]- a beic 
■0Á ]iipib linne ai]\ jac beAllAc. So é aii 
meuT) CAiHAOit) aj iajiiiaiú o]i]\Aib : CcAt) 
coipmeApjCA A cAbAijic ■oi'iinn aiji beAnAb 



j^Ác 11iia-ò-Ca]-)doi5, yul ciu]\yme é óy cionn 
eAi'pogACCA o,i]\ bic. Ill mó]io,n Ati nieut) 

"OubuwuAii n<.\1i-Gẃfpoi5 a bi c)uimn Ann 
All iÁ pn — in 1799, 11AC ]iAib An c-impnie 
^-111 Af bcAllAC, Ajuf cujATDAii cmeul 
jeAllcA cLAOnATJ ■DO, ACC -oúbnATJAii nÁ']\ 
b'ýéiüi|\ teo mt) a\\\ bic inAji ]'o a ■óéAnAu 
no A ■òeAnbnJA-ó, no 50 j-ciniipi-ôe An nieuü 
A -oubnAT) ó]- cóiiiAin cmn nA li-GAglAij-e 
Aju)" ceATD •o'pÁJAiL UATO clAonAü no'n 
inil3i-óe. Sill é ].-]ieA5HA-ò iiA n-CAj-poj. 
Ó'n lÁ ]"in AiiiAC 50 t)-ci pico btiA-ÙAiii 'iiA 
■óiAij ■00 bi' JAÓ ■ouine 111 6i]iinn pAoi b]uic 
Ajup biiArâ)\eA^ò, Aj ■oéAnA-ò cóiiibnAic óp 
Á|\T) Aju)- ó)- ípiol, le IIAIÌIAI-O Aimil j AJllf 
AfClj, lllA)! JCaII AIH All j-ceA^o COl HllieAJ-gCA 

po A bi UAC-OA)iÁin \^eìye SACj-An Ag ia]1]iai-ó 
Ai]\ Cléin éineAiin. 

'O'éijiijeA'OAii pi]! pójluiiicA |:eA]-AcA, lÁn 
■oe liieipneAc, ní h-é AiiiÁin cléi|\ij acc 
niACAij, Ajn)' ■o'ÁiTOuijeA-OA)! A njuc 50 

ll-Áll'D, AgU]- jlAOl-ÓeADA]! Al|\ nA ll-CAfpOJ- 

Aib Ajii)' Ai]\ pÁpA IIA llóiThe, gAn CeA'D Al]l 
bié no ciimAcc ai)i bic a CAbAi]ic ■oo liiumcin 


A-óbA)i Gaj-^doij ■oo cuACAib nA li-eijieAnn. 
"OÁ b-pAJA^ò piA^o Aon o]iIac AiiiAin, cuijiprò 
piA'o ij'ceAc A tÁiiiA, Agu)' bp^'pi^oi)' tonj nA 
1i-eA5lAi]-e CACoibicije in éi]iinn. aju]' ■oo 
bei-óeA^ò i'inn pÁ ■òei]ie iiiaji cá aiioij' 
CACOilicije nA h-^iiroe in-ot)! jAn clcin, 
5An eA^Dos, 5An niAjliigAt) pAoi pcuin 
An pio]i-ciieroiiii. "O'eijiij "Oón'inAll 11 a 
ConiiAilL, Agu]' A11 C-6APP05 'OüriinAti 

11 A IIUlllCA'ÓA AJll]' pt]\ C]ieUlllÌlA]lA Cite A 

liijiie cjioro liiAic ciiöüA 111 ajai-ó cca^oa 

"Oo niAolui jeA^ò b]\iic Ajup bÁinrò nd cipe 
j^o Tnó]\ Aijí An 5-cei]'c yo 1 ■o-ciiiiciolt 
bliA-ónA 181 5. 

■puAi]! picc bÁ]" ó ■b]iipeA^ó cuoTOe m 1806 
Ajup cuijieA'ó üijeAjmA CAipiein-piAbAi j 
Ap A UAcCAHÁnAp inp An Am ceuxinA. 

In 18 1 2, CI15 ■p^if SAq-An ceic]ie-iiiile- 
•oeuj púncA Aipjit) A]' Áiro-cipce íia ci'|ie le 

póçUiini Ajnp ceA5Ap5 a y^eit m]\ pobAÌ ha 
li-éiiieAnn. "Oo citin ha 5>-'^'l-l 1" 5>''C bAile 
A51)]' in 5AC ]DAiu\ii"^oe pcoÌA ai]! bun ■oo 
cujA^OAH iiiúmeA^ó 1 •o-co]-ac -o'á inuinci]i 
pém ; ACC z^\\\ éippeAUv, -oo copnijeA^OAH aj 
CAbAinc iiA 5-CACOiliceAc bocc ipccAc, AJU]- 
le ceAtin ai]15i-o aju]' b]ioiiiirAnAi]' ■oo j-Aji- 
uijeA-oA]! CO 1110]! ]-in on]iA, 511H CÁn^A^OAH 
Ag éi]xeACC leo. 

1p iiiAH ]-o ■oo bi yc 1 iTi-bluŴAin 1818 — 
Ajnp 1819— Aiii jAncAnAi)' ajii)' Anpó, 
nuAi]! ■oo bi nA •oAoine boccA, bjiuijce, 
biiipce v>-Voi AnfÓ5 Agui" AiiijA]! ;— Iaj Ó 
ocuA]-; loni ó boccAiiAp, pÁ]uiijce ó 
bnonncAiiA)-Aib Ajup ó jeAllcAib 50 
b-ptnjeAt) I'lAt. léijeAn ajuj- pój. 

nio)! Á11U j An luce pAi]ie, 50 jiAib pe co 
■oonA a']" ■oo bi. ÜÍ iiincmn ik\ 5-ceAniiA]ii, 

CACOlllCeAC, 1^01]\ Cléljl AJUp CllACATOlb, 

jAbcA leip nA 5-ceipctb eile — An coipmeApg, 
A^yp ciiaiia]-caI ■oo'n j-cleiji — le bjieACiui- 
JA^ò A ■óéAnA^ó 1 n-^oiAij HA iiunnci]ie a bi 
■oéAnA^ó plAiD Ai]i lucr All cuei-Diiii 1 nieApj 
CACoiliceAC bocc ha li-éi)\eAnn. 

So h-é An c-Am in a]\' CÓ5 SeÁJAn IIIac 
hell A -jbeAnn, A5UP •oo coj-uij pe Ag 
P5inobA^ó 1 ■o-coj-AC cum Sajajic Agup 6Ap- 
poj iiA li-GipeAnn ai]i au millceAUA)' a bi 
nA 5A1II A5 ■oeAUA^o ŵip cpemeAiii nA 
ni-boccÁn. •ánn]-in iiiAji "OAibro 05 óy 
cóiiiAip iiA b-pilii'cíneAC pijne pe cpoiD 
Agup cöiiib]iAC in AJATO nA b-pACAc bu^ó mó 
111 A meA]'5. Aju)- ni I1-Ó AiiiÁm 50 b-puAip 
)-e buAm — iiK\)\ ü'a^oiìiui jeA^OA)! A nÁnÌToe, 
ACC puAip pe CÁ1I liiop Agup clij longAncAC 
A bi A5 leAiiAiiiAin le n-A Ainm o'n lÁ pin 
50 ■o-ci lÁ A bÁi]- Aju]- A leAiipAp leip 50 
b]\Ác. "Oo P5l«ob pe ni 1i-é AiiiÁin in AJArò 
A nAiiiAm, ACC -00 P5piob pe licpeACA puib- 
li^óe Aip An ]'CÁi^o boicc in a jiAib iiuiincip ha 
h-éi]\eAnn bÁróce, ai]i ah 5-CÁ1I in a 
pAbA^DAp, jAn léijeAn, jau eolu]-, jau op, 
jAn AipgeA^o, jAii pAiiiibpeA]- ai]i bic, acc a 
j-cpei^ocAiii AiiiAin — UA 5>-^'ll ^5^1" '^^sl^^T 
UA SAcpAn A5 ]-AlcAipc oppA, iiiAp bei^óeA-ò 
piA-o Aip beitijib bpu'DAiiilA; gu]! b' liiiti'o 


lAT) A fAopuJAt) Ó ^-lÁbẃcc, ccAt) A b]ionnA-ó 
o)\]iA A j-cnenoeAiii a a-oiìiáiI 50 yolluj-Ac, 
^ójluim A caIjaiiic •oóib ajii]" iau a cuh ai^ 
bun cóiiic]iom aiiumL ha 5>-^'^^ '>^'o féin. 

An c-AoniiiAt) Cẃibi-oil "Oeuj. 

Cui|ieA-ó ó)' bii]\ 5-cóiiiAi)\ All nieu-o -oo 
^Aijne All c-oi-oe SeÁJAii 111 ac lleil o'n 
tii-bLiATDAin 1S20 50 1S25, 0)' Ant), AJ 
f5)\iobAt) ticneAC viy ha pÁipeuiiAib 
puibli-óe. *Oo pAoilcATDAii iiA SAq'AiinAije 
All C-A111 pin 50 in-bii-ò liiillceAC niAt)]iAiiiAi'L 
A leicfo -oe licpeACAib a i'jniobA-ò. -dec 50 
cmnce nion b' cAb. Ill üúbAinc ]"e lonncA 
Acc All pinmn jLAn. "OeiiiceA]! Imn juji 
peA)ib An p']iinn péin. tli pAbAX)A]i cleAC- 
CAc Ai)i An pi'ninn "oo cLo]". Ilouii An Aiii pin 
ni pAib Aon jAp Aj cAinc leo. 

CiA An nop vo pijneAüAn iia lloliinnnib 
colli jiAb leo ? — pijneATjAp é a)' beiiL gun a 
1110)1. Ó beub nA 5-CACoiliceAc ni cuaIa-oa)i 
jun beip nA ciAncA. IIIaji ]-in vé, bi ton- 
jAncAp onjiA. lliop cmgeA-OA)! é. V)i ah 
oijieA-o longAncAi)- oii]ia ah ciiÁc pin aj 
téijeA-ò biqiCAC llie|\opilo)' no A5 eij-ceAcc 
leo — Ajup x)o bi oniiA A n-u|i]iAi5 pAoi 
cóiiii\Á-ó pAiineill 1 ■0-U15 nA f-'eij-e. 

Sin cujAib, A luce léijce, An iiieuu no 
pijne SeÁJAU lllAciléil ó]- <\]m ju]- An 
m-bliAt)Ain 1825. -Anoip cui]\ceA)i ó)- 
cóiiiÄip nA TTiuincipe a léijeAp An leAbAip po 
An CA01 t)0 CAic An c-OTOO 05 a beACA 
Ó]' i]"iol Aip peAü 11A in-bliAtiAn ceunnA. 
An C11ÁC nAC ]iAib pe aj CAbAipc ceAjAipg 
üo'ii coitiplACc niACAOiii 05 A bi pAoi n-A 
cpeopuJA-o, bibeAb pe cujca vo jnócAib ip 
üuaI ■oo pAjAjic A tJeAnAt) : bibeAO pe peAl 
in .Ác-CliAc; no 1 5-CApcun 1 "o-cij lilic 
jeApAilc, ceAnnAipc LAijeAii no le pAjAjic- 

Alb AJ piubAl ATllAC pAOl 'n CÍ)1, nO Al)l 

TTiApcAigeAcc. "OeipceAp linn 50 ]\Aib pe 
inp An All! pm, peAng, acc lúciiiAp, ligce, 
peAjiAiiiAil, u]inÁnCA. 

Ax^ Tiul 50 h-dc-cliAC, ni pAib gleup 

AipWip Aljl biC Alje, ACC Aip ẂtlUHll CApAlll, 

pe pm, Ai]i iiiAjiCAijeAcc, no ai|i coip aj 
piubAl. Ip 10111-ÒA UAip -00 cuAib ]-e -oo'n 
bŵile iiió]\ Ai)! cotp^Aj t)ul Ann A^up 
pilleAÛ A!)! Ai]' An lÁ ceuTinA 1 ti-rniicioll 
■oeic imle aiji piciti bedlAij, A5 ccacc aju]- 
Aj mice ACC. 

1 iiieApj nA ]'A5A]>c 05 Agu]- 11 A n-01-oeA-ò 
05, bub li-é An ycc^]\ -oob' u|iiu\ncA Ajup 
bub lijce, no lúctiiA]K\ 1 ]-iubAl ai]\ coi)', 
A15 niA)\CAi jeAcc, no jleup jAij'gibeAccA 
Ai]i biù eile. 1p iiimic 130 puAi)\ ]-e cuipeAb 
A15 CI j mon An CA]icuin. Ip nimic niAp An 
5-ceuT)nA bibeAb nA pAjAijic "PjiAncACA a 
cÁinic 50 b-éipinn ó'n b-'PiiAinc, AijbójTO in 
AompeAcc leip, Ajup ip lonibA pcÁip jjieAnn- 
liiAp bi Aije T) A iii-bÁn)i, 1 j-cAiceAt) ceApniA 
A pAoJAil CA]\ el]- An AiiiApm, Aj ]"muAineAb 
Aju]' Ag c|iÁcc Ai)i nA lAecib iiUAi]\ •00 bib- 
eAb UA pi]i pójluiiicA pm aj neAnAbAn- 

TDOrAlll SAC]-beU)\lA blA]-t)A A lAbAlJlC. 

Jac SAiii]iAb Agup Ai)! AiiiAnuAib eile bub 
jnÁcAc lei]' All oine ceAcc d'a bAile pém — no 
50 CiII-aIaid, le ]-eAl Aiiii]'i]ie a cacau lei]' 
An Ga]-)do5 — All c-011aiii |ió-ii]\]uniicA peA- 
■0A]i IIaIuiioiiac, no ]-eAl le ÂiiroeAi'iDog 
ÜUA111A, Olibe)! 11a CbaIIaij. Ó Ain 50 
li-Aiii ]ii5ne ye ]"eAniiióii\ ■oo luAb 130 nA 
li-CAi'pojAib po, 1 T)-c]iÁcAib ]DUiblibe, no A15 
Aimpi]! péile iiiói]ie iiia]i An g-CÁi]'^, no An 
'O)AC0]TOAin ]ioiiiie, no ^Xome ah Ceu]-CA. 

Ip mp An m-bliAuAin 1814 "oo lujneAb 
An c-ŵcAi]\ peAtiA]! llAlujionAc 'ha GAj-poj 
Ai]! CiII-aIaiü. "Oo bi ]-e ]ioiiiie ]'in 'nA 
Ái]TOiACÚii 1 b-}.'Ai]\ce ÜUA111A, Ajup Sa5A]ic 
pÁ]u\i]~oe Aip bjiACAn, Á1C ja]! 130 bAile 
lonjAncAC An Cnoic 1 j-Con-OAe lÌlAijeo. 

fTuAip An c-eAp]D05 billeojAC bÁp 1 m- 
bliAbAin 1812. "Oobi I'e Anoip 'nA eAppo5 
Ó]' cionn Cille-AlAib bÁ-bliA-ÓAin-'oeug 
Agup pice, ói)\ tio ]ii5neA-ó BAi^pog x>é A.X). 
1780. puAiii pe bÁp obAnn — acc bi ]"e pém 
úlliiiuijce ]ioiiiie. "puAi]! pe cuipeAb tiuI 50 
1i-<\c-cliAC A15 "oÁil eA]'po5 nA 1i-ei]\eAnn 
].-A0i An j-ceAt) coi]itiieAp5CA a bjionnAb no 
jAii A bjionnAb, Ai]! -cViTOU AccAjiÁn UA peipe 
tlioJAiiilA. "00 ciotnÁin ]-e a CAplAib Ajup 



<\ cA]ibAT3 yéuì. Ü115 ]-e a pÁü m wgAit) 
ceovt) ACAbAi]>c x)o'n UjijiAij RíojaiìiaiLcoiii- 
iiieAfj A beic Aije ai]i miA-ó-&A|'po5. ^5 
l-illeATJ 1 111-bAile -òó, <M5 ITImllin-geA]!)!, 

JIaCA-OA]\ ha CAplAID fCAn)lA-Ò, AJlip CU1C 
All C-eAfpOg A)- An 5-CAnbAT), AJU)- 5OHCUI- 

jcAt) 50 inó)\ é. Ó'ti iii-btiuJA-ó Aju]' An 
leonAÓ u' éi]\i j -oó, ni b-fUAin ye bifeAC. 
"Oo bi lAece A bcACA lioncA fUA]' be tjeAJ- 
oib|ieACAib Agu)- tio jLaoto An UijeApnA 
cmje i'éni é. CuijieA-ó a ỳitijibt, no a 
copp A 5-C1II nA IllAijne in)- An 5-cuAine 
|.-AOi cú|i An ceAmpuill. 

niAH jeAÍb 50 pAib -diroceAnn nA Ii-Gaj- 
bAij-e 1 ngeibmn A15 llApobeon ni -nigneAb 
eAj-pog A c]\iicu5A-ò Ai)í yeò.-ó nA li-Aiiiipne 
pin. •iijtip iiiAp jeAbb A1H pin, ni ]iAib eAp- 
P05 nil At) op cionn Cibbe-AbAiu 50 ■o-ci An 
1Í11 ■óeijeAnAC 'pAii b-pójiiiAp 1 ni-bbiAt)Ain 
1 8 14, nuAin no iiijiicAu CA]'po5 ven \\èAi]\ 
PeA-DAji llAl-0]\onAc Ai]i A b-piiil cpÁcc 
AjAinn puAp. 

"Oo bi ye mA\\ ]-in ■oé, ■ocic ni-bliA-otiA ó)- 
cionn l-'Aipce CilLe-AlAit) 1 m-bliA-ÓAiii 1824: 
Ajup Ó cÁplA 50 ]\Aib ye üub m Aoip poiupe, 
bi ye c]\Áiẃce, Ajup jAn ineipneAC jAn liic 
no neA]\c in a cnÁiiiAib be obAip iiiói]i aiji bic 
■00 -óéAnAt). IllAp pin ■oé, TD'iA)\ppe CAppog 
conjnAiiiCAij A beic Aije. "OúbAipc ]'e po 
be ]\oinn t)'Á cufo ]'A5aj\c. ■vNjii]" aj bpeAC- 

mi JA-Ó CApC OppA Aip pAT), CA b-pi1lb All peAp 

A bi 1110]- óip-óei]ice, ni'o]- peiŵiiieAiiilA, pAoi 
CÁ1I Agu]' cbú ni'o]- nió 'nÁ bi SeÁJAn 111 ac 
lléib, oiüe 'oiAüACCA 1 g-cobÁip-oe lÌlAige- 
lUiADAC, peA]\ ü'Á pAipce péiii aju]- ti'á 
iiiumcip péin. 

Rijne An c-GA]-po5 11 AbüpoiiAc poJA, 111 Ap 
pni, -oe SeÁJAii IIIac 1léiL; ■00 pÁ]nii5 An 
jioJA i'o beip All 5-cbéi]i, Ajup -00 cuipeAX) a 
Ainni üo'n llóiiii, te inticmn 50 ii-ueAnpATOe 
A coJA 'y'\n II011Ì1 Ajuj' 50 n-TDéAnpAibe 
eAi'poj -oé. 

-i\i|\ AH 31 At) lÁ tie cent) liii' nA bliA-ónA 
1825 t)o C05 An ppopAjAnüA A AiniTi, Ajup 
t)úb]iAt)A)\ nA CÁpDinAib 'jnp b' é a beróeAt) 
'nA Gwppo^ co^nAtiicAc A15 An GAppog tJAb- 

■oponAC. -dip An x)ApA bÁ ve rhí nA b-pAoi- 
h-ò üo cuj An pÁpA A coib üo'n poJA Agup 
tì'Aoncuij pe -óó ; Ajup Aip An 12 At) bÁ cuip- 
eAT) AtriAc iicip An pApA. Aip An cúigeA-ó 
bÁ ■oe 1T11 iiieÁ-óoin An c-SAiii)\Ait) 'nA t)iAi5, 
t)o pijneAt) A coippeACAn 'nA GAppog 1 5- 
ColÁii~t)e lllAije-nuAuAC. 

(Le bheith air leaìiamhain.) 

Le Tomas OFlannaoile. 


I. (b) C/^ agus geinidin anma dhilis «'«iz/ 
no treibìi no tire eigin,mar taid; Cu-Connacht, 
Cu-Midìie, Cu-Muvihan, Cii- Uladh — " Cu- 
Laighean " ni fuaras ; cuir leo so Oi- 
Ciiailgne, Cit-Gaileang, Cii-Breatan, Cu- 
Crnitline, maiUe le Cu-Sionna. 

Do na naoi n-anmannaibh so nil ceann 
amhain, an meud as feidir liomsa d'fhogh- 
laim, 'ga chleachtadh andiu mar ainm- 
baistidh ; cia gur ghnath Cii-Connctcht le 
muintir Raghallaigh agus le Siol-Uidhir go 
d-ti deireadh na seachtmhadh aoise deug. 
Do bhi Cu-Connacht Rlor Mag Uidhir 'na 
cheann-feadhna (no 'na "choirneal ") i sluagh 
an Righ Seamuis i g-Cath Eachdhroma, ait 
ar thuit se iar lcirscrios no beagnach sin 
do chur air an dara cathbhuidhin don 
mharcshluagh Bhriotanach — mar ba dhual 
do laoch d'a threin-chineul.* Acht uim 
an am sin do chithear go n-deachaidh an 
t-ainm so i neamhusaid agus go g-cleachta- 
daois na muintreacha so " Conn " i nGaed- 
hilig agus " Constantine " i m-Beurla air a 

Agus mar shloinntibh fein nil fios agam 
air aon diobh acht Cu-Midhc amhain a ta 
air marthain anois — san bh-foirm Mac Con- 
JMidlie d'a n-deantar " Mac Namee," 
" Conmee," agus "Conmey" i m-Beurla. 
Do h-ainmnigheadh an cheud C/in-Cicailgne 

* Feuch tracht air Siol-Uidhir ("The Maguires ") le 
O'Donnubham 'san Hibernian I\[aga~Jiii do mhi Abr.iin 
1861, mar a bh-fuighidh an leightheoir trachta morluaigh 
fos leis an ughdar cheudna air Chineul-ChonaiU ("The 
O'Donnells") agus air Whuintir Raghallaigh ("The 



o chrich airighthe — " Cooley " " Coolney " 
no " Ouelny " a ghoireas lucht-Beurla dhi 
— ata 'sail duthaigh le a n-abarthar Condae 
Lughmhaidh ("Louth") andiu. Is as an 
g-crich sin do thug Meadhbh bahirioghain 
Chonnacht an tarbh cluthamhail d'ar 
b'ainm an " Donn Chuailgne " agus creacha 
mora eile lei — mar aithristear go breagh 'san 
bh-finnsceal da ngoirthear Tain Bo 
Cuaiigiic. Do bhi tri treabha do Gliailean- 
gaibli in Eirinn 'san t-sean-aimsir — .i. 
GaiUanga in easpogoid Achaidh-Chonaire 
i d-tuaisceart Chonnacht, agus da threabh 
eile — Gaileanga Mora as Gatlcanga Beaga — 
in oirthear Midhe, mar a maireann an focal 
gus andiu 'san ainm Beurla do bharuntacht 
" Morgallion," iodhon, Gaileanga Mora. Is 
doigh gur do Ghaileangaibh Alidhe an Cu- 
Gaileang a luaidhtear ag na IV. M.M. 'san 
m-bliadhain 1030. Is ionann Cu-Sionna 
agus " Cu-Sionainne," oir ba Sinda, Sinna 
agus Sion/ia sean-ghneithe d'ainm na h- 
abhann moire d'a ngoirimid Sionainn andiu. 
In ait Cu-Brcatan dearfamaois " Cu-na- 
Breataine " no "Cu-na-mBreatanach" anois, 
iodhon, an laoch no an gaiscidheach do 
rugadh, no b'fhcidir do chomhnuigh sealad, 
i m-Breatain. Acht ni cinnte an i sin an tir 
as Brcatain linne andiu, — an tir as Cymrit le 
n-a cineadh fein, agus as Wales leis na 
Sasanachaibh — no an inis uile Prydain, 
" Britain " — oir do bhidheadh an da cheill so 
ag an bh-focal " Bretain" fad o. Badh maith 
anois eidirdhealughadh do choimeud idiran 
da ghne " Briotain " agus " Breatain " — 
ceann aca don inis uile " Britain " " Great 
Britain," agusan ceann eile don tir ("Wales") 
air a d-tugamaid-ne andiu e. I d-taobh 
Cii-Cnathiie i " Cu-na-g-Cruithneach " ni 
follus an cineul o'r ainmnigheadh an fear 
dar goireadh air d-tus e ; na Cruithnigh no 
"Picts" i d-tuaisceart na Briotaine i g- 
coitchinne, no treabh sonradhach diobh do 
bhi le fada in Eirinn i n-deisceart na cri;he 
da ngoirthear go minic, acht go mi-cheart 
" Condae Eantroma" — go micheart a deirim, 
oir nir b' " Eantruim " na "Eandruim " ainm 
coir an bhaile o'r goireadh don chondae acht 
Eantrabh no ni as ceirte fos Aentreabh 
("Antrim"). Is cosamhail cheana gur do 
Chruithneachaibh Eireann an Cii-Criiithiie 
sin. (Feuch notaidh Ui Dhonnubhain do na 

IV. M.M. faoi 'n mbliadhain d'aois Criost 


(c) Lit le geinidin i7w;//iZ f/i'iV/'rZ'///// — agus 
is ro lionmhar iad so : 

Cu-aibhne (no Cu-aifne^ Cn-aille, Cit- 
aonaigh, Cu-asiair, Cu-boirne, Cu-broglia, 
Cii-bruinne, Cii-biiadha, Cu-caille (i " Cu- 
coiUe") CH-collchaille, Cu-cairne, Cii-caingc, 
Cii-caisil, Cu-carad, Cu-catha, Cu-cearca, Cii- 
ciche, Cu-cille, Cu-coigriche, Cu-coirne, Cii- 
corb, Cu-cuarain, Cu-cuimhne, Cu-doirc/te, 
Cu-duiligli (no Cii-diiilicli) Cit-dumhai, Cu- 
fraoich, Cu-ganihna, Cu-geiblde (no Cu- 
geinihh-), Cu-gliiine Cii-knai, Cii-li, Cn- 
liagain, Cu-locha, Cu-lothair, Cit-liiachra, 
Cu-maiglie, Cu-inara, Cu-tneadiux, Cu-raoi, 
Cu-rian, Cu-sleibke, agus Cu-snamka. 

Is forus ciall urmhoir na n-anmann so do 
thuigsin. Acht is fior gur feidir go leor 
gur geinidin annia dhilis d'ait eigin a ta san 
dara focal do chuid aca, mar ta Cu-aonaigli, 
Cu-borin, (i " Cu-an-Bhoirinn no Cu o 
Bhoireann ") Cu-brogha, Cu-cairrge, (.i." Cu- 
na-carraige ") Cu-luachra, agus Cu-snamha; 
oir is iomdha ait shonradhach air a 
nglaoidhtear andiu " Aonach " " Boireann " 
" Brugh " " an Charraig " " Luachair " " an 
Snamh,"etc. ; do thiocfadh linn Cu-Aonaigh, 
Cu-Caisil, Cii-Luachra agus a leithide do 
shamhailt le Vii-Sionna, Cu-Cuailgne agus 
an chuid eile air a n-dearna me tracht 
romham fi b). Is ionann Cu-cairne agus 
" Cu-an-chairn " no " Cu-na-g-carn ; ' Cu- 
coirne, agus " Cu-an-choirn " .i. " Cu-na- 
g-corn " no " Cu-na-g-cupan." Air son Cn- 
corb — aon do na h-anmannaibh as sine don 
chineul so — dearfamaois " Cu-na-g-carbad " 
anois ; do bhi righ Laighean 'san g-ccud 
aois iar ngein Chriost ann, agus an t-ainm 
sin air. Is ionann Cu-doirche agus " Cu-an- 
dorchadais " mas geinidin doirclie ; acht do 
reir Ui Raghallaigii is ionann agus "dorcha" 
e, agus mas fior sin, is ionsamhalta an t- 
ainm so le Gu-caoch, Gu-buidhe agus cuid eile 
a trachtfar am 'dhiaidh. Air Cu-dunihai 
dearfaidhe " Cu-dumha" anois, {duiiiha X. 
sith, tuaim, earn) ; is ionann Cu-geibhle 
agus " Cu-na-ngaibhleach," se sin le radh, 
an fear do rugadh i ngeibheann, no do bhi 
seal i ngeibheann. Air t'7<-ç-//««i? dearfam- 
aois " Cu-an-ghleanna " andiu, agus air Cu- 
lenai " Cu-leuna." Is deacair dham baramh- 



ail do thabhairt air Cu-cearca, Cii-duiligh, 
Cu-cuarain, Cii-gamlina, Cii-lothair, agus 
gan fios dam air na neithibh as a d-tugadh 
na h-anmanna so air d-tus. 

Nil ainm don mhoir-lion so d'anmannaibh 
— an meud as eol damsa — 'ga chleachtadh 
mar ainm-baistidh anois ait air bith in 
Eirinn. Do bhi cuid le faghail in Eirinn 
diobh go d-ti foircheann na seachtmhadh 
aoise deug agus b' flieidir ni as deidhean- 
aighe — an tan nach raibh eagla na naire air 
Geadhealaibh faoi ainm Gaedhealach d'iom- 
chur. 'Se an t-ainm do bhi air dis do na 
Ceithre Maighistribh Cii-coigriclie; iodhon, 
Cu-coigriche OCleirigh o Chondae Dhuin- 
na-ngall, d'aon-bhunadh leis an m-brathair 
Micheal OCleirigh, toiseach an cheathrair 
oirdheirc, agus Cu-coigriche ODuibhgean- 
nain o Chondae Liathdroma (" Leitrim.") 
Is gnath Pcrcgrinus do chur air an ainm so 
i Laidin, agus " Peregrine " — agus " Cucagry" 
air uairibh — i m-Beurla ; amhail da mbadh 
ionann Cu-coigriche agus " Coigrigheach." 
Do fuair me an t-ainm air d-tus faoi 'n m- 
bliadhain 1042 — .i. Cu-coigriche Ua Mordha 
do bhi 'na thighearna Laoighise("Condae na 
Bainrioghna " andiu) san aimsir sin; acht ni 
thig liom a radh ar b'e sin an cheud fhear 
don ainm — ni doigh liom gur b'e. Ni 
dearbh fos — munar b'e Ua Mordha reumh- 
raidhte an cheud Chic-coigriche, — ar Ghall 
no Gaediical an fear air a d-tugadh air d- 
tus e ; ar b'allmhurach a thainic i g-cein tar 
muir go h-Eirinn e, no ar choimhithcach o 
chrich imchein d'Eirinn fein e : oir ba 
" choigrighigh " araon iad. Is ionann 
coigriocli (.i. co-crioch) agus crioch a ta in 
oirthear no air.thorainn criche eile, bidheadh 
i ngar no i bh-fad. 

Ni dearnadh sloinnte riamh do chuid do 
na h-anmannaibh ata shuas ; agus taobh 
roinne eile, do mhaireadar le tamall agus 
d'imthigheadar annsin as amharc, as cuim- 
hne. D'a maireann anois diobh, caithfidh 
me radh gur deacair aithniughadh morain 
'san la 'ndiu, tre mheud na " transmagra- 
fala " do tharla dhoibh air g-cur i " m- 
Beurla" dhoibh. D'a bhrigh sin ni ro 
chinnte liom cuid do na samhaltaibh do 
ghnidhim annso.Nineamhchosamhail go bh- 
fuil Cii-aille le faghail in san sloinne " Mac 
Anally," "Mac Nally" agus " Nally" — an 

meud as ionann iad so agus Mac Coii-aiUc; 
acht is dearbh gur b' o ]\Iac Attghai/e ata 
cuid do na " Mac Annalys." Is doigh liom 
go bh-fuil " Mac Aneany " go ro mhinic air 
son Mac Con-aonaigh — acht air choraibh 
mac-an-mhile. Ta Mac Con-astair air 
marthain fos againn, agus do ghnithear 
"Nestor" — ma's se do thoil e— air uairibh 
dhe. Acht cad e ata 'san ainm Sacs-gaed- 
healach " Adsor " ? Agus creud e an 
sloinne Meiriocanach "Astor?" Mas o 
bhunadh Ghaedhealach an t-ainm deiridh 
so, 'se Mac Con-astair as dual a bheith ann. 

Air Mac Con-buadha deirthear " Mac 
Naboe " agus " Conaboy " ag labhairt 
Beurla. Ni fhuil fliios agam an maireann 
Mac Con-coille 'na shloinne gus andiu ; acht 
do leigheas gur sin e an fior ainm do mhoran 
do na muintreachaibh air a nglaoidhtear 
"Cox" in Eirinn i lathair, amhail da m- 
badh " Mac-an-Choiligh " an sloinne. Agus 
go deimhin ni bhadh iongnadh liom da d- 
tiocfadh cuid do na " Kellys " fein o Mac 
Can-coille; oir deir an t-Ollamh ODonnu- 
hhain go n-dearnadh " Kelly " ni h-e am- 
hain d' OCeallaigh — a ghne Gaedhilge 
dlisteanach — acht fos d' OCaollaidhe, d' 
OCeile, d' OCaola, agus d' OCadhla; agus 
gur eirigh an t-aistriughadh agus an meas- 
cadh 'san nGaedhilig fein in sna h-aim- 
searaibh deidheanacha. Nil amhras ann 
gur seo e adhbhar lionmharachta an t- 
sloinne OCeallaigh no " Kelly " ni h-e am- 
hain in Uibh-Maine i n-deisceart Chonnacht 
— tir duthchais do Shiol-g-Ceallaigh — acht 
i ngach ait agus i ngach aird nah-Eireann, 
gan labhairt air na tirthibh coigriogheacha 
in ar ghabhluigh an sloinne ceudna go 
leathan, lionmhar. 

Is ro aosda an t-ainm Cii-raoi. I d- 
timcheall tosaigh aoise Chriost reir na 
staraidheadh uile, do bhi righ in larmhum- 
hain — da ngoirimid Ciarraighe andiu — agus 
ba Chu-raoi a ainm. Do marbhadh e le 
Coinchulainn, treunlaoch na n-Ultach, do 
ghabh agus do scrios a rightheach i d-Team- 
liair Luachra — rightheach d'fhag a ainm i 
d-tuaisceart Chiarraighe gus an la 'ndiu — 
Gathair Clion-raoi d'a ndeantar " Cahir- 
conree " air uairibh ag scriobhadh Beurla. 
Taobh an anma fein, do scriobhadh Cu-rai 



agus Cu-roi agus Cîi-n/i in allod. Do chidh- 
im in san dara focal geinidin do 7-ae .i. 
magh, faitliche, — agus creidim gur b'ionann 
e agus 7-/m//i i g-Cuimrig agus pratuin i 
Laidin. Mar scriobhamaid saoi air na sean- 
ghneithibh sat, siii, is mar sin ata Cii-raoi 
againn air Cii-roi no Cu-rui. Leis an g- 
comhshuidiieadh so tig linn samhailt üu- 
inaighe, üii-rian, Cu-sleibhe agus a leithide 
sin. Le h-iomad d'aoisibh ba ghnathach 
mar ainm-baistidh e, acht feadh na d-tri g- 
ceud m-bliadhan a tathart, ni fuair me acht 
'na shloinne amhain e .i. Mac Con-raoi. 
Ta Clann Mhic Con-raoi in ar mease fos, i 
g-Condae an Chlair agus i g-Condae na 
Gaillimhe. Is gnath " Conry " no " Conroy" 
do radh 'ga chur i m-BeurIa ; acht mar 
deir ODonnubhain agus mar bhreathnuigh- 
eas fein go minic, is iondual a ghnithear 
" King " i m-Beurla dhe — go h-airighthe in 
iartharChonnacht — agsaoiltin gur "Mac an- 
Righ " ata ann. Acht is mearbhal mor e 
sec. Gidheadh ni thig na "Conrys" no 
" Conroys " go h-uile o Mac Con-raoi; is 
minic as sliocht Ui Glwnaire agus Ui 
Mhaoil-Clionaire iad. Trachtfaidh me aris 
air Conaire. Is cosamhail freisean, o ta 
sloinnte ann mar Mac-an-toisi<^h "Macin- 
tosh," Mac-an-fhile " Mac Nilly," Mac-an- 
bhaird " Ward," Mac-an-aodhaire " Neary," 
Mac-an-airc/iiniiigh "Mac Inerny" 'gus a 
samhla sin — gur fior-sloinne iosMac-an-righ 
do mhuintreachaibh airighthe, cia gut 
dcacair an t-eidir-dhealaghadh do dhean- 
adh air gach cor. 

Taobh Mac-con-H nil amhras agam go d- 
tig moran do na " Lees " agus do na 
" Leighs " a ta in Eirinn agus in Albain 
uaidh ; b'fheidir fos cuid do na " Mac 
Kinleys " cia gur gnathach a thigeas an 
sloinne so o Mac-Fkinnleitli. Is fior go d- 
tig tuilleadh eile do na " Lees " o Mac-an- 
liagha no ]\Iac-an-leagha. Air Mac-Con- 
shleibhe do gheibhimid " Mac Aleavy " i m- 
Bcurla, oir baithtear an J> mar ata in 
" Donlevy," .i. ODuinn-shleiblie. Do thig 
Mac Con-slinamha o Cu-snaviha--a.ẁíX. deir 
ODonnubhain go d-truaillighthear go 
coitcheann e in Mac-an-at/ia agus is uime 
sin ata " Ford " againn air a shon i m- 

D'a chineul so d' anmannaibh, do chuireas 

aon ainm ann deiridh — Cu-mara — ionnas 
go n-dioghnainn tracht sonradhach air. D'a 
maireann andiu againn do na sloinntibh uile 
don t-sort so nil sloinne as fearr as aithne 
dhuinn no ba mho clu le ciantaibh na Jilac 
Con-mara — i Sacsbheurla " Mac Namara." 
Acht cia an t-ainmhidh an " chu mara " o a 
d-tainic an t-ainm dileas i d-tosach ? Ar 
bheathach no iasc i ? Cuirid na focloiridh 
in iul duinn gur b'ionann cn-iiiara agus "an 
ocean hound " a " sea-dog," acht nach feas 
don domhan nach bh-fuil cu na madra 'san 
bh-fairge — leath amuigh d'a bh-fuil baithte 
innte? Nil fliios agam a d-tugann na daoine 
" cu-mara " mar ainm air aon chineul eisc ait 
air bith in Eirinn andiu ; ni fuair me in sna 
leabhraibh deidheanacha tracht na luadh air 
a thuarasgbhail d'iasc. Gidheadh se mo 
mheas air mhoran d' adhbharaibh, gur sean- 
ainm Gaedhilge cu-mara don t-sort eisc as 
Sqiialiis le lucht-ealadhan, as viorgi leis na 
Breatanachaibh, agus as shark leis na 
Sasanachaibh. Is ionann inorgi sa.n g-Cuim- 
rig agus mur-chu .i. " cu-mara " san nGaedh- 
ilig : iodhon, mor " muir " agus gi (air ci) 
" cu " ; agus is gnathach an t-ainm " morgi " 
air an iasc as " shark " i m-Beurla. Is 
coitcheann fos dog-fish \. " coin-iasc " no 
"madra-eisc" do radh i m-Beurla le cineul 
airighthe don Sqnabis. Ta fhios againn 
d'a bharr sin gur b' aithne do na Romhan- 
achaibh an litpus inarinus agus an viilpes 
marina — a shamhail so d'iascaibh gan am- 
hras. Air a chiocras, air a luathas, air an 
toruigheacht do ghni se air na h-iascaibh 
eile, is deimhin gur maith an t-ainm " cu- 
na-mara " don iasc garg so ; agus deir na 
h-eolaigh go bh-fuil iomad cineul don 
Squaliis, " shark " no " dog-fish " in sna 
maraibh a thimcheallas Eire. 

Sin duit, a leightheoir, a bh-fuil agam air 
an g-ceist mhoir so. Is ionann " cu-mara" 
agus " morgi " agus " dog-fish " agus 
" shark." Acht deir tu cionnas do b'iom- 
chubhaidh an t-ainm sin do thabhairt air 
fear ? Freagraim gur ba mhaith an t-ainm 
e air foghlaidh-mara no " pioraid." Is 
minic a ghoireas na Sasanaigh — ni h-olc na 
breitheamhain iad air an g-cuis — " land- 
shark " do chreachadoir no foghlaidh-tire, 
agus leis na sean-Shasanachaibh ba ghnath 
an t-ainm se-zvul/ r\o "sea-wolf" d'fhogh- 



laidh-mara. Leighmid 'san seanchas go d- 
taithighdis agus go n-oirgidis drong don 
ghairm so — idir Eireannachaibh agus 
AUmhurachaibh — cuantanah-Eireannsant- 
sean-aimsir, an bord iartharach do shonradh. 
Is uime sin a mheasaim gur b'ionann an 
" chu-mara " agus an shark, agus gur ro 
chosamhail go d-tugadh air d-tus e mar 
ainm-fir air foghlaidh-mara. 

(Le bheitli air kanamliain.) 

cóihRc\i"óüe "oei5beiis.\c^\: tinii. 4 

<Jii\ n-A I'SP'obA-o 1\Li Lei)- An At&\\\ pi-oi\dic 

■ÚÒ. Civoim, Ó <JiTO-ýAii\ce CiU'il : 

wjH)- ..MfDlMJce 50 jAetiiUg le SeAgiii pléimion. 

"Oo'n OilbéiTii, no aw Scẃnnẃil. 

1]- niAijij n'on ■omne r|\é a ■o-cijeoi.iin c\n 
oiibénn. (llAoiii 111ÁCA xviii., 7.) 

"Do c|iucui5 "Ouv AnAtn An tjinne in a <:o\- 
ah'iLacc aju]" m'A loriiÁij yéni. 1)- loniiuim 
te h-1o]'A Cjuofc, 111ac "Oé, is.\\ n-AnniAnnA. 
"Oo ceAnnui j Sé iao le nioii-luAc folA a 
ciioroe }-ém. 11 í C15 le h-Aon ceAnjAin, fAt», 
AJU]' leACAT), AgU]' TDOiriTne 5PÁ-ÒA ioj'A 
ti'AnniAnnAib nA n-nAomeAf) ü'inni'in; ArÁ 
A cnoi-óe 'nA ccnie ai|\ Ia]'a-ó le 3iu\-ó ■o'Á]i 
n-AniiiAnnAib. "Oo cinnlmj ]-c aii\ taLaiii 
cum ceme ■d'atdha-o, a^U]' t)A]i n-üóij nil 
iiAiii) Acc 1 t)'ýeic]'m Ai)! Iai'at!). ü]\é jiuvt) 

AnATP'OO CU1]\ I'e AnUAf An SpiO]\AT) llAorii, 

An CóriiỳoiACUijceoiii.-oo cÁmij 1 ]iiocc UeAnj- 
An üemeAT) ai]i riA h--<ipfcolAib. O'n uile 
f-AOJAl -oo bi gliAii) A15 Upi peApj'AnnAib nA 
ü]iíonoi-oe TlAoriicA -D'AnmAnnAib nA n- 
•OAomeA-ò ; A15 "Oia An c-<\cai]i, aij "Oia An 
111ac, aju]' A15 "Oia An Spio]\A-o TlAoiii. "Oo 
bi 5pÁt) jAU cunii]-e aca ẁóib. "Oo cui]\eA'OAp 
Ai)i bun ^iiajIaca eAgnuiue cuin a flÁnui jce: 

AgUf ü'ulllÌlUljeA-OAH IllOJACCA, AJU]' AOlb- 

neA]- Aju]' glome ijoib 1 b-]:lAiceAninA]\ 
■dec -oeAnAnn An oilbémi An c-<Xcaih Sio]i- 
ui-óe x>o cucAc üe ua h-AnniAnnAib -oo ci\uc- 
U15 Se ni A liioji-jiiAu uoib, joitieAnn p ó 

íoj'A C]\íü|-c no 

inA-o'piAi'jAil Sele 





qieAnn ,- 

coi]\nieA]'5nión A1|\ oIai]! An SpiopAiü IIaoiiti 
— '\e \\w UA ■oAome uo flAnuJAU. 

1]- é ciAlluijeAf An oilbémi [no ^-CAniiAil] 
Aon b)\u\CA]i, gniorii, no -[."aiIIi je, a nieA]-):Ai-óe 
A beic'uA jaeACA-ò aju]' "oo béA]\].-At) |'iocai]\ 
no GUI]' peACAit) -o'Á]! 5-cóiiiunfAni. lluAi]; 
■ocAnAnn pb, no ■oei)i pb, Aon nni cum Dunie 
eilo •00 cA)\i\uin5 1 b-peACA-ò, cujAnn ^-ib An 
oilbenii 50 ■oijieAC UAib; Aguf cujAun pb 
An oilbenii 50 neniiwipeAC le li-Aon niu tdo 
pÁú no 100 ■óéAnA'ó buu 'óói j lib a béA)i]:At) 
CÚ1]' peACArá •oo ■òume eile, acc jau Aon 
mncmn nA Aon ỳonn é "oo cAjinuinj cum An 
jaeACATO. Act: b'é aca 50 "Di'neAc no 50 nenii- 
■ói]\eAC cujcA)! An oilbémi, m Aon m-ò mó)\, 
i]' peACAu mA|\bcAC 1, no bju j 50 b-]:uilp in 
AJAfó inncmne "Oé, gomilleAnn p ÁilleAcc 
loiiiAije "Oé Y^n AnAm, 50 n--oúnAnn ]"i t)0]iu]' 
UA b-|:lAiceAf 1 g-comneAn AUAmA, A5U]'50 
■o-reiljeAun p ceAnn ai|i ajaitd 50 h-iypi- 
onn é. I]- i-A5A)\c le 1i-Ío]'a C)\íofC mi)'e, 
y^ ceAccA1]^e me ó'n II1 5 Ẃ15 a b-]:uil mó]\- 
5HÁ-Ò 100 bu]\^n-AnmAnnAib ; if éigni TSAm 
cúncuf ■00 CAbAi]\c Am' tti Aoi]ii'eAcc : t>'Á buij 
pn, cui]ieAnn mo •óuaIju]' Ajup mo gliAt) 
•ùib-i'e -o'pACAib oimi lAbAi)(c lib, ai|i An 
ngnó-ó món \o, 1 5-cAnic f-oillei]! fnnpliue, 

.\m so m 


wju]" ACA full le "Oia aj 
beAnuAcc ai]! mo b|iiAC)\Aib aj tjuI i|xeAC 
m bu]\ g-ciioi-ôcib. -ácÁ ^lun t)Am5eAn AjAm 
le congUA-o Tie mo •òíccioll -oo •óéAnAt) cum 
C01-5 -00 c\\\\ (s.\\\ u]icói-o nA b-oilbénne. 

An ni-ó nAC ]:éiüi]i leif An uiAbAl üo 
■oeAUAt) é ■péni, -[tajaio I'e •oéAiiCA ■óó é 
lei]' An oilbéiiTi. "OÁ b-ireicpue An ■o]ioc- 
j-piojiAt) 'uA c]iuc -pern, ceicpeAt) nA ■OAOine 
50 h-uile UATO, CÁ \Q com ]:uAcn"iA|\ com 
jliÁineAiiiAil I'm. "O'Á biiij ]-in, cÁ a cuiü 
mAOjA Aju]' ireAWiiiAnAC A15 ah nAiiiAit) ]'o 
1 njAc CACAiji Aguf bAtle moji, 1 njAc concAe 
Ajuf cijA -oo'n ■ooiiiAn : aca •oAome 1 njAc 
Á1C Aije "00 cujAun oilbéim td'a j-cómun- 
I'Ain ; -OAome a TDei]! no a wéAiiAnn -onoc-nni 
éijin, 110 niú éijm a b-).-uil Am|ui]' jup Ab 



T)|\oc-i\o-o é, «-vgiil" lei)- <Mi nit) ^-o -oo ]u\-ó no 
■oo ■óéẃnAT), rugAi-ó i'iat) a 5-cóiìii.i]I]'a cuin 
cuicini 1 b-peACAu. <.\cc o\\]\<.\ yo iiile 
•D'yogAi)! "OiA teun ẃjiij' nu\llc\cc : "ITIaiji^ 
<\i]i All cé r]\é A •o-cigeAnn aii oiLbeitn : tiob' 
ýeÁ|i]\üó doc niuilmn vo beic chocca yA 
n-A liiuineul, Ajuf étio ceiljeAti 1 n-uoniinib 
nA iTAiiije." (tiAorii 1Ì1ÁCA, xviii. 6.) U'i:éir)iji 
le yeA\\ nA h-oilbéime a beic ]-oi-cneiT)ce, 
Aju)' ■oeijmeAi-CA 1 -I'liilib ha n-'OAOineA-ò, 
Acc 1 iiAiiiApc "Oé ní'L Ann acc f aoI-cú 1 5- 
c)ioiceAnn caoiiac. 

UujAiin jAc CAJAH Ajii]- céiiii •OAomeAt) An 
oiLbéini UACA, Agui-cugAi-ó ]'ia-o «aca 1 1 tnó- 
■|\Án Toe j'lijcib. Cujcau An oibbéini LebniA- 
rpAib ■óá-ciaHaca, le CAinc ■o|\ocioiiicaiica, 
le TiiAllACCAib, CAfjAnie, -oi a-aici)-, no -ohqc- 
j-ohiijIa, 50 li-Áijiijce Ó Aiü]ieACAib aju]- ó 

TÌlÁlClieACAlb, AJU]- UACA I'O Cllc Al]! A b- 

^-uil ]'e -o'yiACAib ■oeAJ-foniplA vo cAipbeÁn- 
At). UugcAj; All oilbeim le nieifge, Ajuf 
le peACAiuib A •oéAncA]! c]ié iiiei)'5e — peAC- 
Ait)ib nAC i.-éit)i]\ lAt) •o'ÁijieAiii nÁ cnÁcc 
AiiiÁin omiA, cÁ piAt) cotii lomAnAiiuiil, coiii 
jHÁineAiiiAil pm. tie, nÁn' cjiiceAjlAC An 
l'gHeAt) 1 fú-o ■00 cÁimj ó'n 5-c]ioic beAjÁn 
Aiiii)-ii\e ó fom, nuAi]\ ■oo bi Aii nieii-jeoin 
t)'Á cu|i cuin bÁi)' niAH jcaII ai)! liiAitbAu a 
bAincéile. -t\i|\ a jlúinib, aju)- a Iáiìia le 
céile, ■DÚbAi)\c |-e le i:eA]>-ionAit) T)é, 'do 
bi Aj yeiceAtii Ai]t : "A acai]i, acá Aon ac- 
cumje AiiiÁm UA1111 ojic i'ul n'ỳÁgf ai-ò tne An 
^-aojaI, A511]- 1)' i' ni'Accuinje ueijeAnAC 1 : 
niiAi]\beit) niipeAip An ■pAOJAleile,]'5|M'obA'ò 
cum Cóiiiicionóil nA IHeApAiTOACCA, Ajup 

lAHJAAl-O 0]1]1A •DUI Al]\ AJAITÍ) le n-A n-DOAJ- 
obAl)!, AJUp 50 5-CUl]lTO "OlA bAll Al)\ An 

obAin úx>." -d bjiÁicpe mo cjAonie, if iohtóa 
tjuine Iaj ■oo cuiceAnn 1 j-cacuja-ó, aju]- 
A jeibeAnn oilbéim qié n-A j-cómuiij-A 
■o'ýeicpin Aj t)éAnA"ò CACuije -oe'n riieifge. 
CiAnnof 1]- yéi-oin ■oóib ■oul a]- ? CiAnnof i|- 
yéitiif "o'Aon -ouine full •00 beic Aige le 
coimijic Áifigce -oyAJAil ó "Oia, •00 féin no 
tio'n •oiiomg A CÁ aj Aicfif ai)\, nuAif cei-om 
riAt) jAn Aon piAccAriAf ']'<''" m-beAlAc in 

A ni-bmeAnn bAOJAl oh)\a cuicim 1 b-pcACAt). 
^Xn re in a b-fiiil fio)\-5]iÁt) CjiíofCAm- 
Ail, TieAiifAfo fe é féin vo -oeAfmA-o Aip 
UAipib, Ajii)- cuijpn!) fe gun Ab oi)ieAmnAC 
•ÓÓ neice -olijceACA f éin vo leijeAn ■oé. "^cÁ 
nAli-uile neice ceA-ouijceAC uAm-fA, acc ni 
b-puilnAli-uile neice oifeAmn AC," ■oeinnAom 
pól (l Cop. vi. 12). -atiubAifC f e 50 fCA-of A-Ó 
fe ti'ice feolA tiÁ m-beiweAt) fo 'ha cúif 
oilbéime -d'a bjiAcAin eAjcfUAit). "Uime 
fin," üeif fe, "inÁ ciijAnn An feoil cúi]' 
peACAit) xiom' bpÁcAif, ni I'offAiti me Aon 
feoil coniice aiji cajIa jon-CAbAjifAinn cúif 
peACAi-o-oom' bnÁCAi]i'(i Cof. viii. 13). -ẃgiif 
■oúbAifc fe mA]i An 5-ceutinA 1 'o-CAOib "An 
oil." -cVif An A-òbAf fin, if cói)\ üo'n cé 
ólAnn 50 meAj-Af-oA Ai]ie CAbAifc -oo fein 
coiii 111 Aic leij' An meifjeoif, Aif eAglA 50 
n-néAnfAt) An beAgÁn ■o'ólAnn fe An bfÁc- 

Aip eAJCJIUAl-Ó 'DO CAbAl)1C CUm Óll, AgUj' inA)i 

fo 50 t3-ciocf At) An beAjÁn f o fém cum a 
beic 'tiA ciiif cuifle Agnf 'nA oilbénn. -dn 
b-fuil An c-flije fo AjAib-fe ■oeAJ-fomp- 
Iac 'DO nA bnÁic]nb eAjcuiiAiue, no An b- 

fUll fe An 101T1A]1CA é ■D'lA]1]lAn!) 0]1)1Alb fCA-O 

■oe'n m-beAjÁn oil vo ■óéAnAnn fib. Ili'l 
Aon fiAccAnAf AgAib leif, ca fe concAbAipc- 
CAc, Ajuf b'f eiuiji vo A beic 'n a cúif bÁif A15 
AnAiii éigin v'Á]\' f ulAinj Cpiofc ca]ic f joIca 
Ajuf bAj- Ai]\ A fon. " Uime fin, nA cujA- 
mAoif b]\eic Aif A céile níof nió; acc m 
Á1C fin, CU5A1Ú An b]ieic f o : nAc g-cuiffi-ó 
pb Of Ann cmfle nA oilbeim 1 flije bu]i 
m-b]iÁcA]i." (Róm. xiv. 13.) 

Ilíof cóif üúinn Áp ri-biiÁicfe -oo cup 1 
5-concAbAi]\c, óip nAc finn a luce coimeÁ'OA? 
Cifci-ò le li-dip-oeAfbojAib aju]' le li-6Af- 
bogAib nA li-éipeAnn, cpumnijcei j-cóiiiA- 
iple ciopAiiiAil A15 niAJ-nuAuAC; ueip 
fiAt); — "If le mop-piAn, Aguf aj jul Aip 
nóf nA n-ápfcol, a ■Deipinii'-o 50 b-fuil An 
■0]ioc-cleACCA-ò 5]\ÁineAmAil, An meifje, A5 
■oeAnAW eiplig 1 mcAfj Áp n-uAoineAt), aj 
milleAu oibpe An cpeinim 'nA n-AnmAnnAib, 
Ajuf, in AiTÌToeoin a nióp-fubAilce AnmA 
Ajuf coipp, A5 •oeAriA'o nAmAt) ve cpoif 



Cjn'oix -oiob, 5ii]t b'é 'a'j-cim'oc a beic I'gHi- 
oi'UA, 511H b'é A n-T)iA a ni-bolj, Ajuf jup 
nÁi])e 1)- jloijie •óóib.' (pil. 3. 19.) -A bnÁitne, 
iiAc é AiToeApg-iiÁqie 1 tvoúicce CAC01I1C15 
iiiA]! cÁ AjAinne, 50 iii-beiueAu in Á]\ tiieA]'^ 
All oi]ieAt) ]'in t)et)Aoinib' riAfglAbuijcib A15 

All poir, -00 CUJAim I'UAf 50 gllÁCAC •oo 
C]\AO]' b]u'llT)eAlilAli All Ó1Í, 111 1l-é AIÍlÁlll A 

j-ciAÍl, Acc Yóy A 5-clú, A 11-011Ó1]!, A j-cIahh, 
A niAoin, A i'lÁince, a -pAOJAb, a n-AnniAtiriA, 
Aju)' üiA yéin ? . . . . ImpToniÍT) Aiji jac 11-Aon 
lé]!' iinAii onóin "Oé Aju]' i'lÁnuJA-ó AtiAin 
riA ii-x)AonieAt), a beic bioiicA be iiAOiii-t)úc- 
]\Acc. X)ei]iiiiii-o 50 b--(.niil ye ceAiijAibce 

Al]! Alè]ieACAlb, A)]! lÌlÁlC]ieAC Alb, AJll]' 0]\]\Á 

fo A b-yuib luce oib]ie aca, ■oeAJ-fonipbA 
tiOk nieA]"AiTOACCA T30 CAbAiHL" ■oo'ii ■ojioinj A 
CÁ p'lCA, Ajup A beic AipcAC, Ai]i oajIa, z]\é 
11-A iieAiii-fuiiii. 50 b-].-AJA-ó ]-iAt) yo A CÁ 

^-AOl 11-A 5-CÚ]\A111 CAClllje Al)! CHAO]'-ól 

tJei]\iiiii'o Ó c]ioni)e, Á)i 111-beAiiiiAcc iDÓib ]'o 
50 téin, Luce eAjtwipe A511]' •oAome eibe, vo 
ciijAiin le ]-pionAt) iiA b-eAjlAipe, a n-Aim- 
yi\\ Aju]- A pAocA]! Aj cti]i cúi]-e iiA TneA]-Aii- 
■ÓACCA cum ciiin." I]- cói]i üaih yóy a yÁx> 
jutvbeAiimiij A11 pÁpA ói|\-úeAiic, ah iiaoiiiaü 

PlUp, 5110 IIA llieApA]TOACCA, AJll]- JAC -0111116 

■00 ciijAiin coiijiiA-ó in Aon c-plije cuni é 
■oo cuji cum cniii. 

1p é ATI c-ób All jteupip cúiiiAccAije -d'a 
b-yuib A15 All uiAbAb 'pAii Aoi]' ]-o cum Á]\uip 
"00 c)ieAc, buiüne jaoiL vo y■^■^^w\■ò ó céiLe, 
bAincneAbACA Ajup "oi'leACCA no •óéAiiAü, 
céAT) míbe iDUine üo cu)i jac bbiAWAin 'pAii 
UA15 pAOi CA|icui]"ne, cajicaiji -00 Ii'otiatì), 
cijte eile -oo lioiiAt) le boccAib Ajuf be 
-OAOinib Ap A 5-céibl, -OAome eile a ■óibi]\c 
Ap An TDÚicce, Agup pbuAijce jAn Äi]ieAiii vo 
ceibjeAU 50 ceiiie piopui-óe ■oe nA b-AnmAn- 
nAib -00 ceAnnuij Ío]-a be n-A bÁp. 

^y oibbéini beic aj mAgAt) pAOi •ÓAOinib 
cnÁibceACA ■oia'óa; no a beic Ag aiciu]" pgeuL, 
A5 ■oéAnA'ò buAit)eA]icA i-oi]! cómu|\]'AiiAib a 
rÁ 1 pioccÁin be céibe. " "OeAnyAni aii pgeul- 
Atìói)! A AnAtn yéiii no riiUAibbiuJA-ó Aguj- 
bei-ò 1.-UAC A15 An uibe tiuine ai|i." (eccbu]', 

xxi. 31.) -an ■oume -ooiimaiica tio •óéAiiAnn 
50 1i-o]"5Uibce neATÌipuim •o'AiceAncAib nA b- 
GAjbAife, cujAnn ]^e oibbéim uaiu. TugcAit 
fCAnuAibbe •0)100-111 eAp, ceAnn-uAnAcc, nA- 
liiAüAp, no eAfÚTÌibAcc •00 cAipbeÁnAt) •o'aic- 
^iib, -00 tTiÁic)ub, no «'uACCAiiAnAib. üujca)! 
An oibbéim be biiiAé]iAib mApbACA Ajup be 
■oiubcAt) mAiceAiimAf ■o'lAmiAi-o ohjia p o t>'á 
■o-cujAmA)! 'ojioc-TÌieAp. -An cé a cá jio-uu^ca 
■oo'n c-fAoJAb, no A cÁ UAbbŵc, no A liieApAnn 
é péin -00 belt -oéAncA -oe c]ié niop peAji]! 
lonÁ •OAoiiie eibe, aju]' rjie Aon cúip üíob po, 
no cue Aoii CÚ1)- fuA]iAi5 f-AoJAbcA eile, -00 
•ôéAnAnn pAibbije •oe'ii Coi\]3 tiAomcA r>o 
jbACA-o, UAiji 'yM^ m-bbiATiiAin An cuiü i]' bú jA 
•óé, in A pApAipue péin Ajup ó n-ApAjAjic 
pém, cujAnn ah T)uiiie po aii oibbéim uato. 

-An cé A i-cpiobAp no a pcAi]DeA]- ■oiioc- 
foÁipéi)!, -onoc-iiu^-beAbiiA, -oiioc-beAbiuv, 
niioc-pAompgeubcA, cugAim pe aii oibbéim 
UAit). IHoiniAp, 1]- mó]i All cúip jobA ah 
■ói'ojbÁib vo ■óéAnAnn ■onoc-beAb|iA 'yAn 
Aimpip po, "00 c]iei-oeAiii Ajup üo ■óeijbeui'Aib. 
nionuAii, CÁ biACC AiiAiii neiiiicionncAC aj 
CUIC1111 1 •o-cmneAp aju]- AjpÁJAib bAij- -oe 
■óeAj-jAib AUÁb niiiieAiiiAib iia haicjicac no 

pujA-o ipceAC Ap 



Alb ■otioc-beAbAu. 

p jeACA ve ceiqie pjiioiii-jeACATOib ip|\iiiii 
■opoc-beAb]iA; puAC, éAjcóin Agup neAiiijUviiie 
iiA r]\i' T)óii\pe eibe. Sobuj' ineAbbcAC ujioc- 
beAbA]\ A ■DAlbAp All iiicbeACC 111]" iiA iieicib 
A bAineAp be "Oia. llAmAit) ip e-xò é pAOi 
AJAit) pi-oib. tlACAip nniie cbuAineAc é a 
■óéAnpAp pib A itiA]\bAt) jAn Aiiinu]' 111Á béij- 
ceAji i]'ceAC m bu]\ "o-ci j é. 1p co|\n Ó)toa 
é, bÁn ue jnÁnieAiiibACC. 1]' ■onoc-coiiipÁiiAC 
•opoc-beAbA]!, Ajup 1]' é An ■oiioc-conipÁnÁc 
An cé cpé n-A ■o-cigeŵnn An oibbéiiii. "Oob' 
peA]!]! tDuic Xio piiib ■óeAp -oo buAinr a)-ac 
lonÁ í üo CAbAijic iiA b-oibbéiiiie •óuic aj 
béi jeA-ó -onoc-beAbAin : laob' peAjiji ■ouic no 
-t)eA)--bÁm no jeAiiiuw ■tiioc, 1011Á 1 t)o CAbAi|\c 
iu\ li-üibbéime uuic be t)]ioc-beAbAii tio 

jbACAt), no -OOCAbAqiC Al]l lApACC, 110 VO 'Olob, 

no -DO beACiiu5A-ù. "I)- iiiai|\3 tio'ii t)uiiie 
I cpé A iD-ci^eAnn aii oibbéim ; üob' peÁ]ip no 



ctoc iiiuilinn wbeic c]\occa jtaoi n-ẃ liiumeAL, 
Aju)' 50 t)-reiÌ5pt)e 1 n-tjonimib ha -pAiiije 
é," lonÁ All oilbéim a CAbA))\c ■d'aoii ve'n 
iTiuinci|i bij A b-j:uAin Cjiiofn hS.y A^]\ a I'on. 

•AcÁ cotiiAneA Ái)\i jce <y>\\ ah oiLbóini, a 
•òéAriAf UAcbÁ]-AC í be Ii-aiìia]\c iii)\iie. 1]-é 
pn An ufACc be a 'o-cujca^i cẃy peACc\i-ó, 
Aju]' An •oeACHACc cúiceAiii ■ooüéAnAt) mnce. 
niÁ CO 5 en iiiAom no ]-eAbb -oo cónni]ii'An 
50 1i-éA5CÓi\Ac, loob' ■péi'oii\ 50 iii-bei-òeA-ò 
■pe Aì]\ no cuimt]' ieoi]\5niom éipn "oo 
■óéAnAt), Acc niÁ ceibj cu bei]" An oibbénn 
AnAin p'opuTOe 50 h-i]:nionn, ciAnnof •00 
rAbAn].'Ai'ô en |'Á|-Am Ann ? 5° "oeninn, a 
bjiAicne, ni ].-éi-oin Aon beoijijm'oiii ■oo ■óéAnAt), 
ói]\ m"b Aon yuAj'gbAt) aj' i).-]iionn. IIIÁ 
cujAnn cu oibbénn -co -óuine, cuii\eAnn en 
cmneA^ cójbAbAC Aip, aju]' -oeAnpAi-o ye ym 
gAC n-Aon be a ni-bAmp-ó ye ai]i yeAü a 
f'AoJAib cnin bci]' An aici't) cenünA ; Ajn)" 
t)éAn]:Ani) jac n-unnie aca]'o jac n-'ouniet)'Á 
■o-cioc]:ai'ó m a Uon -oo jaIhujat); Ajnp 
inA]\ pn 50 cjn'oc: Ajuf yÁ ■óeoig, bemcui'A 
ir|ieA5A]icAC 'yAn lonilÁn ! Oeit) cu ypeAgA]!- 
CAC 1 ngAC uibe jbeACAt) vo y^i^ì^e^^■ò cjié]' An 
oibbénii yìn vo cng cu uaic. 

inAi)ieAnn peACAU nA 1i-oibbéniie Aju-p 
fiobjiuijcAnn |-e ']-An c-j-AoJAb t b-pA-o caji 
éij' An neArii-Aic)njeAc pgAniiAbAC vo uuL 
50 h-i]:]\ionn. inAi]ieAnn ]'e 1 n-tJuoc-leAb- 
1\Aib, 1 n-'0]ioc-'òeAlbAib, 1 n-T)]\oc-b]iiAC]u\ib, 
Ajn]' 1 n--onoc-]-oniplA. Cuv bé']\ péit)i]i a ]iáü 
cÁ pAT) üo belt) An "opoc-poniptA! Ag •oub ó 
jlún 50 jbún ■01A15 1 n-tJUMJ. Cia, Aip An 
A-òbAi\ fin, bé'p péfoijA Ai]ieAiii ■00 'ôéAnATÌ) Aip 
JDeACAiTJib nAli-oibbéniie,peACAi-òib popjuilce 
Ajup pobuijce, •oobéAHpAp 'n-Á]i n-AJAit) bÁ 
An b)\eiceAmnAip. CpuAibbi jeAnn bei]ic 05 

A Célbe 1 T)-C0]-AC A fAOJAlb; pgA^Aiu be 

céibe; cijeAnn An pAoJAb eA-oAppA; Ajup 
CApcAp be céibeApi']- lA-OAtg CACAoi]\-bpeice- 
AmnAi]- "Oe. Oc, mo cpuAJ ! iat) aj 5eA]AÁn 

Aip A Célbe, AJU]' Ag p5peA-0Aü 50 ll-Ápt), 

Ajup 5AC n-Aon ACA Ag lApiiAit) An "oume 
eile -00 VAopA-ú. lluAip -oo T)opcA-ô puil 
•Abeb At)i All cALAiii ■o'éij ]-i aiiiac 50 ncAiii 

AJ lAppAIÜ ■OlOJAlcAf]- A1]\ CÁtll. 111 O CJUIAJ ! 

■dnAiTi An cé puAip An oibbénii aj i'gpeAüA'ó 
le poJAp nA cót]ini je aj cApAoit) Aip An cé 
cnj An oibbémi ■oó. 

-A^up b'péit)ip 50 b-puib Aiioip m ippionn 
■ouine éijm aj pjiieAtiAt), aj lAppAi-ó-oioJAb- 
CAip Ai]\ neAC éijin AjAinne, vo cuj An 
oibbenn 'oó a cuip 50 ci j iia b-piAn é. -dn 
cé CÁ jAn cionncA beipeA-ó pe bumeAcup be 
"O1A Aip pon A neniicionncAi]', Ajup inp An 
Am ceuTDnA " cujatd pe Aipe aiji eAgbA 50 
■o-cuicpeA'ò pe. " (l Co)i. x, 12.) 

-(\noip ci-ôceA]\ gup Ab peACAt) mop An 
oibbéim po ; 50 niA]ibAnn pi AnAiii Áp 5-coiii- 
uppAn, nio ip mó)ibuAi5ej'ionÁ A copij; gup 
Ab jnÁc peACAW i AguppeACAW ij- pupup a 
■òéAnAt),Acc gup Ab ■oeACAip pAj-Aiii ■oo CAbAipC 
mnce; 50 b-p-uib pi in ajato "Oe An -dcAp, An 
lilic, Agup An SpiopAit) HAonii; go g-cui)\e- 
Ann pt coipmeApg Aip An obAip a cá Aip bun 
A15 An GAgbAip cum AiiiiiAnnA nA n--oAoineA-ó 
■00 pbÁnuJAT). 1p pio]' TDÚinn go -o-cugAnn 
An oibbeim AnuAp Aip nA üAoinib An leun a 
CA bAgA]icA Ai)\ An -ojiomg vo cugAnn cúip 
pcACAiw UACA, Agup go b-pu AtiuigcAnn pi Ó 
lopA Cpio]'c All nib !]■ Ann]'A beip lonÁ 
AnAiii pern. bibeAt), ai]i An AtibAp pm, 
UAcbÁ]- 0)ipAinn poim An oibbéim po, Agup 
■oeAnAiiiAoi)- pun -oAingeAn ■oo gÍACA'ó, be 
congnA'ó "Oé, gAn a beic cionncAc m]- An 
b-pcACA^o po gob]\Ác Api']-. Ill Á CÁ pe tie liii-Á-ó 
AipAon^oume AgAib gujicug ]'e ciiip peACArà 
ti'Á cóiiuippAtn, 111Á liiocuigeAnn pegupgoiti 
pe Ó lopA Cpi'opc Aon AnAin AiiiÁin, no níopmó 
■oe nA h-AnmAnnAib ■oo ceAiinuig ]-e ■ôó p-ei'n 
Aip An g-cpoip ; Ai)i A poll ]'in, nA cuiceA^ó 
pe in éAüoccAp: acá mAiceAiiinAj- be pÁgAib 
Aig peAp nA 1i-oibbéime péin, mÁ broeAnn 
pioji-^òoibgiop Ai]i, Agup ■oub cum pAOij'ttme. 
"ITIa]! mAipim," a]\ An UigeApnA, " ni 1i-Áib 
biom bÁp An cionncAig, acc go b-p-iltpeA-ò 
An cionncAC ó n-A pbige Agu]' go inAinpeA'ó 
pe." (ej'ec. xxxiii. II.) CÁ cpocAipe T)é 
óp cionn A obAip uile. " iXn ■opong -d'a 

lllAlCpi'Ó ]-lb A b-peACAl'Ó A CÁlt) )-u\t) iiiAicce 

■óóib." (llAoiii Goiti, XX. 23.) "X)o CAinic pe, 


Ill cum jIaotjac 50 1i-<fic]\ije .m|\ ha p']ieii- 

llAlb, ACC Al]\ HA peACAIjlb." (11. LuCA]-. V. 32.) 

1]- ]ioim An b-peACAC cÁ ah ]:Áilüe ip nió. 
üigít), Ai)i An A-ôbA-|i I'ln, nÁ biueAt) eAjÌAnÁ 
nAi^e 0]i]iAib, jéAbcA)! 50 cneApcA tib. "^m 
50 b-i-niil bun b-peACAiü co "oeApj te 
coj\cA|\ -oéAn].-A]\ lAT) jeAt niA]! An pneACCA." 
(^]-. i. 18). -ácÁ An ýuiL luAClilAjl, A jlAnAf 
o'n tnle JDeACA-ó, aj pileAt) yoy vih. 'Cip'-o, 
Ai|\ An A-obAn I'm, -oeip lofA, aju]- ni ji't) biip 
n-AnniAnnA m a bAi]~oeA-ó jlé-TDeAtig. 5^"- 
yAib p ^ACpnAÍ peACAiü -òib. "OéAnyAi-ò ^-i 
Ajn']" jtAn, jcaI, neniicionncAC y\h m<\\\ ■00 
bróeAbA)! 1 njeujAib bu]\ mÁCAn r..\\\ éi]- 
bAii'-oit), ntiAip bi -dinjib "Oé aj yencAin le 
jeAn ojipAib, Agii-]" lAt) ■oenimeAC 50 n- 
"oéAniTA'ó ]'ib neice tiiónA lÁ éijin ; Ajup 
•oeirneA]' aca leip An Ain m a nglACj-'An 
i)-ceAC 50 iiijeAcc "Oé ph, iiia|i a b-yeicpt) 
pib jAC ]\A-ÔA]ic lOA Áible, niA]) a j-clumnynò 
]-ib bmn-juc nA IllAij'oine co tiiili]' le 
pÁfi-ceol nA b-ylAiccAf, 111 Ap a b-pin jiw ]-ib 
^-CAlb Ai]i An ^iijeAcr a cá uIIaiìi -oib ó 

COpAC An TDOlilAUl (11. Ill ACA. XXV. 34); 1TIA]\ 

A b-peicpfó pib An ]\a-òa]ic peunriiAH — Jnuip 
"Oé — 50 b]iÁc le pAOJAl nA pAoJAl. <\tTien. 

AliUMlCv\ 'OeAlbcUlCv\Cv\. 

Uim 4. 

eom SéAnui]' Ha CeAjibAill, S.Í. 
]\o cÁn. 

bjiiAn bo|ioitiie, A bAjTO, aju]' a mic. 

[bpiAn, niAcLlAJ 1 lÁCAl|l.] 

b]\iAn. — HA lAbAi]\ 'noi]- m.\]\ yiu. IIÁ 

1i-AbAin 'noi)' 
50 111-bA-ò péit>i]\ le IllAoilpeAclAnin beic 

'nÁp n-AJAfó 
-c\i)i uAii\ An CACA-po. ni i\Aib pe pAiiii 
'IIa CAjiA t)0 nA gAllAib, ACC 1 j-cóiiininje 

pepeAn r]\o^x) iiiAp JAipgCAC biiAn nA 


50 1i-áito-Ia)-áiica 'n-AjAiú nA JaIIuacca. 
50 T)eiiiiin ciocpA-ó leAc céAt) u Aip niop peÁpp 
TlÁ-ó o]niipA pém 5U]\ jiíÁẃnijeAp nA J-^bl. 
<\cc An peA]i I'm, 11lAoilpeAclAnin, nAc ]iAib 


'11 A cui-oijceoi]! le 5>-^1-l->^i^ "T "-^^ 5"'^°5*'°' 
-dec nuAi]\ bi J"^'^*" ^^5 r]\oiT3 le jAllAib 

■dju]- é j-m Aon itAip AiiiÁm ; — lllAOilpeAC- 

"Do CAill A liiAc péni in a cojatj -oeijeAnAC 
"piAnn AlAbAnnAc c]\eun aj c]\oi-o niAp é 
50 ■oiAn ni AJAi-ó nA ng^ll ; — é beic Anoip 
'11a peAllcóip iiieACA ni]' An iiioméiTi-po 
'SAn moiiiéit) üeipeAnAij, 5ló)uiiAi]\ ]\oníi An 


"Oob' ei'gm beic ni'op inó nÁ peAllcói]i Ann ! 
buü í An peAllcAcc í, binj liió, but) TÌieApA, 
buT) lonjAncAije obAnme'p-*" -ooiiiAn ! 
-dj rniiAillui5v\-ó in Aon iitoiiiéi-o clú a 

dj bpipeA-ó píop A obAip-lÁiiTie pém, 
-dj pAlcAipc pAoi A copAib polA A clAnine, 
VoIa po-úipe jpATJuijce a line ! 
e- pni A ■òéAnATD Ajup ceilc pin UAnn — 
Hí peAllcACc -OAon-oA í, A éilijceoip, 
■AcÁ An pjeiil ]-m 'jIaoiw Aip ■óeniiniuJAt) 

111 Ó]\. 
-t\bAip C1A li-é An pÁc, CAT) é An nrò 
"Oo cuip An pAobA]\ Aip -DO ceAnjAin líoiiicA, 
■ú bÁijTO nA iii-bÁ]nj, III1C LiAj ! 

pAn, inneopAT) ; 
"O' mnpip é ceAnA ; cÁ piop -['Ap-iiiAic AjAtn 
Ca-o é An c-A-óbAp pm. but) cóip é beic 

nAC b-puil 
ni AoilpeAclAnin 111 a]\ acá nA ■oAome eile, 
dec An--ooniiin-]\i'niAC, "oub, puAji-puilcAC, 


ÜAp mle AnAiiiAnnA ]u\ib 'pAn -ooiiiAn a ]iiaiìi. 
-dec 'p bunopeionn a cá An c-A-òbAp ajac ! 
1ì1a]\ jeAll nA|\ cell pe ceAnA eo]i Aip bic, 
nieA]-Ann cu 50 ni-bu-ô coip -OAin beic 



AC 50 b-puil 


"Oeipi]!, An iiAip bi ye 'iiA pmbe 1 u-CALlAib 
Úaitíij piAil Hi CbaIIaij, in -oo lÁcAip pém, 



1 IÁCA1H iiiónÁin -OAOineAX) (m<s]\ i]' 511ÁC 
tJeic cjiuninuijce Ag cluin le binne -oÁn ;) 
50 b-ireACAit) cu hac cApA -OAnif a é 
50 b-feACAit) ru é ]-o CO f oiíl,éi)i ]-in 
50 b-yuilin cinnce -oe. ÜA)]'beÁiiAn3 I'e 
11ac •0-C15 'noif le ÎTlAOilfeAclẃinn ceilc An 

oi]\éiü i-in 
IIaó ü-cij lei)- é ceilc A]v\r, Agiif ni 
111]- All A111 ceu-oiiA jnócAc ■oíccioHaò 
Lati lAj-AiiuA ].-ó ceob A'f pbiùeAcc. 
-djuf All nieAf Aip 'noil' 1 n-WAij pn 
50 ■o-nj lei]- 111]' An Áic fo ceilc a I'licmn, 
é yù)ì\ -00 ceilc aiji yesv nA Ia, nA fCAcc- 

-aju]' 1110 ]-úile '5 |-eiiCAiii, i.-Aiiie Aip, 

^\']' é Aj iilliiuiJA-ó All ỳeille ij- iiAcbAj-Aije ? 

11Á ]-iinK\in é )-iti nio)- mo. 11Á b-AbAi]i 

'Su]\ po]\ no fó]' ion]'Aoilce é, IìIicLiaj. 

éi]-c, éi]T, Aiioi]-. Hac juc -00 line é j-in ? 
Sm 5UC 1110 itiic-i-e. "PAn, yeuc o]\]\a ■çéu^ ! 
[Ü15 11lii]\CA-ó Agii]- IIIac 

TnUjICAt). A ACA1]1 jlioJAlilAll ! 

rriActiAj Ó5. — A -Aiji-oinj nA 1i-éi]\eAnn ! 

bjiiAn. — tic! AlilictiAj Ó15, cuin5i\inn vo 

•ánn]-in acá tio acaiji ■oil A5 ^.-uijieAC — . 
Ill b-é AiiiÁm eroi]! nA -oAoinib Ó5A 
mA]! CÁCA01, cui'A Ajul' mnncA-ó loniiunn 
<\cÁ p'oii-bjug An CAHA-OAi]- le ].-Á5aiI. 
lUiAiii bi-óif ceACC Annfo a'i' 1l1ii)icAt) Icac, 

"bi t)' ACAl]! 'cAinC I1OIII Al]l An Alll CllAlt) 

An 511Á-Ó ■o'yAii Aije ojiiiif a ó n-A óije 
Ó'n Alll A bi-oinn jAn Aon Tiun, jAn ccac, 
jAn IcAbA i.-úm-1-A,* " 1 b--pAnbocAib--|:Á|'Ai j, 

* The passage in inverted commas is taken from the 
well-known Irish Tract, " The War of the Gaedhil with 
the Gain," published in the Rolls Series, by Dr. Todd. 
The only change made, beyond inserting hyphens and 
marks of aspiration, &c., has been to change the possessive 
pronoun of the third person into the possessive pronoun 
of the first. For the last three words the reading given 
by the Editor in a note has been preferred to that adopted 
for his text, see page 62. We take the following from Dr. 
Todd's translation (pp. 61 and 63), marking by italics the 
words which correspond to the passage quoted in inverted 

]^o\\ c|iuAiü-}')iéiiiAnATb co]1)iaca, i.-lniccA, 
1i1o ci]ie •oúicce yéin," i ■o-ÜUAic-1ÌliJiiiAin. 
1)- veApp ACÁniAoiT) 'noip .acc uiiioi\|\o 
If 5eÁ|i]i 50 m-bei-ómí-o yo An caIatíi fUA]!, 
-áj luije in]' An leAbA cútriAing 50 bjiÁc. 
<Anni"in beit) pbf e — ']'e mo •ooccAf mó)i : — 
Le bliAWAncAib A'f bliA-ÔAncAib yóy beo, 
-djuf bei-ó pbfe cÁinc mA]i pnne 'noif 
-ái]! cA]iA-OAf neAm-A^ijiuijce nA boACA 
Acx: jAn Aon Am ^eii]! -oocAmlAccA c|iUAit)e 
Inj' An fseul ^aua, mo,)! bi ccAnA AjAinn. 

ITIacLiAJ Ó5. ÜA flill, A -«.\ll\T1]\lj, niA]l 

All g-ceu'onA A5A111, 
50 m-beiu ■00 TÌiAC, mo rijoAjmA-f a, An-iiió]\, 
<\n-mó)i 1 5-cli.ì, iiiA)! ciif A in jac aiii, 
<\ti-iiión 1 fonAf, iiiA)! cii yéin Anoi]-, 
<Acc cÁim cmnce x^\ì\\ 1 iiiei]'neAC, 'oiAnACC, 
•dcÁ 1110 cijeAiWA -oil, An c-AubA]! ]ii5, 
<Xnoif CO 1110)1 IcAC féiii, -c\inx)|iij nA 

1i-éi)ieAnn ! 

bjllAll. l/AbAllt le ü'aCAI]!, a OJAllAlj 


'S miAii le ACAi)! beic aj CAinc le itiac. 
CAir].-nJ me 'oul Anoif le fjACA-ò beAj, 
In AompeAcc le mo tÌ1iincA-ò,C|nT) An fliiAJ. 
^cc ]ioime fin, a lIlu^icAni), lAbAiji fÁilce 
<\nii]-o, lei]' An Á]i-o-oIIaiìi — ]'eAn-1ìlAct/iA5. 

lllllUCAt). HaC iniA-Ò, A ACAIJI, A5II]' A1C All 

llli> ]"0 ? 

IIac 111ÓH An c-ion^nAb cu beic '5 iAH]\AnJ 

<\on fei-óm ai]i bic •oeiii' ceAiijAiii-]^ vo 


1]' jnÁcAC leAC An IaII bocc ]-iii a ]'CAonAt) 

Ó CAgJlAU AJll]' CÓlÌl]lÁt) AJtl]- CA111C. 

TDob' yeAjiii leAC jac lÁ mu lÁiiiA nÁ mo 
Ajn]- iiic A beic le haiìiai-o '11Á le ca]ia. 

lie, blXn)- COAfC, A ACA1|1, Agll]- CAl)!: 

■pio]! t)uic 5U]i 5eii)A A bibeAiin 1110 ciiit) cAinc. 

commas above. " Great, on the other hand, were the 
hardship and the ruin, the bad food and the bad bedding 
which they inflicted on him [Brian] in the wild huts of the 
desert, on the hard, knotty, wet roots o/ his own native 



•dec CÁ I'e cmnce pf,»oo nei|\ uo iiieAi-c«.\, 
•Anoif 111AH CÁ1111 Lŵbẃiiic ie lllAcLiAg 
tiAC pACAit) yocAl eile Af 1110 "beul 
<Xcc buiACHA lÁn -oe btn-óeACAf Agui' jnÁ-ó. 

IS lom-ÓA 111-Ó -00 Hijne cii, lÌlicLiŵg 
te lÁiiii, le 5UÜ, le piiuAirieAu, 1 tijAC A111, 
■Ro CÁ11, no liiiiin, no cóiiiAinlij; a']- no C05A15, 
111 ri5 I10111 cuimtmiJA-ó ai]! leic -oo ci\ioc- 

Le yojiiA-u-rijie, iiioLa-ó inop, Ajiti-clii ; 

Ar^ 1110 j\MC-l'A Al]l AOll 1l1t) AlilAltl. 

1ì1a]> ^eAll 5iint))\ümK\i]-, aáito-oUaiiìi ontii 
Wn r-üjÁiiAC no-uAjwL yo, i>o liiAC, 
ÜÁiiii Atn' yeitcAiiiiKxc Ati-iiuí|\ Anoi)-, 
<\']- bei-ó iiA pACA )-ni 1 j-córiimiije oi\m. 

b|\u\ii. — 1110 A-óbAii\-i\i5 ! cÁ in'iil ajaiti 

50 ni-bei-ó 
X)o ceAiigA n'è^*''"'^"'^ "^"^1" ^° t<ii'ii ^'y 

•c\cc b'ýeÁnn bioiTi ném no ceAti^A oiil a tiiú^a 
'11Á lÁiii no cjioi-oe. Ua)! lioni aiioi]-, a liiic ; 
lÎACAiiiAoit) t\úx> All b--[:o]-ton5po]ic be ceile ; 
Oi]i CAiririTJ iiié cu)i yuAjAnCA Ann 50 iii-beib 
Cóiiiicionol nij Ain ŵtc iiA 111-bun cuni 

te reAcrAine nA n^Alb a cÁimc ciijAinn. 
-c\nn]-o A bei-óeA]- An cóiiiicionob, Aguy 
1]' iiiAic lioni nmne beic aj -oul aj ion]niit)e 
11 A mj A beiúeA]- 'ceAcc. Paii, a lilic I^iaj, 
Le j-V^ibcinJA-o ]iónipA, iii]' An 111-borÁn pAin- 

Ciii|\pT) nie ciijAC-fA niAcCoij-e yóy, 
vVjii]- nA bÁtnx» uile 50 béi]! An r-]-liiAij. 
beiTJ ceol bmn Ajuf t)Án ihóhüáIac jieiri, 
IIIaji pii An Aiiiij-i)!, a']- iik\)\ nui An n'n. 

[Üél-Ó AtllAC b|\K\ll AgU]- 111ll]lCA-Ò.] 

TnAcliAj.— Sin ye.\]\, pn pij. 1|- pig Ó 

■ÓÚCCAf é, 

■Oo niiJA-ó é cum beic aj jiiajIaja-o -OAomeAt) 
^\iH peAt) A beACA. Ax^vy m^ye yóy, 
gi-ô b' é 1]- yii]!!.!]' lioni le ■OAoinib eile 
"Oul in A ii-AJAib, ]y 1111111c CAilleAii me 
1 b-].-ocAi]i b|\iAin tiio ]'-Aoi]ineAcc yéìn aiji |-At). 
A line, inÁ cÁ Aon Tjume ini- An ■ootiiAn 

"Oe'n liieiit) cÁ '5 ia|\]iai-ò pAjluigce, hwó 

liiAic leif 
^iof ceA]ic beic Aije ai]! An j-caoi i]- feApn 
v\n cteAcc 1]' l.'i.i]'A Agup CAbAccAi je, 

An mot) i|- iiAi]'le aju]' cúiiiACCAije, 

üijeAT) An x)uine pn ẃnn]-o a'|- cmiieAO 
5Hinn jeuji a noij'j, a cluAf, a liieAniiiAn 

<Ai|i nop a'i~ beACCAib, CAinc a']' cóiiinAü 

Ill yuiL Aon iiR) Aim cÁ Vigaj ; 111 ỳiiil Aon 

TJiccéilLe ; 
111 rAjAHii yocAl A)- A belli iiAC biiio^iiiA]!. 
LAbAineAiin A full, A jlti Ai]-eAcc a'|- a f eA)-ATJ 
A'y lAbAipeAnn ]-ia-o Aon I'geul 1 j-cóiiiinnje 


50 b-puil ciiiiiAcr Aije aju]- ytoy -ooiiiiin 

Ar\ ýei-óm i]- 111 aic -oo xiéAnA-ó -óé. — <\cÁ ]-e 


CÓ-}-AT) a']- nAC b-pilll pÁC Al)! blC 'nAAJATO. 

Act: m a f-ocAineACC ýo-cÁiiit)ij i.-ói- 

ÜÁ pmuAineA-o ■ooiiiiin, po]i-ci\oimeACC, coil 

"Oo lAbAipeAnn ]-e 30 bcAcc An nieuu iy 

mi An leif 
An iiiei.i-0 A -DiibAii\c ye, CAicyi-ó pn beic Ann. 
111Á CÁ Aon nib 'nA ajato, if cuniA lei]-. 
In AJAib nA njm'oiii, cÁ ẃige cuniAcc nŵ 

1i-éi)ieAim ; 
In AJAib nA b-pocAl, a Áiro-AibneA]- yém, 
An c-AibneAp i]- TDeAJ-lAbAjicA, Agit]- 
1)' cúiiiACCAije b-yuil le fÁJAil 1 meAj-j nA 

ei^iijeAnn a cóm)iÁ-ó mop mA)i luACAp- 


üiomÁmeAnn A51.11- fcuAbAnn Ay An m- 

An oipeut) b-fuil 'nA ajaiü ; cÁ An obAiji 

■oéAncA ; 
üinceAnn An Ájtojaoic fi'of 50 ]-ocai]\, ]-áiii ; 
50 b-obAnn cniocniiijceAii An coiiijiAb mop. 
1]' uiAic ACÁ yioy AgAiiine, Aip yAt), 
CiA b-é Ajtii' CAT) é An c-Aip-oinj b]\iAn. 
1]- yeAp)! Anoif le jac A)-n ■oumeAjAmn 
SeAlbugA-ó A ýéile 'nÁ a ỳeAiig vo cacujax). 



-Ace unioiino <\n CApA a cá •(.•i'o]\ 
C<MCi:i-ò I'e Ì--Ó]- beic cajIac Aip a f on 
-An UA1)\ iiAC 111A1C leb]iiAnbo]\Ì3Aon).-AirceAf. 
-í\ line An Tj-nnjit) rii ino CAnic ? Ili 
Cokt) ^.-A "b-j.-mt, me aj lA*bAi)\c to •00 teiceit) ? 
If cnniA leAC beic niAjUiJAt) no "beic ■oaoh 
If cutTiA tcAC An feAf beic iiion iiia]\ bjiiAii 
Ho beic '11 A fÍAicin beAj be fbuAJ fviA]\Ac 
111 fuib cu Ag lAffAit) Acr A011 niw AiiiÁin ; 
Sm, beic ai|i feAÙ ■00 beACA fó Aon fe^ji, 
A^u]- é niufCA-o b]ieÁ5, An c-wbAn-fig. 
Cnije nAc iiiaic teAc beic ad' bÁ]\-o fAOf, 


te ']\ ng cii)! eAjlA ai]! jac cije.ximA ci'ne ? 

II o, 111Á 1]' iiiAic teAC beir fo -uiiine éijin, 
Ca-o cmje cÓ5ai)-iik\]i uo ci5eA]\n>\111ii]\cA-ù ? 

111acLk\5 Ó5. — lliof inifc CÓ5 é ; CÓ5 1110 
cijeAiniA 1110 
uiweAiiti ye fiAliiuv)! iiia)\ acá ]'e iiiei)-neAC. 

IIIacLiaj. — 06, ni fuib me ]'eiiiiA-ó 50 
b-fuil mei]-neAC Aige, 
Til f euiiAim 50 b-fuil fiAliiiAiiieAcc 50 lco]i : 
'Oeifiiii iiAC fin é bcic 'iia fij ai]( bic, 
■niA]\ JCaII Alf An j-CAinc fociiuiitiij CÁ 

TIac b-fiiit fio]- AgAC-j-A, ]-eAn üirnf tibni]'., 
Cat) é a ■oiibAijic ]"e ai|\ An fi^ pili]3)3ii)' ? — 

Til ll-é 10lLl]D]3l11', ACAlf -00 -álA)T0]l, 

"Oo buAi-óceoiji móf-]iijeACCA ha pef]-iA ; 
-<\cc An pitippuf eiLe a fijne cojaó 
^An cliì jAii fÄC m AjAit) iiA UóiiiÁnAc.— 
"Oi'ibAiiic All c-ÁfD-eACCAife Aif piLij^pii]' 

■0011 A 

" 6fAC tiicAciof iiArufA, " a']- no cuif 
DfiACiiA fO-rnoiiiA leif, " ijiK\m -oecec 

11Í cui5i]\ 'noi]' é I'ln : — inneofAt) -onic . . . 

niAcLiAg O5, — HA li-iniiif -oAiii Aon ni-ó 

Al|\ blC, A ACAlf, 

■<\b-fiiil in AJAit) m' fomóif Aif 1110 fijcAfnA. 

IIIacLiaj. — nio)\ bub liiAir le.\r-]-A fiAiii 
All r-eoluf : 'iioij- 

III mAir loAc fiof beic ajac-jvv, acc fómóf ! 

LAibeofAi-o me 50 foibteif, beAcc, 1 

1 njAcbilij coircionn leAC. IIac b)\eÁ5 

iiA ncice 
"Oo jiijne be 11-A CAinc ]io-jéiii, fo-foiiiiiiiAif 

"Oo fljCAfllA-J-A, All C-AbbAf-JUJ, 111 AC 

"bfiAin ? 
IIac e-j-CAii be n-A fúgA-ô nniieAiiiAib, 


v\ii ]~plAiic A ü' f Áf ceme An cojAib Aij-re 
Le n-A b-fnib ah ]\ioJACc Ia]-a]toa An-uui I 
lllniiA iii-beibeAu ]"e)-eAii TiéAiiAb hiajaiu 

lllAolmof-OA 1 j-CinnconAib '5 imifc ficcible 
111 beibcAt) An cojau iiiÓ]\]-o Aim Aif bir, 
CAicfib tiA g'-^ebib Af nA 5>^^ibl Aif fAtj 

I0C AllOlf fOCAl mÓ|lbuAlj lilufCATJiA. 

Hi fill A011 neAc iiiAf fin 1 ti-rif iia 

Deic 'iiA ]\ij coibce, no 'nA cijeAfiiA biiic. 

HIacLiaj O5. — ^\ ACAlf -ôiL, 111Á CÁ fe 

fl'Of gUf 111ll]lCAb 

Ü115 An p)iíoiii-A-òbA]i ■oo'ii liióf-cojA-ó ]-o 
üfé beAjÁn focAl, cÁ ]-iii cinnce foj- 
5u]i iiiAic A CÁ ]-e '5 co]-Aiiic CAI11C le gnion'i. 
Ill fuil Aiiijui]- Aif 50 iii-beib All biiAib 

111 full Alilfllf Al]l JUf mOf All clll A 

1 5-CAC nA I'lnAJ A15 mo rijeAiniA-f a. 

Ill C15 liom cAinc Aif fiojAcc leAC a']- 

Ill C11151111 nib Aif bic -o'Á leicit) fin. 

beAj An CU151-111 fiK 

tlAIC, A AC All 

lliof fent) Hie leAiiAiiiAiii ajhaiìi j'An 

"Oo coiiiAifle A511]' ■o'oiTie-jnioiii Áfxt-ljiieÁj. 
but) CA)\cui]'neAC ah ■oniiie mij-o, meAj-j 
11a n-ójÁnAC At)' cimcioll 111 no fcoil. 
Iliof CAicnijeAf le fCAji ai]i bic ']-An ci'p 
\\cc le Aon f edf , mo cijeAf nA-]'A, AiiiÁm. 
Ko CAicnij iiii)-e leif, jAn fojluitn Ái]it), 
jAn c]n'oiiAcc t)oimin, c]ié liieifneAC Agiif 


110 cAiciii5eA]--]-A fóf CO mof fin lei]-, 


llokC b-piit Aon ójIac ik\]-aI eile >.\nn, 

IIac iii-bni)eAnn cajIa noiiii a V^ipB iiiói]\ 

-Ace iiii]-e AiiiAm. T)ci)ii]i jii]! Seiqi a ceAnjA ; 
1n AJAi-ó -00 line 111 'bi-óeAnn }-aoI)A)i uimie. 
tioiiif A ACÁ All c-AübA]i-]ii5 An-ciuin 
•An-cÁi)ineAiiiAi'L, i'Á]xa, buiweAc t njAC Am. 
5ac ni-ó ■o'yeuuAnn fe -oeAiiAt) ai]i nio fon, 
bi-oeAiin ye -oéAncA jah aoii nioiLl i 5- 

'Ha eugiiiAi]", beiwimi-i-e Am' ýlAicíii bocc 
ÜÁini All 01]' yó ifieAf Ayx), ]-Ai-ób)ieA]- 111 on, 
-Agii]' co-ŷAt) a']- belli) ye yém yó cúiiiacc, 
belt), beA^iiAC, All ctniiACC ceuüiiA in 1110 

O ! CÁ ]-e ceAjir, aj ]-iiiiiAitieA'ó 'iioij' 50 

p'on-èugrA'óó ó]' donn jac m-ó 'yc^n TioiiiAn ! 
ÜÁitii, A AUAin, A511]" benJeAt)-]-A 50 bÁ]'. 

inAcLiAj. — LeAC-]'A bAÒ niAic a co]'aiiic 

Ó JAC olc ? 

IIIacLiaj O5. — Oa-ò îi-é mo liiiAii •sxuy m' 


bA-ò b-é mo coil, mo jÁintìeACA]-, mo f-Ainc, 
Ó jAC Aon olc A co]'Ainc le mo ỳuil. 

niAcLiAj. — "OÁ iii-bei-óeAt) yio]' ajahi ai|i 
Aon jiiAi)- Aiioi]' ; — 
-iVjuf 50 m-bemeA-o ]-e 1 5-conCAbAinc n'loiji . . 

IÌIacLiaj Ó5. — <\ ArAi]i, 111Á rÁ )-io]- iiiA]! 

pn '11011- AjAr, 
\\bAiii T3A111 Ai]! All iii-bAll ! HA ceil, llÁ Cell ! 
"OÁ t)-rioc).'At) liom]-A yiALiiiAiiieACC mo 

"Do cúinuJA-ò Ai]! CAOi éijin ! O ! iiac 

Ac A]- AC 

-All lÁ I'o A'f An iiAip I'o ! -AbAiii, AbAi]! ! 


^\bAin, nÁ ceil, nÁ ceil, acc 

AbAin, AbA1]\ ! " 

1r yuyuy ym a pÁ-ó. ^y yuyvy lAbAiiic,— 
D-puil Aon iiiAic Ann beic lAbAipc 'iioif 

All! AC ? 

Sin é All |-iAi.-i\iiit;e. Ij-i.niil Aon ciaII 

AJAC ?— 

-A line, ni x)uine ciiioiiA a cá lonAC. 

IIIacLiAJ Ó5. -A ACAin itlAIC, A ACA1]\ ull, 

bi c|iócAi]ieAc ; 
pioii üinc nAC m-bi-òeAnn ciaII no cómAi]ile 

■Acc ACÁ -ouine eile lonAin 'noif, 
111 AH CÁ 1110 cijeAjinA jpA-ouijce 1 j-concA- 

"Peuc, -peuc ai|1 nA qiuiciuiiACAib iy ^y\,e 
In inonn a']' iioiiiifmuAineATi Agup yio]' ! 
<\cÁ An c-oit)e-T)úccAif acá yóy, 
"O'Á iiiúineAt) iniAi|\ acá aii JliÁt) A5 jIaoi-ô. 
■peiic Ai]\ An eun aj eiciollAÚ ']-An ì'péi]i ; 
Cats é ij- I115A An cuniine no aii i-jhú-oa-ó ? 
Cv\-D é ii' luJA An obAin no An i.-oi5it)? 
t\cc nuAip A cÁ An c-aiii Ann iieA-o a 

•Ai]! ye AT) 11 A lAecATJ CÁ An c-eiin aj 

50 li-Álinnii ciaIIiìiah ai^ An Ál le ceAcc. 
llÁbibeAt) Aon y-AicceAi' ope. Oeit) ciaII 

yóy A5Ami-A, 
■Aip fon 1110 cijeAniiA jiiÁbuijce 1 njuAif. 

niAcl^iAj. — 1]' ■oeA]- An cAinc é I'ln. ÜÁ 
CU1T) 101 pop : 
■piofuijim oit)e--oiiccAi|- beic A15 eunlAic 
Hi cAgAnn oine-üúccAif cum ha n-tiAomeA-ó, 
Jaii céill ni céi-óeAiiii uAome Aip a n-AJAit). 

IIIacLiaj Ó5. — " 111 bi-ocAiin oi-oe-'oúccAi)' 

A15 HA -oAOinib." 
pion ■ouic, A ACAi]\, ACC ní yioy iiac b-yinl 
Aon oiue eile aca acc a j-ciaII. 
ÜÁ Aoncn JAt) Ajn]' jéilleA-ó aca yóy. 
IllunA b-puil ciaII liión AjAm-i^A, cÁ 
■pio]- iiiAic 50 5-cAicp-ó me m iiai]\ iiAjiiAii-e 
beic jéilleAiiiuil ]ioiiii An b-]:eAi\ 1]' 1110 An 

I]- é An ^éilleAü oi-oe-TDÚccAifOAon-OA ! 
50 moiniion 130 jAC i^eAn a b-ynnl pop Aije 
5uH bocc A'f beAj An ciaII cá Aije f.-éin, 

ill AH inline. 
In Á1C cjuib geuH aju]- 501b -oéin aii ioIaiji, 
v\bAnc All CAipb a'i' niiiie nA 1i-tiilli3éi]-ce 
In ion AT) pacaI món An mAT)]\AiT> aIIca, 
ÜÁ A15 An T)ijine a lÁiii nocc cÁ 5I1C. 
Arni" m Áic An oitie-üúccAiH yuvOAncA, 



ÜÁ <\i5 All ■oiiine jéilleAcc ]ioim <mi 

ÜÁ pn, CÁ oi-oe-T)úccAif ■oaoii-oa ajaiii ; 
ni li-eA-ó An géilleA-ó -oaoh, ah jéiLleA-ó Iaj 
llonii inte •ómne a']' ]A0ii"ri tule ni-ô. 
A.CÜ All 'i'AOH-jéi'L'LeA'ó, jeitteAf) lÁiTit)\ 

1n iiAi]! 1]" niAic tioni aju)- iiiaic •òaiii 

ÜÁ An r-ÁjTO-jéilleAt) ]-in, a Af aih, AjAm-i'A, 
1ì1a]1 jeAlt A1H pn acáiiii A15 1110 rijeA]\nA: 
OeiweAT) in ]'o Anoi]- An-jéilleAiiiAiL •ouic. 
t/ec\r-]-A ACÁ An innrnm -ooninn nAc xj-riij 
An ■OÚCCA]" ■oAtii. LeAC-|-A aca An i-'ioi', 
Abŵi]i, A ACAiji, Aju]' CAi]-beÁn •oAtn 
^An bAoJAÌ, Agu]' Tniim caü é 1)- éigni, 
Cat) é ^y feÁ]\)i -oeAnAW Aip ]'on 1110 cijeApn a. 
1]- iiioi]'neAC, ciAltiiiA]\ cii, beiú i)ii]-e 

jéille Alii Alt 
'Ouir-fp ni jAc Aon niT),i ü-cocr, 1 iii-liniArAn, 
'11 mle ■ùeAJ-jníoiiiA|\rAili nA beArA a']- ah 

1)' miAn leAC AicncA-o ■ÚAtii 1 -o-CAoib ah 

jnó yo. 
mAcUAj. — mionnuig An iiici)r> ]-in 'not]' 

A511]' ninco)-At) T)inr. 
HIacLiaj 'Óg. — An iiieiit) a tiiibAiir 

TAbiiAnii 1110 n'uonnA Ai)i. 
niAcLiAj;. — biúeAÚ poy AjAr, a liiir, juji 

nAiiiAro yóf. 
Ill AoilfeAclAinn ]\i^ ■oo'n áii\ti-]\ij a'i- ■o'á 

Ill bciTJ ADii cAt: An--oni iiiAji jcaIL juji 

ríii-cPAcTAinc nA hJaU. bei-ù cAinr iiió)i 

"b'ýéiTiin 50 m-bei-ó cAinc boAj, ]\ún- 

ce^lgAC Vü|- 
6i-oii\ TllAoilfeAclAinii a']- ah reACCAi)ie. — 

HA b-AbAl)! yoCAl Al]! Al)l bic. — 

111acIia5 Ó5.— gAn UbAinr! 
niActiAj.— AbAii\ 'noi]' nAC lAibeopAiii. 
niAcliAj Ó5.— Hi lAibeo)iA-o. 
IIIacLiaj. — -Oob' olcAn nit) An fjeuL fin 
beir A15 lHuncAt), 

b'é All ]\\ìv ceutinA, bei-óeAti ye '5 ciiei-oeAiii é, 
tlo'g cii]! iiii-c]ieiT)iiii Ai|\. "OÁ 5-c|iei-o):eATÌ) 


)y 5eÁ]i]i 50 ni-beniiCA-ô An cojA-n 'nieAj-j Áp 

"OÁ ]-AoileA-ó ]'e ji)]! b]ieii5 ah I'jeul é ]-o, 
"Oo TTéAn].-At) ]-e jac uiLe nib 'nA AJAib, 
cXjU]- üAifbeÁnyAb ]-é jac caoi i]- féi-oin 
5u)i •OAinjeAn yóy a liniimj^in ai]i IiIaoiI- 

*0' inn^eAf ah fjeiil fo'ii Áii\n|\ij yéiil. 

Ill cmsini 
Cati é A p'on-iiieA]' Ai]\ . . . T)úV)Ai]ir ye 

nAC ireniii]! 
1llAoilfeAclAinn beir 'nA yeAllroin jjAti 

Aon irio]" 
beic Aige-j'An, An c-di)TO|M5, Atji An b-yeAll . 

111Á rÁ yìoy Aije, ni inneofAib -ouinn 

b'^-éit)ii\ nAC 5-c]ieit)eAnn ye ai)! bir An nib 
■«Ajuf n' éipn ■oúmn "tiA AiiiiTieoin, conjnAb. 
'SAn 5-CAr AiiiÁm Ü15 tiom ah congiiAb 

IIIacLiaj Ó5. — ni f 11151111 rii, A ArAi]!. 
HIacLiaj. — In]' An 5-CAC 
CAiri.-ib mAoilfeAclAinn beic le ctniiACC 

bi5 le li-AgAib 
peiUe . . . CAiupb a fUiAg beir Anunj 

lei]' vein. 
CAirpb JAC bjnj An caca beic 1 lÁiiiAib 
"Oo ci5eA)inA-'pA Ajuf nA n-uAoineAb eile. 
CAicpb cu cun Ai)i leic tllAoil]-eAclA)nii a]'. 
IIIacLiaj Ó5. — 111i)'e I A.\ ACA1)\, cia aii 


niActiAj. — Zye III 11)1 caw. 
HIacLiaj O5. — ^^■^']\ Aicm cii|-A bAiii 
Anoi)' jAn lAbAijic ? 

IllAcLlAg. 5An lAbA1]\C AlH All b-ycAll 

ty coi-AriiAib beibeA)" Ann. 
•c\cc lAbAi)i be ■DO cijcA^mA q\eininiA|\, ^iaI 
v\in liiónÁii iieiceAb eile. 5]iio]-pMti é 
i\i]i CAOl Ai)i bic An I'liiAJ eile cu)! 
Ó|- CÓ1Ì1AIH nA n^All, Ajti]' Ain leic . . 

LAbAI)! A1]l clli, CAC, bllAlb Icif. 

IllAcLiAj Ó5. — lAibeopA-o. 



No. IV. 

Brian Boroimhe, his Bard, and 
THEIR Sons. 

[Present — Brian, JlíacLiû^-.] 

By Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. 

Brian. — Speak thou not so. Say not 'tis 

That Malachy may be against our power 
In the approaching battle. Never )-et 
Was Malachy the stranger-focman's friend, 
But ever fighting in the cause of Erin, 
He shone her foremost champion 'gainst 

the Dane. 
It were more plausible a hundred times 
To say of me I loved the foreigners. 
But this man, Malachy, hath never once 
Allied himself with Danes in any war, 
Save when that race did. fight against itself, 
And then 'twas only once;* — That Malachy, 
Who in his latest warfare lost his son. 
Brave Flann of Albany, who fought like 

All valour 'gainst the Dane ; — that this 

same man 
Should be but rotten treachery to-day, 
This last, grand, glorious time before the 

Oh, this were to be more than traitorous ! 
This were the greatest and most poisonous, 
Most sudden and most marvellous of 

treasons ! 
Polluting in one moment life-won glor}-. 
Destroying all his noblest handiwork, 
And passing light-foot over clansmen's 

And the fresh, bitterest slaughter of his son ! 
To do all this, yet hide all from my eyes, — 
MacLiag, this were more than human 

And calleth accusation to account. 

* See on this whole subject the paper of Dr. Todd, 
aheady refened to, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy, vol. vii. 

Say what 

Now say what stands as cause. 

has happened 
To set this edge upon thy polished tongue. 
Thou Bard of Bards — Accuser 1 

Stay, I'll tell it ; 
For thou hast told me, and I know full well 
What is the cause. It oìíglu to be, of course. 
That Malachy is like no other human 

Full of black plots, cold-blooded in deceit, 
Beyond all spirits of this world till him. 
But lo ! thy reason is all this reversed ! — 
It is because he never did conceal 
That thou dost bid me fear and tremble 

And be suspectful that he doth conceal. 
Thou sayest, when he sat within the halls 
Of generous O'Kelly, in thy presence. 
And that of many others (as are wont 
To crowd to hear the sweetness of thy 

Thou sawest clearly he was not my friend ; 
Thou savest this was all so manifest 
That thou art certain of it. Why, this 

That Malachy is powerless to hide 
A little from thee, even in the hours 
When thine own occupation holds thee 

Inflamed with all the poet's melody. 
And after such experience, dost thou deem 
That Malachy can play deceiver here, 
And hide his mind from me each day — each 
I The while my eyes keep watch on him in 
j vain, 

I And he prepareth a colossal treason ? 
! Dismiss the thought ; and never, never say 
I That it hath truth or reason on its side. 
Soft, soft, that voice is sure thy son's, 
îiIacLiag ; 
! That other is my son's ; behold them come ! 

[Enter Murrogh and young MacLiag.] 

I Murrogh. — Aly royal father ! 

Young MacLiag. — Sovereign King of 
Erin ! 

Brian.^Kiy, young Mac Liag, yonder 
turn thy eyes. 
There thy own father, as thou see'st, stands. 



It is not merely in the bloom of youth, 
'Midst those who are like thee and my own 

That friendship can be found. While you 

and he 
Were hastening your steps together hither, 
Thy father talked with me of byegone days, 
And the firm love he bears me since his 

boyhood ! 
From years I had no fortress and no home ; 
No couch beneath me in the desert's huts, 
Lying upon the damp, hard, knotty roots 
In my own principality of Thomond. 
'Tis true we now fare better. Yet, ere long 
We both must lie beneath the cold, dank 

And sleep within the narrow bed for ever. 
Then, then, shall ye — this is my treasured 

hope — 
For years, and many years, be still in life ; 
Then shall ye talk, as we have done to-day, 
Of long life-friendship that hath known no 

change ; 
But you shall find, I trust, no day of hard- 
In all the long recital like to ours. 

Young MacLiag. — I share, indeed, high 

King, the self-same hope 
That this, thy son, my master, will be great 
In glor}', as in every time thou wast. 
And great in fortune as thou art to-day. 
But even now I know that in great courage. 
In lofty mind, and the ripe generous spirit 
Which seems a prince, thy royal heir, my 

Already equals thee, our Erin's sovereign ! 

Brian. — Speak now with thy own father 

very dear 
Unto a father is a son's discourse ; 
And I will hie me with my Murrogh forth ; 
'Tis meet we pass together through the 

But, Murrogh, ere we go, hail thy friend 

This chieftain, the First Ollav of the land 
Murrogli. — My father, this is new and 

passing strange ! 
In sooth, I marvel mightily to hear 
You bid me make some usage of my tongue ; 
It is your wont to check that hapless 


From all discussion, high discourse, plain 

Dearer to you, by far, my hand than voice ; 
You see me liefer 'mid your foes than 

Oh, my good father, you were ever right. 
And are so still. 'Tis true, my tongue is 

keen ; 
But you are surely right in judging now. 
Now that 'tis mine to speak unto MacLiag, 
That not a sound shall issue from my lips 
But words of gratitude and true affection. 
Many a deed, MacLiag, hast thou done 
With hand, and voice, and thought through- 
out thy life, 
Bard, teacher, counsellor, and warrior ! I 

Hold in my mind one half of thy achieve- 
Crowned with men's welfare and their 

For me it is enough to think of one. 
In that thou gavest unto me thy son. 
This noble youth that standeth by my side ; 
I feel I am thy debtor now indeed, 
And that the debt can never be repaid. 

Brian. — Thou future king, I deem thy 

tongue will be 
Royal, as are alike thy heart and hand ; 
And better pleased am I that tongue should 

Than either hand or heart. Come with me 

We'll make our way together through the 

camp ; 
I must cause proclamation to be made 
That there shall be a council of the kings 
Immediately to hear in solemn audience 
The new-come envoy of the Danish foe. 
'Tis well we should go forth, and on their 

Meet the approaching princes. Wait, 

To hail the throng that crowds to this wide 

I will despatch now unto thee Errardus, 
And all the other bards that fill our host. 
Ye shall make music sweet, and raise a 

lofty song. 
Worthy of the occasion and this land. 

{Exeunt Brian and Murrogh!\ 



MacLiag. — That is a king indeed ! A 

king by nature, 
Born to appear a ruler amidst men 
Throughout his life. Nay, even I, myself, — 
Easy as 'tis for me with other men 
To offer opposition, — often lose 
My liberty when I encounter Brian. 
My son, if any man in all the world 
Of those that aim at rule, doth truly wish 
To learn what way is certainly the best, 
W'hat exercise most easy and effective. 
What fashion noblest and most sovereign. 
Let that man come unto this camp and fix 
The dint of eyes and ears, of mind and 

On Brian's bearing, manners, converse, high 

There's nothing little in him, nothing light ; 
No word escapes his lips but's rife with 

meaning ; 
His eyes, his gesture, and his rest all speak, 
All tell one story, 'tis the same for ever, 
That he is powerful, and knows the use 
To put his power to. He's mild and gentle 
When no cause showeth for the contrary ; 
But in his friendly quiet there is yet 
Deep thought, importance grave, and 

mighty will. 
He speaks exactly what he wills to say. 
And what he once hath said that standeth 

All opposition counteth he for nought. 
'Gainst hostile acts he wields the might of 

Erin ; 
'Gainst words he hath his noble oratory ; 
That oratory that is eloquent 
And powerful above all other men's. 
His high speech riseth like the tempest- 
Driveth and sweepeth wholly from its path 
All things that stand against ; the work is 

done ; 
The strong wind falleth to a gentle lull ; 
The lofty speech hath ended suddenly. . . . 
Right well hath it come home unto us all 
Who and how mighty is our high-king, 

Brian ; 
We feel that it is better far to bask 
In his fair sunshine than to tempt his wrath. 
Yet he that is indeed the monarch's friend 
Must tremble for his welfare, now and then. 
At times when Brian's self disdains to doubt. 

. . . Son, dost thou understand my 

speech ? Oh, no ! 
Why do I speak of things like these to thee ! 
'Tis all the same to thee to be a servant 
Or rule. Thou hast the same regard for one 
Like the great Brian, as for a petty prince- 
With his mean guard of followers. One 

Alone thou aimest at, to serve one man. 
This Murrogh, who has yet to be a king. 
W' hy not prefer the freedom and the power 
Of bards whose words put fear in chieftain's 

hearts ? 
At least, if bent on serving somebody, 
Couldst thou choose none but Murrogh for 
a master ? 

Young MacLiag. — I chose him not. 
'Twas he selected me. 
Wont to be generous as he is brave. 

MacLiag. — Nay, I deny not that he hath 

a courage ; 
I say not that he is not generous ; 
I say he is not fit to be a king, 
With that sharp mocking speech that 

marketh him. 
Say, dost thou not remember and know 

What ancient Livy sayeth of King Philip ? 
Not him who was the father of Alexander, 
That laid the empire of the Persians low ; 
I mean that other Philip, who made war great Rome without success or 

Of that poor Philip saith the great historian, 
" Erat dicacior natura ;" and 
He adds the solemn words, " quam decet 

Thou understandest not : — I will explain-^ 

Young MacLiag. — Explain me nothing, 
father, I beseech j'ou. 
That stands against my reverence to my 

MacLiag. — Thou never lovedst learning, 
son ; and now 

Knowledge thou wilt not have, but rever- 
ence ! 

I will speak very plainly thy own tongue, 



Thy common language, to thee. Fine 

things, truly, 
Have we seen done by the sharp, funny 

Of this same lord of thine, the heir of Brian ! 
Was it not he who, with his poisoned joke,* 
Kindled the spark whence rose the fires of 

Wherewith this island standcth now in 

flames ? 
Had he not mocked his lather's guest, the 

Of Leinster, at Kincora, playing chess. 
This vast war that we see had ne'er burst 

Now must the Irish and the Danes all pay 
The price of thy good master's precious wit. 
Out on him ! No such man deserves to be 
E'er king in Erin, or a lord for thee. 

Yûitttg RIacLiag. — Nay, my good father, 

if 'tis true my master 
Was the first cause of this most mighty war 
Through some few words he said, 'tis also 

That well he answers for his words with 

There is no doubt but we must win the fight. 
There is no doubt that great must be the 

Won, 'midst the shock of armies, by my 

'Tis not for me to treat with thee of 

And ruling power. All that is past my ken. 
You gave me sorry understanding, father ; 
Never in bardic studies could I follow 
Your counsels or magnificent e.xample. 
I was contemptible to all my fellows 
Who gathered round your lessons in your 

I pleased no man in all the land save one, 
Him who is now my chief, the kingly 

To him I was acceptable, without 
Learning or wisdom, for my heart and 

And I have found such favour in his eyes 

* .See Todd's edition oVThe War of Ihe Gaedhil -aiiih 
the G<ull" Introduction, clxiii, and Text and Notes, pp. 
144, 145. In Note 3 the editor says, in reference tu the 
words of Morrogh, " Keating softens this insulting 
speech. . . ." 

That ye shall find no other noble youth 
Attendant, but doth fear his angry mood, 
Save only me. You say his tongue is sharp : 
Its keenness hath no point to wound thy 

With me the heir to ro)-alty is gentle. 
All friendship, satisfaction, gratitude. 
All things that he can do in my behalf 
I ever see without delay accomplished. 
Without him I were but a needy lordling : 
To-day men show me reverence ; I am rich, 
And as for power, so long as he shall hold it, 
It seemeth to be dwelling in these hands. 
Oh, he is right indeed to deem that I 
Am all devoted to him, far beyond 
All else earth offers ; his, for life and death. 

MacLiag. — Thou surely would'st defend 
him from all harm. 

Young AlacLiag. — That were indeed my 

wish and my endeavour. 
What I must choose and joy in and most 

Were to defend him with my blood from 


MacLiag. — Were I aware of some exist- 
ing danger, 

And that great peril threatened him even 
now .... 

Young MacLiag. — Oh, father, father, it 

you have such knowledge. 
Share it with me at once ! Conceal it not ! 
Oh, were it given to me to requite 
IVIy master's generosity, in any fashion — 
Blessed this day and hour ! Speak, father, 

tell me ! 

MacLiag. — " Share it with me ! Conceal 
it not ! Speak ! Tell me ! " 

This is said easil}-, and easy too 

It is to tell. But will that profit aught ? 

There lies the question. Hast thou any 
sense ? 

My son, thou art no man of understanding. 

Young MacLiag. — Nay, my good father, 
now be merciful. 
'Tis true I am not wont to shine ; but now, 
Behold me changed into another man, 
So soon my cherished master is in peril. 
So e'en the creatures that are lowliest 



In knowledge, understanding, and in fore- 

Have yet an instinct that becomes their 

When aught is needful for the thing they 

Look at the bird that flutters in the sky ! 

Where is less memory and examination ? 

What showeth industry and patience less ? 

But when the time hath come to build a 

The bird shall spend the livelong days in 

Fair and artistic, for the coming brood. 

Doubt me not, father. Wisdom shall be 

When needed for my master in his danger. 

MacLiag. — Fair are these words ; and 

partly they are true : 
I know that birds are led by nature's instinct. 
But nature gives no instinct to mankind. 
Wen, without prudence, cannot make their 


Young MacLiag. — " Instinct hath not 

been given to mankind." 
Why, true, my father, but it is not true 
That men have nought save their own sense 

to guide them ; 
They still have union, and ha\e still 

If I have no great wisdom, yet I know 
That in the hour of danger I have need 
To be obedient to the wiser man. 
Obedience is the instinct of mankind. 
Especially for him that knowcth well 
That he is slight and poor in sense like me. 
Instead of eagle's talons and strong beak. 
The bull's sharp horn, the serpent's venomed 

The teeth that line the fierce jaws of the 

Man hath his naked and his dexterous hand : 
And in the stead of instinct wild and true 
Hath he obedience to superior mind : 
And that is mine, that instinct of mankind. 
Not the obedience of the slave, the weak. 
Ready to yield in everything to all. 
But a free, vigorous and brave obedience 
Of my own choice, when to obey is well, 
That grand obedience, father, is thy son's ; 
Because of it I cling to my good master. 

And stand before you ready to obey. 
Yours is the penetrating mind which nature 
Gave not to me. Yours is the^ knowledge, 

Speak, father, clearly : set before me now 
The danger, and explain what it is needful, 
What it is best to do in my dear lord's 

Courage and sense belong to you. And I 
Will be obedient to you in each point, 
In silence, words, and every noble deed 
Of life and death you order for this purpose. 

MacLiag. — Set now th)- oath to all, and 
I will speak. 

Young MacLiag. — All I have said, by 
oath I do confirm. 

ALacLiag. — Know then, my son, that 
Malachy of Meath 
Is still a foe to Brian and his race. 
To-day will be no battle. There has come 
An envoy from the Danes. High talk 

there will be, 
Perhaps a little underhand talk too. 
Betwixt the envoy and King Malachy. 
Thou must not breathe a word. 

Young ^LacLiag. — Not breathe a word ! 
ÂLacLiag. — Say that you will not tell. 
You ng MacLiag. — I will not tell. 
MacLiag. — 'Twere ill if what I say 
reached Murrogh's ears. 
'Twere all the same whether he lent it 

Or disbelieved it all. If he believed it, 
We soon should see war raging in our camp. 
But if he thought the tale were false, why 

His every act would be to ruin all. 
And he would prove, each way that's pos- 
That he hath trust unmoved in Malachy. 
I told my tale to the high-king himself. 
I know not what he thinks in very deed. 
He said that Malachy could be no traitor 
Without his, Brian's, knowing of the trea- 
son .... 
But doth he know of it ? He will not tell. 
'Tis possible he disbelieves it all. 
And we must save him in despite himself. 
In battle only can I give him help. 



Young MacLiag. — Father, I understand 
you not. 

MacLiag.— lx\ battle 
Must Malachy have Httle opportunity 
To work his treason. He and his be posted 
Apart, and all the weight of battle be 
Intrusted to your master and the rest. 
Thou must set Malachy apart in battle. 

Young AiacLiag.~\Vha.\., I ? How were 
it possible? 

MacLiag. — Through Murrogh. 

Young j\LacLiag. — You bade me even 
now be silent, father. 

MacLiag. — Be silent on the subject of the 

But speak with thy brave, generous master 

On many other things. Rouse up, excite 

Somehow or other, that all other forces 
Shall form the battle front, with Malachy's 

Ply him with glory, battle, victory. 

Young MacLiag. — I will. 

By Rev. John James O'Carroll, S.J. 


We proceed now to make a few general 
observations on the plan and manner, the 
form and execution, of our old Celtic lite- 
rary compositions. 

We may commence by a short reference 
to views upon this subject already before 
our readers. Spenser was surely right in 
saying that Irish poems savoured of sweet 
wit and good invention, and that the flowers 
of their natural device gave them good grace 
and comeliness. No one can be justified in 
calling such poems wild and rugged, or in 
crushing them with faint praise, by inform- 
ing us that they seemed to a judging eye to 
contain some portion of the pure gold of 
poetry. Indeed, no one can speak in this 

style without appearing himself quite un- 
acquainted with the subject. 

It is otherwise, we admit, with the charges 
of Macpherson. When that remarkable 
man tells us, as he does in his Dissertation, 
that in the Irish Ossianic Poems " Giants, 
enchanted castles, dwarfs, palfreys, witches, 
and magicians form the whole circle of the 
poet's invention," he seems, indeed, to have 
been acquainted with his subject, and to 
have made of his knowledge a poor and an 
unfriendly use. We have, indeed, in the 
piece we have just been considering, giant 
and enchanted castle and a very wonderful 
palfrey ; but, after all, fairyland, or the 
Land of the Young, is not exactly described 
by " dwarfs . . . witches and magicians :" 
and the " circle of the poet's invention " 
embraces the tender parting of Oisin from 
his hero-father to accompany his fairy bride, 
and that wonderfully-described return, on 
which we have been dwelling with very dif- 
ferent feelings from James Macpherson. It 
is possible, however, that the critic may have 
had only very imperfect and corrupted 
specimens of our Irish poetry before him. 

Before proceeding to generalize here 
ourselves on the subject of the old Irish 
compositions, it is necessary, in reference 
to the account just given of Tirnanog, to 
make a plain confession. In describing 
the catastrophe of Oisin we have, in exactly 
one line, abandoned the literal translation 
of the original, and adopted neither more 
nor less than the precise emendation of 
Dr. Joyce. In the original the "number" 
is carefully set down of the men whom 
Oisin found succumbing to the weight of 
the great stone — a stone which is described 
as a flag, and must be conceived of as like 
one of the stones of Stonehenge. That 
number is boldly given as three hundred 
and upwards, and we must acknowledge 
that we feel here the Incredulus odi of 
Horace. Not only are we told that the help 
of Oisin was enough to fling to a distance 
the great mass which hundreds without 
him could not steady, but we find him 
boasting that his son Oscar, without any 
aid whatever, would have hurled the colossal 
flat rock over the whole host. The imagina- 
tion would readily accept such feats if told 



of genii. It must, we think, rebel against 
them when narrated of men like Oisin and 
like Oscar. 

We know that a great deal may be urged 
against us on this point. In the first place, 
it is maintained by some that Fionn and 
the Fianna were all not only of great 
stature, but something more, monstrous 
giants. M'Gee, in his really splendid verses 
on them, calls them a race " taller than 
Roman spears." But that a Fenian chief- 
tain's strength should be held to be many 
times that of hundreds of men, on the 
ground of being in harmony with his great 
stature, supposes that he was not simply 
taller than Roman spears placed side by 
side, but taller than very many Roman 
spears placed on top of one another ; sup- 
poses, in fact, that he was not a man- 
monster, but a man-mountain, a view which 
Macpherson saj-s was taken of Fionn in 
some Irish piece, but which is not in ac- 
cordance with anytliing we have before us. 
The Fianna seem to us to be simply like 
Homer's warriors, head and shoulders over 
ordinary mortals. The people who won- 
dered at Oisin's gigantic size, and answered 
his inquiries, would have fled in different 
directions at his approach if his stature had 
corresponded to his strength. One man 
may, possibh-, have the strength of about 
three others like himself, scarcely that of 
four ; in order to have in proportion to his 
size the strength of several hundreds of ordi- 
nary men, his stature should be scores upon 
scores of times greater than theirs, and the 
unexpected arrival of a rider of such dimen- 
sions would certainly have scattered any 
crowd of simple people, like those who con- 
verse so quietly with Oisin. 

Oisin's gigantic stature, such as we can 
conceive it, cannot possibly explain his 
strength. But may it not be supposed that 
the Fianna were so many Samsons with 
strength wholly out of proportion to their 
size ? To the idea in itself there is no ob- 
jection, provided the strength be super- 
natural, like Samson's. But if the strength 
be merely a development of nature through 
skill and practice, the imagination must 
shrink from recognising such astonishing 
results. There is here real contradiction. 

The imagination conceives skill and prac- 
tice, and has an idea, within certain limits, 
of what they can effect. Those bounds 
have to be wholly annihilated to admit of 
any perfectly Samson-like development of 
strength, through any training of mere 
nature. Yet it seems to us clear that it is 
Samson-like development through train- 
ing "widX the Irish story-tellers suppose in 
many important places. Sometimes, no 
doubt, we have the supernatural. Mr. 
Standish O'Grady, the historian, has appro- 
priate remarks on such a case. Rewrites : 
" For instance, in one of the many histories 
of Cuculain's many battles, we read this : 
'It was said that Lu Mac Aethleen was 
assisting him.' This, at first, seems mean- 
ingless, the bard seeing no necessity for 
throwing further light on the subject ; but, 
as we wander through the bardic literature, 
gradually the conception of this Lu grows 
upon the mind — the destroyer of the sons 
of Turann, the implacably filial, the ex- 
pulsor of the P"omoroh, the source of all 
the sciences, the god of the Tuatha de 
Danan, the protector and guardian of Cu- 
culain." With preternatural aid we can 
well conceive of a hero's destroying a host. 
But the Irish story-teller seems to us 
sometimes to require more. Even in their 
own generation there is this unnatural 
Samson-like development, supposed to 
arise from natural causes, amidst the 
Fianna themselves. Diarmuid, we are told, 
when attacked by Fionn's foreign allies, 
" drew near to the host of the green Fenians, 
and began to slaughter and discomfort them 
heroically and with swift valour .... so 
that there went not from that spot a man to 
tell tidings .... but the green chiefs and 
a small number of their people that fled to 
their ship." And as for his sons, after his 
death, we read that, " after having spent 
seven years in learning all that beseems a 
warrior .... they proclaimed battle against 
Fionn . . . . ' an hundred men against each 
man of us, or single combat ' [said they]. 
Fionn sent an hundred to fight with them, 
and when they had reached the place of 
that strife, those youths rushed under them, 
through them, and over them, and made 
three heaps of them." Dr. Joyce rejects, as 



we know, this conclusion of the tale of 
Graine ; but it here seems to tally with what 
we meet elsewhere. The supposition of 
incredible trained skill and strength, we 
fear, must be admitted as a blemish in our 
tales. A change of numerals would efface 
it, but our fathers do not seem to have made 
that change. 

They were not, however, wholly singular 
in their indifference. No more did the col- 
lectors of Homeric lays, in the days of 
Pisistratus, think of modifying the already 
noticed old-fashioned traditional account of 
the father of Uiomede in the fourth book of 
the Iliad, where fifty warriors waylay the 
hero, and the hero, with imperturbable 
kudos, slaughters forty-nine of them, and, 
with surprising clemency, sends the fiftieth 
away. But it is time for us now to turn 
from dwelling on a characteristic blemish of 
detail to the careful and close consideration 
of the main features of ancient Irish com- 
positions, as they appear when each work 
is dealt with as a whole. 

The reader may possibly have noticed 
that the character, the manner of composi- 
tion, which we long ago described in the 
Irisli Ecclesiastical Record as the result of 
our observation of the prose story of Diar- 
muid and Grainne, appears clearly in the 
poetic piece which we have just been study- 
ing. As, however, what we then remarked 
cannot be presumed to be present to his 
memory, we venture to repeat it here. We 
described what we had before us as, in the 
first place, a romantic story, containing 
lengthy passages of stirring eloquence and 
deep pathos. In Tirnanog we have, un- 
questionably, all this : no doubt, however, 
that what we hold here to be a lengthy pas- 
sage may well be shorter than what we re- 
ferred to as such in the tale of Grainne, just 
as the whole poem is less long than the 
prose romance. In the next place, the 
romantic story was " abounding in varied 
invention ;" just what our poem ol the 
strange invitation, the tender parting, the 
adventurous journey, and the late return, 
with its bitter disappointments and sad 
catastrophe, most manifestly is. The prose 
story was strongly imaginative, according to 
the superstitions of the Irish Druid magic 

world, and yet delicate and consistent in its 
delineation of human characters. Our poem 
is the poem of our fairy world, with the 
whole development of the character of 
Oisin, given where he who runs may read 
how the adventurous youth subsides into the 
querulous old man, an unfortunate and dis- 
contented Nestor, who, even in the days of 
his fairy prosperity, longed to revisit the 
well-known, dearly-loved hunting-grounds 
of Eire, the fair land whose touch became 
his ruin, but on whose ancient vanished 
glories his thoughts are fixed, even in his 
misery, with pride for ever. We have here, 
too, the austere and yet considerate and 
zealous-hearted Patrick, and a new and 
better Grainne, the golden-headed Niamh, 
who wooes without treachery orthreats; who 
has no caprices ; who, despite her own 
superiority, gives her husband everything, 
and submits with a good grace, notwith- 
standing her fears, to his perilous and fatal 

We now come to the most important 
characteristic, in our eyes, of Celtic com- 
position. It is nothing less than what Mr. 
Charles Reade has called " the great prin- 
ciple of art climax." We noticed that the 
story of Grainne was remarkable for increas- 
ing interest as it proceeded, and for grand 
and astonishing crowning strokes towards 
the end. We have seen how the interest 
in Tirnanog heightens with Oisin's return, 
is artistically kept up, and reaches an amaz- 
ing and really magnificent conclusion. 
Finalh", in the fourth place— and we have a 
reason for keeping this point last — we notice 
as a characteristic of Celtic literary treat- 
ment a keen and somewhat satirical view of 
life. We stated that Grainne's story was 
all clearly the development of one settled 
plan, simple in itself, yet bearing unmistak- 
ably the marks of a true satirist's insight 
into the world. The plan ol Tirnanog is 
one of the most connected and consistent in 
literature ; its development may almost be 
called a kind of growth, but there is the 
most delicate satire in the answers Oisin 
first receives on his return, and there is deep 
insight shown in the juxtaposition of the 
Christian apostle and the miraculously-pre- 
served pagan, who belongs completely to 



the old time. Surely, it is impossible for 
us not to recognise already adistinct, clearly- 
marked, old Irish manner of composition. 

As in prose stories, we found a re- 
semblance in composition to the tale of 
Diarmuid and Grainne, so do poems appear 
written after the model of Tirnanog as to 
the main characteristics which we have been 
describing. The reader will have no diffi- 
culty now in believing this, as he has seen 
that this great similarity in characteristic 
manner exists between even the Irish prose 
tale and the poem. We believe we may 
venture henceforward to mention this simi- 
larity as existing in other cases without 
entering into details on the subject. On 
the other hand, besides common good quali- 
ties, we have already noticed a difference 
betu'cen the style of Irish prose and poetry, 
and one want that is common to both — the 
absence of judicious moralising. We have 
explained to the reader the style of Irish 
Ossianic poetry, and defended the style of 
Irish prose. In the tales we have been con- 
sidering we have found it not open to the 
charges too generally brought against it, 
and judiciously distinguished from the 
bolder and more elevated language of Irish 
verse. We trust we shall now be able to 
deal more briefly with what remains. 


A Concise Irish Grammar, with pieces or reading, by 
Ernst Windisch, Professor of .S.inscrit in the Uni- 
versity of Leipzig, translated fiom the German by 
Norman Moore, M.D., .St. Catharine's College, 
Cambridge, Fellow of the Royal College of Pby>icians. 
Edited for tlie Syndics of the University Press, 
Cambridge, 1SS2. 

Compendium of Irish Grammar, by Ernst Windisch, 
Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Leipzig, 
translated from the German by the Rev. James P. 
M'Swiney, of the Society of Jesus. Dublin : M. H. 
Gill and Son, 1S83. 

In the extreme north-east of Switzerland, 
adjoining the Tyrol and the Lake of 
Constance, is the Canton of St. Gallen, 
(about as large as the Co. Wicklow), with its 
wild mountain scenery ; its extensive 
orchards and vineyards ; its sweet, short 

mountain pasture, and fine breed of dairy 
cattle ; and its historical associations and 
grand remains of antiquity. Among these 
latter are those existing in the thriving 
capital, called also Saint Gallen, situated 
2,081 feet above the level of the sea, 
especially the magnificent Benedictine 
monastery (now a set of government offices), 
which was founded by the Irish Saint Gall 
in the early part of the seventh century, and 
was colonized for ages afterwards by Irish 
monks. From its inissionary, patron, and 
civilizer, St. Gall, the canton and its capital 
both derived their name. The monastery 
was for centuries a school of literature and 
the fine arts, and in particular of ecclesias- 
tical music, and the contributions of its 
Irish copyists to its library of incomparable 
manuscripts saved many a literary treasure 
from extinction. Among these manuscripts 
are some written as long ago as the seventh 
and eighth centuries, partly in a very 
ancient form of the Irish language. The 
indefatigable German scholar, Zeuss, 
obtained access to these and studied them, 
and other similar manuscripts elsewhere, to 
such good purpose as from them to deduce 
the rules which determined the grammatical 
forms of the Irish language of that period. 
The other manuscripts that he made use of 
for this purpose were obtained respectively 
in the library of the University of Wurtz- 
burg in Bavaria, in the Ambrosian library 
at Milan, at Carlsruhe in Baden, and in the 
public library at Berne. These constitute 
a few of the many manuscript treasures left 
behind them by the Irish missionaries who 
swarmed into Gaul, the Low Countries, 
Germany, Switzerland, and Northern Italy, 
from the sixth to the tenth century. Zeuss 
published his " Grammatica Celtica " at 
Leipzig in 1853, and this work constituted 
the first general grammar of the Celtic 
languages based on the study of the most 
ancient attainable Irish and Welsh texts, 
and treated in the modern philological 
mi'thod, as Grimm had previously treated 
the Teutonic tongues, and Bopp the 
languages of the Indo-European family. 
Before the time of Zeuss, Dr. John 
O'Donovan, in 1845, had published his 
valuable Irish Grammar, which has since 



become the standard work on the subject, 
as far as it went, but he had not had access 
to such ancient manuscripts as those men- 
tioned by Zeuss. The latter's two large 
and erudite volumes, when published, might 
well have given him a right to exclaim, 
" Exegi monumentum aere perennius ;" but 
the labour involved in their production 
shortened his life, and he died a martyr to 
the cultivation of the Celtic language. 
Irishmen and Welshmen owe him a debt of 
eternal gratitude ; and we consider it the 
duty of the Gaelic Journal to remind 
them of his life's devotion to the cause of 
their venerable mother tongue. Subsequent 
labourers in the same field are, among 
others, the Cavaliere Nigra, Signer Ascoli, 
Herren Schleicher, Windisch, Ebel, and 
Zimmer,amongContinentals. Ebel brought 
out a second edition of Zeuss's "Gram- 
matica" in 1871, the first being then out of 
print. But both were too bulky, and entered 
too much into detail for use by the ordinary 
student. Accordingly, about three years 
later, Windisch published an epitome of 
Irish Grammar, incorporating in it the 
results of the researches made up to his 
time.but following generally in the footsteps 
of Zeuss. As the work of the latter was in 
Latin, so that of Windisch was written in 
German. Its title was " Kurzgefasste 
Irische Grammatik." This work remained 
for some years untranslated, and accessible 
to those only who possessed a knowledge 
of German ; a fact which speaks loudly the 
apathy of the Irish as regards their ancient 
tongue, and throws into stronger light 
German diligence in its cultivation. But at 
length, two Irishmen, both accomplished 
philologists, and possessing a knowledge of 
German, undertook separately, and, as far 
as we are aware, unknown to each other, to 
translate Windisch's work. Dr. Moore's 
translation was brought out towards the 
end of last year, and the Rev. J. P. 
M'Swiney's in the beginning of this. 
These are the two works whose titles head 
our notice, and which we have placed in the 
order of their publication. But we are in- 
formed, on good authority, that Father 
M'Swiney's translation was ready to be put 
into the printer's hands more than a year 

ago. Why its issue was so long delayed it 
is not our province to determine. 

Both works are well and clearly printed, 
but Father M'Swiney's is the larger book, 
and contains somewhat more matter. In 
the original, as in both translations, the 
vowels and consonants in Irish words are 
taken systematically and compared with 
their equivalents in the supposed primitive 
Indo-European speech; the primitive dis- 
appearance of P from the Celtic languages, 
and its subsequent re-appearance in a few 
words in Irish, being fully but concisely 
explained. But we fancy that German 
philologists carry their theories in this 
respect too far. As regards unaccented 
vowels in Irish, it is well known that in 
the ancient and middle forms of the 
language, there was an excessive want of 
uniformity in the orthography, and that the 
abbreviations in the manuscripts were ex- 
ceedingly numerous, and we therefore 
think, subject of course to correction, that 
to base rules on the caprice of scribes — many 
of them writing in a provincial dialect — rules 
which shall affect the words of the whole 
Aryan family of languages, must be both 
unpractical and visionary. The same may 
be said of some of the inflections given, 
such as the B and D preterite and T future. 
The true foundation for the study of 
ancient Irish is a thorough acquaintance 
with modern Irish, and in this respect, the 
German philologists were deficient. Their 
philological training is superior to ours, 
their painstaking, persevering industry is 
admirable, and they have access to the 
oldest known Irish manuscripts ; but they 
lack the practical and idiomatic knowledge 
of the language, and that intimate and 
instinctive acquaintance, with its genius and 
spirit, possessed by Irish-speaking natives, 
and of which nothing can supply the want, 
and they are thus liable to be misled by 
mere bad spelling, or by fanciful changes in 
ancient writings. We are also decidedly of 
opinion that Zeuss and Windisch did not 
give sufficient prominence to the aspiration 
of some consonants in old Irish. It is true 
that aspiration was not marked on these 
consonants ; but it does not follow that 
those for whom the manuscripts were 



written did not pronounce them as aspirated 
in certain situations. Scribes in the middle 
ages had various expedients for saving 
themselves trouble, and, among the rest, 
they might have considered it such a 
matter of course to change the sound of 
some consonants under certain circum- 
stances that it would be quite unnecessary 
to mark these changes. At the present 
day the aspirated sounds of I, 11, and ]i are 
frequently not marked in any way, and 
never in the beginning of words. The 
originating of eclipsis in a nasal sound at 
the end of a preceding word may be con- 
sidered as established, but the practical 
effect of this must have resulted in eclipsis 
at a very early period. In fact, all the 
peculiarities of modern Irish are traceable 
in the most ancient forms of the language, 
as well as attempts here and there of 
monastic scribes to adapt some of its 
terminations to corresponding Latin ones. 
Whether the forms given in interpretations 
of Ogham inscriptions are geniune, that is 
to say, whether the deciphering of these 
inscriptions is quite accurate, is outside of 
the scope of our present subject, though 
these inscriptions are referred to in one or 
two cases in the grammar. The classifica- 
tion of the declensions is the same as that 
in Ebel's Zeuss, but it is easy to perceive 
that, disguised under slight differences of 
orthography, and with the advantage of 
more forms for the cases, the ancient 
nouns were substantially declined in the 
same ways as the modern. Thus the 
author himself is obliged to confess that 
many words of the ;/ stem may be classified 
among the a stems, as äor/is or doras, 
a door, though he qualifies this ad- 
mission by the words " later on " " or later." 
This is one of the many instances of 
unaccented vowels to which we referred 
above. The presence of the neuter gender 
and of the dual number in old Irish had 
been fully established by Zeuss, and 
O'Donovan had noticed previously that of 
a simple comparative and superlative form 
of adjectives. The progress of phonetic 
decay has deprived us of these forms, as it 
has the Scottish Gaelic of a great many 
others, which we have preserved. The 

lessons for translation at the end of the 
work are well chosen a.»; specimens of old 
and middle Irish forms. No. I. consists of 
sentences from the Wurtzburg, Milan, 
Turin, St. Gall MSS., and from the 
Leabhar Breac, Liber Hymnorum and 
Leabhar na h-Uidhri. Verses from the 
Codex of St. Gall are given in No. II., and 
extracts from the Ectra Condla Caim in 
No. III. A portion of the Cath Cnucha from 
the Leabhar na h-L^idhri, and a fragment of 
the Irish Nennius, constitute respectively 
Nos. IV. and V. No. VI. from the Leabhar 
Breac is a series of verses headed Do Cheili 
De Clerech Reclesa, and then follows a 
vocabulary, which is a shie qiia non. 

In comparing the two translations, the 
Rev. Mr. M'Swiney's appears to be fuller 
and to have more swing and freedom. We 
find in it moreover a table of over twenty 
errata ; but there is no such table at the end 
of Dr. Moore's work, though we can hardly 
doubt but that some printers' errors have 
crept into it. Again Dr. Moore leaves 
many of the examples untranslated, as, for 
instance, at pp. 25, 26 and 27, while the 
Rev. Mr. M'Swiney takes care to give the 
translations in full. Thus too at p. 50, Dr. 
Moore translates inti diib bes tresa orcaid 
a/ai/e, "the strongest of them kills the other," 
while the closer translation, as given by 
Father M'Swiney is "which of you {iiiH 
diib) is stronger kills the other ;" the rule 
in question concerning itself with a com- 
parative used for a superlative, when the 
verb is preceded by a relative. It is 
evident that the latter rendering in this 
case is the only proper illustration of its 
rule. On ihe other hand, Dr. Moore's trans- 
lation throughout has the great merit of 
conciseness, and it is brought out by the 
publisher in a handier and more convenient 
form for the student, Father M'Swiney's 
being a considerably larger book. Of 
course the two translations must needs 
have much in common ; but not having 
Windisch's original work before us at the 
present moment, we cannot judge of the 
respective faithfulness of each to the original. 
However we consider that there is more 
labour and scholarship shown in the trans- 
lation of the Rev, Mr. M'Swiney. Dr. 

1 68 


Moore in his preface has given a very use- 
ful list of previous works published on 
Irish grammar, but has omitted to mention 
Canon U. Bourke's books on the subject. 
As first in the field Dr. Moore deserves the 
greatest credit for bringing within reach of 
the mass of Irish scholars an edition of the 
work of Windisch, enriched by several 
additions and corrections supplied by the 

In treating of the pronuncation of the 
letters, Dr. Moore's gives, among other 
similarities, that of the Irish gh to the 
German word inagen, which is not exact. 
At page 2 we think the author must mean 
iJL(5t^ixa!, to rule, rather than /itSonai, to prepare 
for, as the former would correspond to the 
Irish midiur. Dr. Moore seems, as for 
instance at section lo, to prefer the term 
Indo-Germanic to that of Indo-European, 
and we think without sufficient reason. To 
show how much fuller Mr. M'Swiney's 
translation is than Dr. Moore's, we need 
only refer to the 25th section. In the former 
seven paragraphs of explanatory matter 
are given not found in the latter translation. 
Sometimes the arrangement, as at p. 65, is 
clearer in Dr. Moore, where the prepositions 
are given in a tabular form, but on the 
whole, his rival can scarce!)' be excelled for 
clearness as well as fulness. We have re- 
marked a few mistakes of translation, as, 
torchair,hekilled,at section 252, and gonaim, 
I killed, at s. 261 in Moore. The latter word 
is rendered vulnero in Zeuss. It would take 
xjs too far however to enter into any further 
detail with respect to these two valuable 
works, which, tor the Irish student un- 
acquainted with German, will be of immense 
service in introducing him to a knowledge 
of the ancient forms of his language, and 
the connection of its study with the general 
philology of Indo-European tongues. We 
remark that Father M'Swiney, in the 
course of the work, has brought his great 
knowledge of Oriental languages to bear on 
the subject, and has enriched the translation 
with many valuable additions of his own. 
A course of elementary modern Irish, such 
as is afforded by the text books published 
within the last few years, followed by a 
study ofO'Donovan and Windisch, ought 

to make a good Irish scholar of any one 
having a vernacular acquaintance with the 
spoken language. 


Necessity for the use of the Irish Language 
in Irish-speaking districts. 

The following extract from Truth will 
show that the opinions of certain eminent 
educationists as to the folly of teaching 
Irish-speaking children English, or any 
other subject through any medium other 
than the language they use at home and in 
the fields, are attracting notice in quarters 
where they are likely to bear fruit. In the 
previous numbers of our Journal a good 
deal of space and attention has been given 
to this very important subject by Mr. 
Fleming and others. It was also discussed 
at the last Teachers' Congress, where an 
expression of opinion, which can scarcely 
be ignored, was elicited in favour of the use 
of the native tongue for native Irish-speak- 
ing children. Our future numbers will also 
contain extracts from Blue Books, Commis- 
sioners' and Inspectors' Reports, letters, 
&c., bearing on this matter. It seems to 
us, in view of the House of Commons' re- 
solution alluded to below, that this is just 
the time to strike in vigorously. 

Now that a resolution of the House of Commons has 
affirmed the necessity of compulsory education in Ireland, 
it is to be hoped tuat some attention will be given to 
tlie utterly absurd mode in which education is at present 
conducted in the Irish-speaking districts of that country. 
The plan is this. The Irish-speaking urchin is taught to 
read, not in Irish, which he understands, but in English, 
w^hich he does not. The consequence is that he takes a 
very long time to learn to read, and, of course, does not 
know in the slÌL;htest degree what lie has been reading 
about. Now in Wales they teach the little Welshman to 
read Welsh first, which takes about si.x months on an 
average, and then, when he can read his own language, 
they set about teaching him English, and the result is that 
far more English is learned in the Welsh schools where 
Welsh is taught, than in the Irish schools where Irish is 
not. To the ordinary mind it seems pretty obvious that 
ihe best medium fur teaching a boy anything is his own 
language. I can imagine tliat our little Hodge would 
take some time to become a ripe scholar if his reading- 
lessons w'ere in French. Just conceive the tlifficulty of 
remembering how to spell and pronounce " plough," ;ind 
"though," and "cough" respectively, when you don't 
know what any of them mean. 

DoLLARD, Printer, Damestrebt, Du 

imslecvbAn iu\ gAe-oilje. 



No. 6.— Vol. I.] 


[Price Sixpence. 

1l».\D».\"Ó: C»Mcpú]-iiiiit)éokticvD Á]i leicj-géiL 
Tjo léijceoi]\ib c\ii 1)>i]'leAb<xi]\ ]'o, <\i]i ]-on 
iieiceŵ-ó éigin -co cinneA-ò Ann, 1 ■o-chácüa 
no -oó, in A jiAib bA]u\iiilA Ajiif ]'CÁ)ica m\\ 

n-A J^-CU]l AtllAC, nOC do ClUM-ÒrA]! ah At)bA|\ 

v\\\\ cuipeA-ó Ai]\ bun Á]i n-ljui'teAbAn. II1 
HAib mcmn AgAinn no A15 Aon újt)A]i ni]- 
An 1ni]-leAbA]i, ciii]' oilbénne 00 CAbAincoo 
■óunie Ai]\ bic : ni f AOileAnn pnn ■^u]\ ymu<sin 
AomneAC ju]! Ab é Á|\ n-ninnn niu t)e'n 
cmenb i^o a beAnA-o ; ni 'oóit; Imn 5ii]\]-aoiI, 
Aon -oiinie 50\]:niii]- A]'ceAC 50 
coibceAnAc nib ai]\ bin tio CAbA^iirAb piAn •00 
JaII no ■oo 5*^'óeAL. -dec, ai)! An win 
ceii-oiiA, 1)- léii\ linn, ia]1 n-AicleijeAb 
I'cuibmn cmnre noc 100 ciii]ieAniA|\ aiiiac, 50 
liAib 1 5-C111Ü ACA neice a bAineA]' le 
Cuei-oeAiii no le CnÁibceAcc, Ajnp ]'cáhca 
Ai|i 5nioiiiA]icAib ci)\-jnócACA An aiha cuAib 
rA]i]\Ainn, no ai)\ neicib a bAincA]' lelliAJAil 
iiA Uipe HI]- An A111 ]-iii, Ajii]' b'ỳéi'oi]! i:ó]' 
in)- An Am a cá lÁicneAC : aju]- 50 b-|.-iiil 
il-ioiiiAT) -oe bA^iAiiilAib Aip nA ceifceAnnAib 
I'D A1J5 üeAg-bAoinib tie jac iiniinci)i yÁ leic 
111 6i)\inn pern, a^u]- aij yioji-cAiiTOib nA 
b-oibue A CÁ AjAinn 1 lÁnii. 

lliiiie i"in, i-ipimio ccat) le ]\Áb, 50 
iii-beib |rAi]\e Ajiif cú]iAiii níoffeÁn]i AjAinn, 
lonno)' nAc ni-beib Aon cúi]- le ]u\b 50 
n-tjeACAiiiAji A]" Á]\ I'lije. ^cc ni ciiii\|.-iiiii-o 
fCAt) no bŵc Ai)i Aon obAi]i cháccai' aiji ha 

neicib ]'o, co ^at) a']" nAC b-]:uil bA]\AiiiAil 
innce ■^^]\ poncAib loncAjAHCA.Agupjo b--|ruil 
An I'jeul inni]-ce, no An cleACCAb Aicnipce, 
jAn iiioIaü, jAii cÁineAb. "OéAni'AiiiAoin Ap 
n-tiiccioll le T)éAnAb An 1]\i]-leAbAin yo 
beic CAicneAiiiAC le jac éii\eAnnAc, ua^aI 
no ij-'ol, )'Atbbin no ■OAibbiji ; Aj^iij'jAn Aon 
loniAiibAibAbeic Ann acc, 1 noj- cÁi]roeAiiu\il, 
111111 ceifceAiiiiAib ÁbAineA]-leii- An ceAnjAin, 
no le li-obAi)! <\onT)ACCA nA g^^ebilje. 

A\-^ An uiiiii]\ béi^eAnAij, üo bi cuit) liión 
lÌKMc 111)' An iigAebilig : ni]- An utiinn yo, cÁ 
ciiit) jio-beAj, ACC 111]" All iiiiiii)\ A CÁ le ueAcc 
beib 5<-^ebili5 50 leo]!. "Oob' éijni x)úiiin 
Á1C ü'ýÁJAil in|- AH uiriii]\ )'o 1)0 ]ioinn cii|\èA 
l-'A leit A15 " biieAcnuijcib aju]' Cei)-ceAn- 
iiAib ;" Agu)- no licneACAib aju]- -i-cin'bninib 
iniiieA]-CA, noc •oo conjbAij ]-iiin ai]\ j-cúl 
Ai]\ ycA-o iiiiofA no ■00 ; Ajuf t)o neicib eile : 
di]! gib 50 jiAib nA neice ]-o j-cniobcA 1 Sac]-- 
beuplA, bub coija a 5-cun 111 Ijii^'leAbA]! iia 
gAebilje. -dec ceAnA, cAbAi\i.-AiiiAOiü Aijie, 
lei]- All 5-CIIIT) j^ebilje-oo liieiiongAb 1 nó|- 
éijin, ói]i cÁ ]-C)iibinne 50 leo]» AjAinn, a^uj-, 
111AH All j-ceii-oiiA, cÁ i-c|\iobA-oó|iA cliniiA]iA 
cuinui-ACA, Aip A b-]:uil miAn coiigiiAb -oo 
cAbAipc •oo'n obAi]i. 

üutlle -pó]', ìy éigin •oinnn conj^bÁil Áin 
j^-ciiL All liii yo An euro jnÁCAc 'oe " Dcaca 
SeÁJAin lilic lléil," -oe iia " CóiiiipÁibcib 
"OeijbeuiwcA," ■oe ik\ "1i-t\iiu\]icAib "OeAlb- 

cUlCACA," -oe 11 A "■pÓjjAHAlb AJ^l1]-LlC]ieACAlb," 

Agu]- iiiojiAn -oe ]-c|n'bninib eile. i.\cc, lc 



congnokt) "Oe, beiw <xm wju]" fAili 50 l,eo]i 
0,15 »Mi 1)\ii'teAbA]i ^n]- iia h-tiiiii]ieACAib a 
CÁ le ceAcc, leoi]ijnioni a -óÓAnA-ó ŵi]i gAC 
iitle j-LeAiimuJA-o, Ajup iah]\acc AcAbwipc Le 
^•eACAinc CO iriAic a']' i|" feroiii An tieẃẃ- 
lùniLÁnie aj^us iia tocu a LeAJiA]- jac obAiji 

■ÙAOITDA, -^ÌX) tIAC -pelul]! beiC I'AO]! UACA gO 

\:e.\]\-e.\^M]\ l]u|-leAbAi|\ n.\ ^Aebilge. 

eile ins iu\ süAiüib <\oiiüiii5üe 

A5IIS 1 5-CAlK\-OA. 

le Ü. O. Ixiiij^eiiL. 

All rpeAf ûipciosál. 

X)ub)iAmAi\ beAjÁn cimceAlL VY^^'^cac ha 
Cahaüa 'y-su aijiciojaI -oéijeAiiAC, Ajti]- i]- 
cói)\ ■óúinn mb éijm a ]\Áb citiiceAlL 
jAebeAl i-iA ci'ne ]-ni, óii\ 50 ■Deniim ij- 
" mumcii\ ].-Á-beAt ' ia-o iiia)i ca 11 a P]\AiicAi5e, 
Acc iTAjAAOin ! ni 1115116 pAD mó|iAn cum a 
■o-ceAiijAn ■oo cúiìtoac, jib 50 iiiaihto p fóy, 
'ye ywi iiiÁ')- frénDt)! tinn a yÁi) 50 niAijiit) 
reAtijA A rÁ có cjiuAilbijce pn 50 hac u- 
cuigyeAb All i-coiÁine ^''^euilje ^y yeÁ]\]\ in 
Gipmn, C|\i yocAil ui At)i n-A ctoj' ai]a ■o-ciip 

ÜÁ -oÁ Á1C in tlACüAii CAnAüA in a 
ii-T)eA|inAb Áicijce tie 5<-^etieAlAib 
-cMbAnACA ; cÁ Aon aca 1 j-contiAe 
^beAnnjAjib, Ai]i b|uiAc nA 1i-AiiiAnn iTiói]ie, 
llAoiii "LAjiAip Ajuf CÁ An ceAiiii eile LÁiiii 
le 5l-eAnncoe ai)! b)iuAc nc\ li-AiiiAiin bige 
ÜAiiuni'je, 1 5-coiTOAib eljm ■aju]- 
ini-oule]-ec]'. "Oo caiiaic JaotoiI glcAnn- 
5Ai]\be Ó 1i-v\lbAin Yah 111-bliAbẃin 1785, 
Aju]' 1)' beg iiAC b-|:uil yì■^x) cent) bliAtiAin 
Ai|i An nióipcin i~o Anoi]-. 11 1 pémi]! Imn jiÁb 
50 beACt) CA li-Ani cÁnAic J^oibil JleAnncoe 
cuiti CAnATDA, ACC bi ye aj aiii eigm ']-<'''i 
g-céA-o ceACHAtiium nA h-Aoipe yo. CAicyib 
I'lnn ]\Áx> 50 liijne 5<''0'^i^ "a 1i-AlbAn 
coiiib)iAC niof f^^Pr '^^^ 1'°" ^ 'o-ceAngAn 1011Á 

■00 jiijne nA li-eijieAnnAije ai]\ Aon Áic aiji 
All iiiót|icí]i )-o, 01)1 lAbAijieAnn ah cnit) ij" 
1110 -oe liuiinci)! 5'-^*-'^""5>-^'l'^'^' ^^5"!" 
gleAnncoe, ah j^^ebilig yny. 

II' éijin TDÚmn a"OiíiáiI gu)! nib c|\éit)- 
eAiiiiiAC 130 j'-^sbeAlAib Caha-oa, 50 
lAbAiiieAim ]'k\t:) a •o-rcAtijA |.-t'in yóy, acc 
1)' éigni ■oniiin AtiiiiAil iiia]i ah j-ceuunA, 
nAC b-ireiui]! le h-Aon cme uAOineAt) a v- 
ceAnjA no coiiiieuti beo Anoij' niiinA 111- 
bni)eAnninnci,leAbAin, i)ii]'leAbAi]\,pAipeu|\A 
nuAibeAC-OA, Ajnf ha h-uile neice td'a t)- 
rugCA]! An c-Ainiii coiccionn -oe "f-ojluini 
HoicleÁnAc," no " current literature," 1 111- 
beujilA. If 111AIC An nib é éineAnnAC t)0 
beic cuniAj'AC a ceAiijA yéin t)0 lAbAi|ir, 
ACC If nib ■oÁ uAi)! nio)- ireAji]! é t)o beic 
cuniAf AC A ceAnjA péin -oo léijeAb. 'Se yo 
An ■oeAinnuT) -oo jiijne 5<-'^o'bil nA Caha-oa ; 
nioji cuin fiAT) pÁipenn no ijiipleAbAji ai]i 
bun A iiiAiti, Ajuf uA bjuj pn, ni fA-o 50 m- 
beib A -o-ceAnjA mAjib. ÎIac 111 o]! An c- 
ACAHnuJAb A CÁ ceACt) Ai)i 5<^6beAlAib o'n 
Amipi]i m A injiieATiAti cojaü ai)i -pon Aom 
leŵbAi]! AiiiÁm ! If co)-aiìiuiI 50 ]iAib nio]- 
mo leAbA)! 'yiK» 5<''Sbili5 my nA feACCtiiAb 
Aguf occiiiAt) Aoipb, ionÁ -00 bi in aoii 
ceAnjAin beo eile 'f An •ootiiAn, acc Aiioif cá 
leAbAif 1 njAebilij nio)- ceifce 'nA lcAbAi|\ 
Aoin ceAnjAn niinijce ai]i biiuiiii nA caIiiiaii. 
Ill nió]i An c-iongnAü 50 b-fuil Aji ■o-ci]i 
fAoi neul Ajuf 50 b-piil niiiiieA]- A5 
■OAoinib nA ■o-ciojicAnn eile oniiAinn. Deib 
fe niA]! pn no 50 ti-cuijeAnn nA h- 
eifeAnuAije jufAb e An Le^xb-dU An c- 
Aiuii If cúiiiACüAije Aif caIaiìi, aju]- 1 5- 
coinófcuf leif, nAC b-futl aii cloibeAiii acc 
iTiAf cjiAicni'n eA)if A15. 

CÁ uibif nA n^AO-ÓAl g^-eAiingAifbe ciiii- 
ccaII fice mile, Ajuf ia-o fo ve JleAnncoe 
cimceAll neic inile. l/AbAifeAnn nA feẃn 
■OAome 5<^ebili5 mAic 50 leo)i, acc vá n- 
ciocfAb Oifin no pionn Aif Aif cum bcACA, 
ni'o)\ b'f éit)i)\ leo cuijj'in nA n--0A0ineAb 05, 
Ajuf jAn Aiii]\uf nio]i b'féi-oin lei]- 11 a 
vAoinib Ó5A td'a ü-ciii5pn Aif ao.i cop 11 1 



nuigni) JO'Oi'ò't iia Cwiiaua acc ha ].-ocaiI if 
fimpli-oe ti'Á ü-reẃii 5^111, niA]i i)- iinu]- a 
ifieAf muMn iiAC b-yuil Aon ýójliiim aca 
ninct. ÚCC ni teAtiAnn ]-iat) qiiiAillijce ha 
1 eAbw)» nuAt) «'■AtbAin ; T)ei]iit) bcAgtiAC a 5- 
corhnuiiiie " ■oeiiriAit) ye, CAbAipit) p " 111 Air 
' •oeuiiAi-ó é, cAbAi]\TO 1 " iiiA]i clobiiAilceA)! 
HA i\Áit)ce fo in ■dlbAin Anoif. CÁ ah cuit) 
!)• 111Ó ue 5'''®'óP<''l-^^'b JbeAnnjAijibe 'ita 5- 
CACoilicib : I)- fAT) Ó bi feAnmói)! j^^swiige 
in Aon eAjlui)- 'fAii 5-corTOAe, Aguf üeiji riA 
)-eAii TiAoine junAb é fAjAiic Aipijre 
éineAtiiiAc All feAnniónui-óe TDob' yeAn]! T)0 
bi ACA ^iKMÌi ; nío]i b'Áil tei|- i-eAnnioniiJA-o 
Acc 1 fig'^ebiLij. piiAin ]-e bÁ]- nmceAll 

CAOJAt) bllATJAn Ó ]-oiii. 

1f ]\ox> lonjAiirAC é, gib 50 b-yuii iiió]iÁii 
^AebeAl -AlbAiiAC 1 IliiAb-eAbnAc aju^ ha 
cACjiACAib eile 111 a nntiiireA]! ah JAebilig, 
nA]! cÁiiAic Aon t>iob ciiiii iiA I'jol Ó ctiineAb 
Ai]\ bun lAu. "Oo 1115116 nióiiÁn -dmepi- 

:-ÁnAC ctiAijiü T)óib, 

, AS"r 

lAic OiiCAcninge 

Ti'Á b-ireicpn acc ni rÁiiAic Aon iDuine ó 
f-liocc J'í'e-óeAl AlbAn 1 njA)! leo yóy. 1f 
■niioc-coiriAHuA é ]-o ói]i CAij-beAilAnn ]-e nAC 
b-iruil mó]\Án iiieA]'CA aj; nA h-<\LbAiiAib 
Ai]i A lo-reAngAin. ■peiinAim ]\Á.x) 50 cmnce 
50 j-ciiiiiyeA-o " céA-o mile yÁilce " iioirii 
Aon gAebeAl \\lbAnAC x)o t^ocyA■ò cum riA 
I'jol J'-^sbilige 111)- An 5-cACAi|i yo, no 1 5- 
rACAip Aif\ bir eile ai]! ye<xò ha ri]ie. Hi 
AiiiÁin 50 5-cui]\].-eAü fAilce |ioitiie, acc •oo 
beibeATD nio]- mo luAcjÁine ai]\ nAfgolÁiiub 
■o'Á yeicjin lonÁ tdo beibeAb t)Á T)-ciocfA-ò 
l-có|i Gi]\eAnnAC, if cuniA cia Ii-iat), no loÁ 

lilO]! A f A1-Ôb|ieAf AgUf A J-clÚ. 

UAjieif nAb-PpAncAc.fiATi tiAbjieAcnuije 
A CAi]-beAnAf An cú)\Atii i)- ceo Ajuf if 
reA5A]iAije in]' aii d-ci]! uim a TJ-ceAiijAin. 
tli cofAiiuul jup Aicnijre 111 éi]iinn 50 b- 
fuil Cfi pÁipeunA nuAibeAC-OA aj nA 
DfeAcnuijib in)' ah t3-ci)i fo, Ajuf nAC b- 
fuib Aon focẃl beuflA lonncA ó cúf 50 
t)ei]ie ! ÜÁ Aon ACAclobuAilce 1 b-piccfbufj 
)v\n fcÁit) pAiiiifiLbAiiiA, ceAnn eite in 

tlnCA fAll fCÁlT) nUA-Ó-6Ab)AAlC, AJUf CeAllll 

eile in Áic éijin 'f*" lAfCAp. 11Á 
fmuAinceŵ)! junAb ó fníjfA clobuAilceAf 
nA pÁipeiifA fo, no nAc n-t)euncA]i AifjeAt) 
ŵfCA. ÜÁ fiAT) 50 li-uile A5 ■oeunAü aijijitd 
Ajuf fAoi blÁc. ní léijceAf beuflA 
lonncA Aif Aon co]i ; niÁ']- Áil le ■oume 
fu|\fÓ5i\A TOO cu]i m Aon ue nA pÁipeu)iAib 
bneAcnACA fo, CAicpt) fe beit 'f An ceAiijAiii 
b]\eAcnuije. TIac mó]\ ah nÁife 1)0 fliocc 
nA ngAebeAl 'f An -o-cif f o, 50 b-f uil uojinAn 
■OAoineA-ò Af rí]i bij — cí]i iiac b-fuil 
inó[iÁn nío]' mó 'iiÁ Cúige ConnAcc in 
Cifinii — Ag cu]\ mA)-lA o]icA 1 ü-CAOib a 
ü-ceAnjAii ? îluAif ]-muAineAnn éifeAnnAC 
Ai]\ nA neicib ]-o, cigeAnn bÁnAiiiAlA 111 a 
ceAim cimceAll a corÌTÓuccA]-A-ô ik\c lAiiifAb 
fe cu]i Ai]\ pÁipeuf. 

tli'l Aon Áic eile 'y^sn ■ooiiiAH m a m-beib 
An fAill ceutinA aj ceAnjcoi)! le fójluim 
ceAnjcA-ó A'f -00 beibeAb Aije fAn -o-cíf 
f o. tli'l Aon ceAnjA a cá lAbAfCA 'f An &oii\ip 
nAC b-fuil lAbAfCA in ^XmejiicA, Aguf cÁ 
mójiÁn •oiob f o nA li-<XfiA le cloifcm mnci 
iTiAHAn 5-ceu-onA. "Oe nA b-uile CAC|\ACAib 
mnn, fi CI11CA50 All ceAnn if ilceAiijAi je 
•ùiob. ÜÁ cine üAoineAb 'fAti j-CACAif ft 11 
nAC b-fuil le fÁJAil m tluAT)-&Ab|\AC, 
pileT)el]biA, bofcon, nÁ Áic ai]\ bic eile 
Ai]i All mói]ici'pfo. ÜÁ pÁipeu]iA nuAibeACTJA 
1 CliicAjo 1 5-CÚ15 ceAngcAib weuj eAgj-AiiilA, 
Ajuf ■oÁ 111-beic Cardinal Mezzofanti no 
Sif llileAin 1onf mnci, if co)-Aiiniil 50 t)- 
ceAgiiiócAb fiAt) leüAomib nAc 'o-cuirfi'oif, 
51Ü mof A n-eolAf ai)i ceAnjcAib. ÜÁ Aon 
pÁipeuf nuAibeACTiA 1 CIhca^o 1 " ii5eA]\m- 
AnAc 1ocTiA]iAc" fe ]-in " Low German;" ah 
ceAnn AtiiÁin le fÁJAil in -(\me]ucA, tlí 
ceATiuijceA)! clobuAlAü riA ceAnjAii fin 
Anoif let]- An fiAJAtl geAfiiiAnAij, Ajuf 
■061)11-0 nAC b-fuil Aon )DÁipeu|i eile 'yẁy^ 
■oóiiiAn 1 n56A)imAnAC 1oct>A]iAc acc aii ceAnn 
A cÁ 1 CliicAjo. If A1C All nib é, ah meuTD 
mó)i ue 5^<^r''"*''^*CAib a lAbAi]\eA)' Aii 
ceAiijA fin yóy. tli múinccAf in)- ha ì'jolAib 
i, ni )-5)iiobcAii 1 lcAbAjiAib i, acc ni )-cuiiifiri 
nA 5eA)iiTiAnAi5e t)'Á LAbAijic. ÜÁ iiió)iÁn 



•ookOitievw HI)" <\n Ti-cin ]'o iu\c b-]:euT)A)' Aon 
ceAiigA eile iẃbAi)ic, ji-ò 50 léijeAtin ]'k\-o 
All " c-dji-o-SeẃiunŵnAc " iiiaic 50 leo]v 

ÜÁ yio)' Aj All 5-cui-oi]'iiió-De léijceotiiib 
All Ipii-leAlJAin )'o 511HAI) lAt) iiA "OAOine ó 
1loLU\nr> -o'Áinj ah ]xái-o IliiA-u-eAbjiAic 
Ai|\ •0-CÚ]- Aj^ii]- -no CÓ15 All ceuT) cógbÁil ■00 
rögbATJ Yah j-cacai]! -oe'n Ainm ceuTsnA. 

ÜÁ All ]TÁlt) AJU]" All CACA1]! '[.•AOl jlellll 

SAcfAiui Ai|\ i'uA-ó moy 1110 'iiA nA ceAti 


llA j-ceuTj 

Áicijreoin, 'jA Ia13ai]ic yóy i'aii ^xÁi-o. Hi 
lẃbAiiireA|\ ueAiigA ha IIoHaito acc lei]- ha 
l-eAn--oAoinib ^Ati ü-niAic, Ajupiii'L acc aii- 
beAj^Án ■Di'ob yéin rmgeA)- 1 aiioij-. Hi 
cit)CeA]i gu)! cmniiA ■oAoiiie ó IIoLIahu aoii 
pÁipeii)! Ai|i bun in a ■o-ceAiijAin 1 lliiAt)- 
&Ab]iAC, no in Aon Áic eile ai]i yeAt) n a ]-oÁit)e; 
ní iiió)iAn c-ionjnA-ò, ai]i ah A-ùbA]i i-in, 50 
b-):iiil I'l VìCAj^tiAc iiiA]ib ; yeicj.-it) ah 
genicAlAc ]-o neiiie t)i. 

In AiiÌTOeoin -oe'n uile jlo]! nniceAll ah 
cmiu 1Ì1Ó1H UuconACAij no jeAHinAiiAij, nAC 
tonjnAt) 1110]! é nA]! jIac aoii n'Á ■o-ceAngcAib 
y'|\einii 111 Aoii n'n cüi5C)\íce, acc An l3eu)ilA 
AiiiÁiii. ÜÁ 1110)" 111Ó ve jeAjHiiAnAi jib 
CAOib A11U11 j A ■D-cí)ie'|:éin 'iiÁ ca xj'Aon cine 
eile 'I'Aii -ooiiiAii ; -oo bi nio]' 1110 AiiXjiijce 
Ó 5eA)miAiiiiA 'jw" >^oi]' ]'o'nA ó aoii ci)\ eile 
nA 1i-6o)\pA, ACC ni cinj-ge yÁgAtin yì<yo a 
■o-ci'p 'nA cAilleAim piAü a ti-ceAnjA. t1io)\ 
b'ỳéit)i]\ le -oAOinib beo iiio)- 1110 vo iJeAnA-o 
'nA -00 jiijneAt) le 5s>-^t'"i*"'"5i^ ^e cúiìtdac 
A ■o-ceAngAii 'yM^ ■o-ci')i yo, A511]" -d'a coiiiiéAt) 
Ó \'>.!sy. ÜÁ pi iiniiiice inj- iiA pgolAib 
piiibln'ie; cÁ 50 leo)! pÁipenji iiinn — iiiop 1110 
'11Á léijceA]\; — CÁ iiieA]" aj iia li-c\iiicincAn- 

Al jib Al]l All b-jDollAl ■OA]lAb CCAnjA 'Uill]- 1, 

ACC 111 jlACAiTJ ]-i ].-]ieinii Ai)! bic jiTJ 50 b-i-aiil 
Ai]\ All Iajat) ■oeic iiiilluhi tie'ii c-plioct) 
gc'AiniiAnAc 111)- All ci]\ yo. 



li-&i)\eAnnAi je m -c\iiieiiicAÓ ]-o aiiiac iiiópÁn 
níop cujiAiiiAije 1 -o-CAoib A-o-reAnjAn loiiÁ 
T)o bi i-KU. iiiAiii ]ujime. !]■ yiuy iiaù 5- 
cinneAiin iia xjauihc pAi-ùbi|\e iiióh>nii ]-iiiiiie 

iiiiici yóy ; AcccAbAiji aiii •ooib: iiion cogbAO 
llónii m Aon ló ; ca iiió]w\ii tJeiiiiCA ceAnvV 
"OÁ 111-beic pi)\-eA5Ai|i iiA b-]jÁipeu|\ 
éi]ieAniiAc beAjÁii iiioj- ciijiAinAije td'a 
CAOib, 1)- 10115A11CAC All iiietn;) ■oob' pénDip leo 
■òeuiiA-ó. Ili'l Aon ACA cuijeAp J^swilje, 
110-óeuiiA)' Aon 111-0 -d'a CAbiiiiJAt) acc ATÌiÁin 
peAji-BAjAi]! All " ^iiie]\icAin-Gi]ieAnnAi5." 
"OÁ 111-beic iiA ]3Áipeii]iA éi]\eAnnACA eile 
iiiA]\ e, 1]- j^eÁ|\)i j^o iii-benJeA-ù Á]\ n-reAiiz^A 
Ai]i bun in ]-ü, üi|\ )]■ cniiice 50 b-}.-uiL 1110]- 

IIIÓ ■OAOineAb Al)! A11 111Ó1]ICÍ)\ fo a CUIJCA)' 

gAe-óilje loiiÁ cÁ in éi|iiiin. ÜÂ pí]iinne 
•oe po pocAi]i le cuijpm, oiji m]- An Aiiiipin 

CUAlb CAjlC AJU]' 111)- All Alll lÁlCpeAC ^élll 

1]' ó Áinb 111 61)111111 111 A lAbAi]iceA)i Aii 
gAeóiLij, cÁtiAic All cui-D 1]- 111Ó -oe iia 
■oAoinib ■o'Atj'Cjiij cuiii Aiiie)\icA. 

[l'liere aie some points in tliis very interesting article 
on which we could have suggested improvements ; but in 
consequence of Mr. Russell's desire that it should appear 
exactly as it was written, we have not altered anything, 
except a few obvious slips of the pen — e.g., the name 
Aiiioiîelli for Mezzofanii, &c. Mr. Russell's remonstrance 
.igainst changes made by us in his last article raises some 
very nice questions. It will appear in our " Noles and 
Queries " in next number, with some explanation of our 
own views. These views are by no means to be consi- 
dered as final or decisive on any point. The time is not 
yet come for " finality " on questions of Irish orthography 
or idioms. We remember, however, that, in this journal 
and elsewhere, on previous occasions, Sir. Russell gave 
us carte blanche to deal with his writings according to our 
own judgment, and which we exercised pretty freely. Of 
Jlr. Russell's zeal for the Irish langui^e movement there 
can be no doubt whatever, nor of his ability, nor of the 
value of his writings on the subject, both in Irish and 
Enylish ; but we have had occasion to complain of his 
being entirely too "terribly in earnest" about certain 
(rifling matters.— Ed. G. J.] 

An ai'cÌMit life of St. Patrick in Latin has recently been 
bri)Uj;l!l !>' !ÌL;!it in n manuscript in the Royal Library, 
lirus^ci , : ' ' ■ : ily belonged to an Irish monastery 
at\\i;i I i', it seems, much resembles the 

acciium •••■ I 1 ,11 > 1. in the maimscript known as 
the " 1J"UK 111 Auiiai;li," ascribed to the nmth century, of 
which portions have been published in the " Fac-similes 
of National MSS. of Ireland." The part of the 
liic of St. Patrick, which has long been missing from the 
"Book of Armagh," is, we understand, extant in the 
Brussels manuscript, which will shortly be published by 
the BoUandists. — Aihenccum. . 





Bv James Murphy, 

Aiii/tor of " Ulic Fitztiiaurice" •'The Fortunes of Maurice 
O'Donnell" "Hugh Roach, the Ribbonman,''' " Mau- 
reen's Sorrmu," "The House oil the Hath." &^c. 

Upon Sliabh IMis* the sun-beams 

The rain-clouds fringe with gold ; 
The silences of centuries 

The dreaming forests fold ; 
As solemnly they gather, 

And silently the)- tread, 
Where, cased in shell of hammered gold. 

The gentle queen lay dead. 

Dead after many wanderings 

O'er spreading sea and foam, 
From the bright sands of Lib^-an lands 

That bore the name of home ; 
The violets on her white breast 

The lotus leaf shall stead. 
And other tomb than Symbel'sf 

Shall rest her queenly head. 

F"irst saw her eyes the sunlight 

Where hymns to Hor were sung ; 
Grew her cheeks bright with lovelight 

The Libyan plains among. 
Xever such wondrous pageant 

Has Eastern city seen ; 
Xever such proud procession 

In Theban palace been : 

As when her bridal morning 
Dawned on the Eastern sands. 

Amid the clank of cymbals 

From thrice ten thousand hands ; 

When waved the Theban banners. 
When cheered the Theban throng ; 

• .Scota, Queen of Mi'esius and daiigh;er of Pbaroah, 
was buried a few d.iys after the landing of the Milesians, 
on the northern side of Sliabh Mis. No moniimeul marked 
her grave, but tradition has it that immense liches carried 
from afar were buried with her. (For Burial Ornameits.see 
Dr. Biugsch's German "Egypt under the Pharoahs," pp. 

tSymbel. otherwise Abu Simbul, or Ibsambul, was the 
famous rock-temple in which the line of Rameses buried 
their royal dead. 

And air was sweet with perfume, 
And sky was rent with song. 

When from her thousand temples 

Thebes rang her silver bells ; 
When wrought in Scota's honour 

The priests their strangest spells 
When golden lamps to Sutekh* 

Glittered amid the spray ; 
And lights in her high towers 

Changed Theban night to day. 

Opes Ir the great papyrus, deep 

In golden casket rolled 
(Years gone the wondrous Asian seer 

The mystic writing scrolled ! ) — 
The white mists on the mountains 

Their swaying motion stayed, 
The moaning, sobbing ocean 

Nor noise nor murmur made ! 

Deep fell the speaking silence 

As thus the Druid read : — • 
" Here in the clay of Eire 

Make wide and deep her bed, 
Lone in the loneliest solitude 

La)- her dear form to rest ; 
Her right to the throbbing ocean, 

Her face to the golden west. 

" Place in her grave uncovered 

A branch of flowering oak. 
From towering forest severed 

By one unaided stroke — ■ 
If dies the flower, dies 

Her race, xinfanied, unknown ; 
If blooms the acorn, ever 

Her 7-ace the land will ozcn. 

" Ever her race shall conquer, 

Ever shall sunward march, 
Whilst over the purple mountains 

The rainbow forms an arch ; 
Ever their name be glorious. 

Ever her sons be famed, 
And never for lack of manhood 

In war or in peace be shamed. 

" In futare j'ears in Eire 

As passing c\-cles flow, 
Shall other gods be worshipped 

Than those the Druids know. 

* The gods worshipped in Pharaonic t 
Ra, Amon, Osiris, Sulekh, &c. 



Then shall the peerless girls, 

Who Scota mother name 
Give Scota's gentle spirit 

To Heaven a higher claim. 

" Over her raise no monument, 

Nor shrine nor marble place. 
Her proudest, grandest cenotaph 

Be in her gallant race — 
In the brave line of valiant sons 

With dauntless hearts and true, 
In girls pure that look to heaven 

Through laughing eyes of blue!" 

They clove from the towering oak tree 

A flowering branch — a gem, 
And in the fresh earth — wine red — 

They placed its cloven stem : 
The white clouds flying over 

Shed gently down their rain — 
Lo ! withering branch and flower 

Bloomed into life again ! 

Silence grew deep and deeper 

When Heber solemnly spoke : 
" See budding from the flowers 

The acorn of the oak ! 
This land is ours for ever — 

The gods have willed it so ; 
Death comes in God's good time to all, 

What need, wherefore, for woe ? 

" This land's more rich and glorious 

Than aught we know of old ; 
Down from her hills the crystal rills 

Bear, in their bright sands, gold ; 
Deep in her mines the diamond 

And sparkling gem lie hid ; 
And pearls bright, that shame the light, 

Her green waves gleam amid. 

" Wherefore, what need for trophies 

From foreign lands we've ta'en ? 
Better to rest on that dear breast 

Lone in her last bed lain ; 
For me the tempered sabre 

My wealth and fame shall win :" 
The diamonds plucked he from his hilt 

And flung her grave within ! 

Then Seoghda flung the circlet 
From Tyrian shrines he tore ; 

Amergin, the rich sabre 

On Thracian plains he bore ; 

Eadan, the snow-white amethyst 

That lit Rameses' tomb ; 
And Unn. — the looping diamond 

That sparkled in his plume ! 

Sceiné — white with weeping ! — 

Flings down her golden tress ; 
And Oghbha — dark-haired maiden — 

The rich pearls from her dress ; 
And others, sparkling opals, 

And others, rubies bright ; 
And Fias the ring of Destiny 

That graced her wedding night I 

Upon her shroud of violets, 

Festooned with pearls rare 
Quaint symbols wove with diamonds 

Light up with gleams the air ; 
Jewels that once in Abydos 

For ransomed king were paid ; 
Pearls Osiris sanctified 

Within her grave are laid. 

They placed above her white breast, 

With tears, the wine-red clay, 
And milk-white elk they offered 

To Shu, the son of Ra ; — 
Then chiefs moved forth their banners, 

Then maidens dried their tears. 
And the brown-forest shadows 

Were bright with flashing spears ! 

Le Tomas OFlannaoile. 

2. — CÚ agus comhfliocal no " aicideach " 
'na dhiaidh mar taid : Cii-allaidlt, Cu- 
biiidke, Cii-caoch, Cu-ceanann, Cii-coingealta 
l^no Cn-congalta) Cu-dlonaisc, Cii-dnb/i, Cit- 
fionn, Cu-glas agus Cu-ionmhain. Seo e an 
meud do b'fheidir liom d'fhaghail don 
chineul so, acht is inmheasta go raibh a 
samhail so d'anmannaibh eile 'ga d-taith- 
ighe in Eirinn fad o shin. 

Ni fhaghiiiaid ainm di'obh in usaid mar 
ainm-baistiilh andiii, agus ni mo do 
gheibhimid 'ga g-clcachtadh mar sin diobh 
leis na ceithre ceud bliadhain ata thart. 
Acht ta cuid diobh air marthain 'na 



sloinntibh in Eirinn fos. Is doigh Horn gur 
b'c an t-ainm Cu-allaidh (as ionann le radh 
&g\xs faolc/ui no mac-tire) ata againn in sna 
sloinntibh leitlL-Bheurla no Sacs-Gaed- 
healacha " Nalty " agus " Alty "; oir is allta 
do ghnithi don chomhfhocal allaidh 'san 
ngeinidin uatha in san t-sean-aimsir, agus 
mar thigeas " Nally " o Mac Con-aille agus 
"Nestor" o Mac Con-astair, is amhlaidli 
sin do thiocfadh " Nalty " o Mac Con-allta. 
'Sna h-aimsearaibh dcidheanacha do 
theagmliuigh gur cleachtadii an gne "allta" 
fcadh an da uimliir gan athrughadh air 
bith, mar ta " beathach allta " " fiadh allta " 
" beathaigh allta" " coin-allta " etc. Is 
mar so ata se andiu, acht cluinimid agus 
leighmid fos air uairibh an flioirm eile — 
" allaidh " — gan claonadh no athrughadh 
do dheanadh air 'san uimhir uatha. 

Acht cia gur feas duinn gur ghnath le 
n-ar sinsearaibh na h-anmanna dilse Faolan, 
Faolclih agus Mac — íìrc-d'a. ndeantar an 
sloinne " Wolfe " air uairibh andiu ag cur 
Beurla ortha — agus cia go saoilim gur b'o 
J/ac Con-allta as coir "Nalty" agus 
" Alty " do tharraing, ni dearbh Horn gur 
b'ionann " Cii-al/aidh" agus '' Faolchti" 
gach uile h-uair. Do fuaras an t-ainm 'sna 
h-Annalaibli air d-tus ag an m-bliadham 
d'aois Criost 707. Acht cia go scriobhaidh 
ODonnubhain "Cu-allaidh" san aistriug- 
hadh Beurla, is "Cu-alaidh" ata san 
nGaedhilig bhunaidh. Is fior go scriobh- 
thaoi iomad focal le / no le //, le n no le nn 
— go h-airighthe in sna h-aoisibh deid- 
heanacha le scribhneoiribh neamhaireacha, 
michearta — mar " coileach" agus "coilleach" 
" bealach " agus " beallach ", " ionad " agus 
" ionnad" (ait; "Sionainn" agus "Sionnainn" 
etc. Acht ma chuimhnighmid go raibh ag 
na sean-Ghaedhcalaibh an focal aladh 
no alladh d'ar bhrigh " clu ", " ccim " 
" feabhas ", " ardnos " (feuch ORaghallaigh 
agus ODonnubhain) ; ma smuainimid gur 
ba choitcheann Clotkchu agus Gartc/iù in 
altod, agus an chiall " Cu-cluthamhail " no 
" Cu-na-morchlu " doibh-so araon ; agus 
mas cuimhne linn fa dheireadh go bh-fuil 
an t-ainm Aladh-chh le faghail — " Aladhchu 
anchoire Ratha Oenbo d'eg -an m-bliadhain 
7S2 " (iv. iMiM.j— is cosamliail go leor gur 
b'i earraid do rinne an t-OUamh fogh- 

lamtha ag scriobhadh " Cu-allaidh " air son 
Cii-alaidli se sin le radh, nach e an 
comhfhocal allaidh (" fiadhain " "wild") 
ata ann air aon chor acht geinidin don 
ainm aladh i. "clu", " bladh "," feabhas." 
In san g-cas sin badh ionsamhalta an t-ainn 
Cu-alaidh le " Cu-catha" "Cu-cuimhne" 
agus le n-a samhail. Acht da m-badh 
Cu-allaidh fein do bhi san nGaedhilig, 
b'fheidir nach ionann e seo agus " Faolchu ": 
do bhrigh gur scriobhadh alladh (allad) air 
amannaibh air son aladh {" clu ", " bladh ") 
reir mar dhearbhas an Leabhar Brcathnach 
(sliocht Leabhair Leacain) : " Ro linsat 
Breatain [i. na Breatanaigh i. lucht inse na 
Briotaine] in n-insi uile ar tus dia clanaibh 
o muir n-Icht co muir n-Orc agus/ö allad 
agus oirrdcrcus!'* 

Ni forus dam an focal so aladh no alladh. 
Mas aladh as coir do scriobhadh, ni h-eol 
dam dadamh air a ghaol na air a bhunadh ; 
acht mas se a litriugh.-idh ceart alladh, is 
doigh gur b'e i'//(mor) ata againn in all — 
an focal ata in ollghuth " guth mor " 
oillphiast piast mhor. — freumh ata fos 'san 
bh-focal tuilleadh (do-oiU-adh). D'fheud- 
famaois annsin alladh do shamhailt le mór- 
adh, mór-tas, mór-dhacht. Air mhalairt o 
agus a, samhail mar agus mar, loch agus 
lach, coille agus caille, oilim agus ailii/i, 
ordain agus argain, folach agus falach, 
folamh agus falaiuh, agus a leitheide sin. 
Tuilleadh eile, do fuair me an gne ceudna 
so "all" agus ba h-ionann a chiall agus 
"mor." 'San m-bliadhain 991 d'eug 
" Diarmait fer-leighind CiUe-dara" agus do 
bheir na IV. MM. rainn eigin air : 

"Diarmaitt dind ind econa [eccna?] ain 
Fer CO ffialbhlaith co nail bhaigh " 
D'aistrigh ODonnubhain mar so leanas : 
" Diarmaid stronghold of noble wisdom 
A man of generous fame, of ^Tfi?/ battle? 
Is foUus " CO nail " do bheith air son co 
ti-all no mar b'fhearr liomsa do scriobhadh 
con all — oir ni h-amhras gur leis an 
reimhbhriathar an n. Ta sompla eile d' 
all faoi 'n g-ceill so 'sna h-Annalaibh ag 
an m-bliadhain 884. Acht cheana, ma ta 

*"\Vith glory and excellence." Feuch an Lmbhar 
Breathnach (no "Irish Nennius") 11. 30, 31— Ho cuireadh 
in eagar san ni-liliadhain IÇ48 leis an Dochtm ioniirram.i 
J. H. 7oJd. 



an cheud a fada in aladh no alladJi is ro 
chosamhail gur b'i a fhreumh al in sa' 
bh-focal alainn, agus gur scribhadh all-adli 
air son alnadh — mar ta âille air son 
" ailne ", colla air " colna " giiaille air 
"gitailne ", coiiiluiUaiui air " comhalnain " 

O'n ainm so Cu-alaidh no Cii-allaidh — 
nuair as ciall don dara focal "clu" " feabhas," 
"gloir" — nil fhios agam a d-tig foirm air 
bith do na sloinntibh deidheanacha ; is 
feidir do chuid do na " Mac Nally's " teacht 
o shinsear dar goireadh Mac Con-alaidJi (no 
Alac Con-allaidh) mas ionann alladli agus 
"olladh" i. mordhacht ; cuid eile mar 
dubhairt me cheana o Mac Con-ailk (aill 
i. carraig.) 

Deir trcabha eigin da ngoirthear 
" Conaboy " agus " Mac Naboe " i m-Beurla 
gur b'e Mac Uon-b/iiiidhe a bh-fior-shloinne ; 
acht is dcarbh go m-beir cuid eile dhiobh a 
m-bunadh o Mac Coii-bnadha. Is fior mar 
an g-ccudna gur do Cii-bitidhe ata moran 
do na "Con\va)-s" (clann Mhic Con-bhuidhe) 
ata in Eirinn andiu. Ag an m-bliadhain 
821 leighmid sna h-Annalaibh air ab 
aiiighthe^"G/-í:í7í'ír/^,abb Cluana h-Uamha" 
do fuair bas san m-bliadhain sin. Is i 
Cliiain-iiamlia (Deasmumhan)da ngoirthear 
" Cloyne " ag lucht Beurla — ait do bheir 
gairm air ea.spogacht mhoir, oirdheirc i 
n-deisceart Eireann. Acht ni feas dam an 
t-ainm so do bheith le faghail 'na shloinne 
ag aon treabh andiu. 

In san ainm Cu-ceaiiaun is ionann " cean- 
ann" — no ni as fearr "ceannann" — agus 
ceann-J hionn reir Ui Dhonnubhain agus na 
sean-ughdar. Ba righ do righthibh Fear 
m-Bolg FiacJiaidh Geannfionnän mac Stairn 
(aois an domhain 3267 — 3303). San m- 
bliadhain daois an domhain 3972 ba h- 
ardrigh Eireann Fiacha Fionnadchcs agus 
air a fhlaithcas-san leighmid (iv MM.) : 
" Nach agh ro genair ina reimhes ro ba 
ceiiidfltiond" — i. gach laogh d'a rugadh in a 
fhlaitheas [fiche bliadhan] ba " cheanann " 
no finn-cheannach e. Ba h-e an Fiacha 
ceudna so do thog Ceanannas in oirthear 
Midlie air d-tus — ait le a n-abarthar " Kells" 
i m-Bcurla andiu ; agus is cosamhail gur b' 
on ni cheudna .i. na laoigh cheananna no 
"chcinn-fhionna" do h-ainmnigheadh an 

baile. Deir na croinicidhc uim an righ so 
fos gur ba Geananiias ainm gach aite in a 
m-bidheadh a aras-san — " gach du ina 
mbiodh a arus somh ba Ceanandus a ainm" 
— (Ceithre Maigh., Aois an Domhain 3991.) 
Acht deir ODonnubhain nach bh-fuil ait 
air bith eile d'arb' ainm sin in Eirinn anois 
acht aon Cheanannas eile amhain i gCondae 
Chille-Chainnigh air a d-tugthar an t-ainm 
Beurla ceudna, iodhon, " Kells." 

In sna h-aimsearaibh deidheanacha ba 
ghnath an comhfhocal so " ceanann " do 
thabhairt fos air beathach ag nach raibh 
ceanii fionn (no ban), acht ag a raibh ball 
(no gead) fionn no ban air a aghaidh — 
mar ta capall no bo no laogh no mionann 
no mar sin — agur seo i an chiall ghnathach 
'san am i lathair. 

Ni fuaras Cii-ccaiiann mar ainm dileas 
fir roimh an m-bliadhain d'aois Criost 991, 
acht is cinnte nach cruthaghadh so air an 
ni nach raibh sc 'ga thaithighe roimhe i5in. 
Leighmid ag an mbliadhain sin 'sna 
h-Anna!aibh : " Giolla-Commain mac 
Neill, tigherna ua nDiarmada, agus Cii- 
cenand mac Taidhg do comhthuitim fria 
roile." Deir an t-ollamh ODonnubhain 
gur b' on g-Coin-cheanann so do thangadar 
Ui Con-cheanainn — muintir d'a ngoirthear 
" O'Concannon " agus " Concannon " andiu 
ag labhairt Beurla. Agan mbliadhain 1066 
do gheibhimid air n-a chur sios ag na IV 
MM. gur thuit Aodh Ua Concheanainn 
tighearna ua nDiarmada san m-bliadhain 
sin i g-Cath Turlaigh Adhnaigh [do tugadh 
idir na Connachtaibh agus fearaibh Breifne] 
— ait ar thuit fos Aodh Ua Conchubhair 
righ cuigidh Chonnacht " luam gaisccidh 
Leithe Cuinn" — luain i. fear-stiura. Ba 
h-e an t-Aodh sin an cheud ýJiior-Ua 
ConcJicamiinn — oir ba h-ua no mac mic don 
Choincheanann reumhraidhte e. Bhi 
Muintir Choncheanainn 'na d-tighearnaibh 
ua nDiarmada i n-deisceart Chonnacht le h- 
iomad d'aoisibh iar n-aimsir a sinsir, agus 
ta an mhuintir so air marthain fos i g-Condae 
na Gaillimhe, i gCondae Rosa-Comain, 
agus i d-tuathaibh eile in Eirinn. 

Taobh an anma Cu-coingealta no Cit- 
coiigalta chidhim in san dara focal foirm 
chomhfhoclach don ainm coiiigeall (no 
coinghioU) .i. coiinradh ,i. tabhairt na ngeall 



no na ngiall ; uimc sin badh ionann 
coiui^ealta agus " air n-a chur i ngcall " 
''pledged^' "bound". No is cuma ranngahh- 
alafulanga (participium passivum) ata aige 
o bhriathar eigin " coingeallaim ", agus ma 
ta nach bh-fuil a shamhail do bhriatliar 
andiu ami, b'fheidir go raibh fad o shin. 
Is cinnte go d-tiocfadh linn congalta do 
siiamliailt le congal no conglinl. i. gal no 
crodhacht con, acht ni cosamhail go bh-fuil 
an focal cit fa dho 'san ainm. 'Na cheann 
sin is coitchinne an gne Cii-coiiigealta no 
Cit-congalta agus ni feidir Horn gan a mheas 
gur truailliughadh an gne deiridh so don 
chcud fhoirm. 

Ba ghnathach an t-ainm Cii-dubh le 
ceudaibh bliadhain agus is ro chosamhail 
gur b'e Mac Cou-ditibh as fior-shloinne na 
muintire a ghoireas "Cuniff" diobh fein ag 
labhairt Bcurla. 

Nifhaghaim an comhfliocal dionaisc in 
sna focloiribh acht is aithne dhuinn a 
shamhail go romhaith. Is follus gur gaol e 
don bhiathar do bhcirthear le ORaghallaigh: 
"Dionasgaiin v. I disjoin, loosen, ungird " 
— agus go d-tigid araon o di- (diultadh) 
agus uasc A. ceangal, slabhradh. Is ionann 
dionaisc don agus " gan ceangal ", " gan 
slabhradh " " unbound," " unchained ;" is 
feidir linn an t-ainm Cii-dionaisc do sham- 
hailt le " Ä'asc-i'/in s. a chained dog" (OR.) 
agus le "Archil, s.m. a chained dog" agus 
do chifiniid air ball go g-cleachtaoi 
Archil fos mar ainm dileas. Ag a thabhairt 
air fear, is doigh gur ciall fhioghurdha ata 
ann agus gur diultadh áocoingealta e — oir ba 
chudrom uasc \e gcall, coinghcall, connradli 
air uaribh. Is coir breathnughadh gur 
ceart duinn geinidin do ghoireadh don 
fhocal so dionaisc a.g radh go beacht duinn ; 
acht ni h-anamh eirighcas comhfhocail 
{adjcctiva) as an g-cas geineamhnach i d- 
teangthaibh eile mar aon leis an nGaedhilig, 

soichincoil (do chineul iseal, uasal), do- 
fheicsiona, so-fhcicsiona, inh'ighis, ionairm 
maille le efirt (gan feart, gan leacht) enirt 
(gan neart, lag, faon) easairin (gan armaibh) 
agus a leithide sin. Ni tugadh moran aire 
da g-cineul so d'fhoclaibh fos leis an lucht- 
graimeir, agus is iongadh liom so, oir is 
neamh-ghnathach an sort focal iad. Ta 
moran diobh gan taithighe leis an da cheud 
bliadhain chuaidh tharainn, go h-airighthe 
an meud in a d-teidh di- agus e- dhiobh, 
mar ta " diofhola," "dirimhe," "enirt" 
" easairm " etc- 

Is forus go leor geinidin do ghairm 
d'fhocal diobh so nuair leaiias se ainm .i. 
" substainteach;" mar ata in "lion dirimhe" 
"doirse do-ghabhala" "fear infheadhma" 
etc. acht is minic do gheibhimid fos leis an 
iii-briaihar iad — go "deimhnightheach " no 
prcdicativcly mar chomfliocail eile, gan 
ainm-riaghla air bith aca : " is do-flulgliala 
an seod e "— " Ocus ba dirimhe almsa na 
h-Eglaisi an la sin " [Annala Chonnacht a 
luaidhtear ag OComhraidh in a Lectures p. 
541.] Acht badh tuirseach leanamhain air 
an g-cuis so ni as faide. 

Ag an m-bliadhain d'aois Criost 7.^15 
luaidhid na IV. MM. " Cu-dionaisc Ua 
Ferghusa d'uibh Fiachrach d'ecc " — d'uibh 
Fiachrach tuaisccirt Chonnacht mar 
shaoilimse. In san m-bliadhain 791 do bhi 
Cu-dionaisc eile ann do fuair bas annsin — 
" Cu-dinaisc mac Conghasaigh abb Arda- 
Macha." Deir ODonnubhain in a notaibh 
ag an m-bliadhain so go bh-fuil an Cii- 
dlnaisc so air n-a chur sios i Saltair Chaisil 
i reim Airdeaspog Arda-Macha. Cia 
gnathach go leor 'na ainm-baistidh e fad o, 
nil fhios agam a ndearnadh sloinne riamh 
dhe, ni mo an bh-fuil gne air bith don ainm 
air marthain in Eirinn andiu. 

Ni fliaca me an t-ainm Cu-fionn\\\ aon 
saothar seanchais do na h-aoisibh meadh- 

agus is cuma cionnas ainmnighmid iad oir j onacha na deidheanacha, acht cuiridh Tain 
ta brigh chomhfhoclach ag gach cas gein- ŵ Ciiailgne in iul duinn gur mhac do 
eamhnach. Isiomdha comhfhocalGaedhilge ! mhacaibh Fhearghusa mic Roigh Cu-find 

ata cumtha mar so, go h-arighthe an meud 
in ar b'e an chcud shiolla aon do na 
siolladhaibh so ; d)-, do- so- in- agus air 
amannaibh e- cas-\ mar taid diofhola (gan 
full, " bloodless ") dirimhe (gan aireamh — 
riomh=aireamh, contas), doichincoil, 

airighthe. Is don Choin-fhinn so do bhi 
Dal g-Confhinn i d-tuaisceart Chonnacht, 
treabh dar sloinne Ui Finn iaramh — or h- 
ainmnigheadh Cuil Ua bh-Finn (" Coolavin" 
i m-Beurla) dar ba thighearna i d-tosach 
na seachtmhadh. aoise deug Fearghal U^ 



Gadhara patrun na g-Ceithre Maighistir. 
Sa' m-bliadhain 1037 do marbhadh Cu- 
iouinhain Ua Ruband tighearna Phuirt- j 
Lairge le n-a chineul fein. Acht ni feas i 
dam an bh-fuil foirm air bith do Cu-ioniiiliain j 
'na shloinne againn anois. Deanfaidhe 
" Mac Con-Inuna " no " Mac Inuna " de ag 
cur Beurla air. 

In san ainm Cu-glas is doigh gur b'i ciall 
an chomhfiiocail — ni h-e " uaithne " {green) 
na " gorm " {b/in) cia go bh-fuil an da cheill 
so aige air choraibh cinnte — acht " Hath " no 
" leath-bhan " {grav) mar ta fos in san radh 
coitcheann " capall glas " {a gray horse) 
agus in a leithid do raidhtibh eile, in nach 
coir Hath do chleachtadh. Is ro arsaidh an 
t-ainm e, aciit ni fuarus na ainm dileas e acht 
uair amhain i bh-flaithcas Chonaire Mhoir 
dogliabhardrigheEireanndcich m-bliadhna 
air tri fichcadaibh reir na scanchaidheadh 
[aois an domhain 5091, .i. an cheud aois ria 
ngein Chriost]. Do bhi righ Laighean san 
aimsir sin — Donn Deasa a ainm ; agus do 
bhi mac aige darb' ainm Cit-glas, ba phrimh- 
shealgaire don ardrigh. Ag seilg do 
Choinghlas la n-ann do teangmhadh leis 
go h-obann uaimh airighthe in ar ghabh an 
fiadh agus na coin 'na dhiaidh. Chuaidh 
Cu-glas isteach da leanamhain, acht ni 
thainic se choidhche air a ais, agus o sin 
amach ni facadh air an saoghal e. On la sin 
gus andiu do thugadar na Laighnigh air an 
t-slighe in a n-dearnadh an t-sealg sin 
Bealach ChongJilais, agus air an uaimh fein 
Uaimh Bhea/aigh Chonghlais. Se Bealach 
Chonghlais gnath-ainm baile bhig ata san 
tuaith da ngoirthear Condae Chillc-Mantain 
andiu, acht do rinne lucht Beurla truailli- 
ughadh gan ceill don t-sean-ainm sin ag 
goireadh " Baltinglass " de.* 

(Le bheitli air leananiJiain.) 

*Ba h-Uath Bhealaigh Chons;hlais aon do n.i " primli- 
sceultaibli " do bhi d'fhiachaibh air gach ard-fhile do 
bheiih aige : acht dtir OComhraidh (Ltcturis p. 586) 
gur ro bhcag don sceul do thainic anuas gus an ainiair 

[Do bhi ait eile, agus aon ait amhain. cho maiih a's is 
fios duinn, in Eirinn, d'.ir bh' ainm Bcilach Chonglnis in 
allod, acht ni thig linn a raiih cad e an t-ainm a ta air 
anois. Trachtann Ceitinn air Bhcalach Chonglais eigin 
gar do Bhaile Chorcaighe, .ngus deir an .Sheobhath (in a 
chlo de Ceitinn) nach bh-fuil an t-ainm ann anois.— F.E.] 

By Rev. JOHN J.\.MES O'Carroll, S.J. 


We have already mentioned that besides 
Tirnanog, the Ossianic Society published 
other poems, which were in the form of 
dialogues between Oisin and St. Patrick. 
Before touching on them individually, we 
will consider, more fully than we have done 
hitherto, this bold Irish idea, pleasing at 
once to the poet and to the philosopher, of 
making a pagan of the wild Fenian times 
meet the Apostle of Ireland face to face, 
and compare with him the old order with 
the new. In studying Tirnanog, it was 
natural that our attention should be 
chiefly occupied with the wonderful story 
which Ossian there relates, and which 
accounts poetically for the origin of that 
peculiar and striking form of composition, 
the Ossianic Patrician Dialogue. We will 
now examine the use to which this form 
has been put in other cases than that of 
Tirnanog, whether it has been really 
devoted in the main to philosophical and 
poetical views, or, as has been supposed by 
Macpherson, whether its real development 
presents us with a vulgar and degrading 

We do not think that the philosophical 
development of this form of composition 
has been very happy. It is a form which 
seems to lend itself in an especial manner 
to noble and even sublime moralizing ; but 
formal moralizing, in the good sense of 
the words, appears to have been generally 
eschewed in the course at least, if not 
always at the end, of our Irish imaginative 
compositions. Philosophical insight into 
the ways and characters of men, 
philosophical consistency in their represen- 
tation, we find indeed abundantly, but an 
incidental philosophical statement.evenafew 
wise moral saws, like the reflections of a 
Greek Corj'phaeus, seem scarcely to have 
found place in the midst of our brilliant 
Irish prose tales and poems. The fault we 
believe indeed is in general one on the right 
side ; but for the development of the 



Ossianic Patrician Dialogue, it is peculiarly 

It may of course, in a certain sense, be ad- 
mitted tiiat Oisin becomes a moralizer ; but 
it must be remembered, in the first place, that 
in his moralizing, or rather ethical criticism, 
he was a violent partisan. And as he was a 
partisan on the wrong side, his criticism is 
no moralizing in the good sense of the 
word — it is introduced not to win assent but 
to excite wonder or amusement. In the 
dialogues between him and Patrick, it is 
the saint that ought to be the moralizer, 
and unfortunately St. Patrick is nothing 
of the kind. Indeed he appears to be a 
most dogmatic, uninteresting good man, 
short and dry of speech, and severe in 
doctrine and in life, with true kindliness 
of heart for Oisin, and real intellectual 
curiosity about the olden time. He is 
indeed represented as guilty of what is 
called a pious fraud to secure poor 
Oisin's conversion. Herein he is made 
do wrong undoubtedly, but it is through 
ill-understood zeal and charity. 

He is, however, most certainly quite the 
opposite of the St. Patrick whom IVIacpher- 
son wrote of, as introduced into the Irish 
Ossianicdialogues. Macpherson in his "Dis- 
sertation concerning the Poems of Ossian," 
goes so far as to tell us that St. Patrick 
is there represented as married to Oisin's 
daughter. So very unlike is this to our 
Ossianic poems, that we find Oisin 
complaining of the celibacy of Patrick's 
clerics, among whom the helpless old pagan 
was reduced to live. We read in the 
• Lament of Oisin," " The food that 
abounds most with Patrick are bells 
screeching and howling, his crozier and his 
book of offices, and the continual genu- 
flexions of the clerics : though great their 
piety and their prayer, I see no abundance 
to make up for it, but long fasting and 
scantiness .... I see with them no young 
maiden, no woman married or single." 
And in the " Dialogue " Oisin repeatedly 
addresses St. Patrick by the title of " Chaste 
Cleric." We do not know exactly where 
Macpherson got his idea of the Ossianic 
Patrick who he says " drunk (sic) freely, 
and had his soul properly warmed with 

wine to receive with becoming enthusiasm 
the poems." Dr. Joyce indeed remarks in 
his preface that " scraps and fragments of 
these tales have been given to the world 
in popular publications," but that " many 
of these specimens have been presented 
in a very unfavourable and unjust light — 
distorted to make them look funny, and 
their characters debased to the mere 
modern conventional stage Irishman, 
There is none of this silly aiid odious vul- 
garity in the originals!' Dr. Joyce adds, 
very oddly, in a note : " Macpherson never 
sinned in this way." He means of course 
to allude to the poetry, not the prose, 
which the celebrated Scotchman published. 
However the error or the sin originated, 
it is clear that Macpherson's St. Patrick 
is b)' no means the saint of our Ossianic 

What is more, not Macpherson's St. 
Patrick, but our own Ossianic St. Patrick, 
the grave, earnest missionary, was a well- 
known character in Highland poetry in 
Macpherson's time. We find in the report 
of the more than once quoted Highland 
Committee, that both Lord Webb Seymour 
in South Uist, and Mr. Hill in his dealings 
with the "very ingenious" blacksmith 
MacNab, came on Ossianic-Patrician 
Dialogues just like our own. After noticing 
that besides poems, " there are a number 
of tales current among the people, attribut- 
ing to the Fingalian heroes the power of 
giants, full of miraculous events and most 
romantic superstitions," in short, Ossianic 
prose tales with all the Irish characteristics. 
Lord Webb goes on to mention that Mr. 
McDonald, whom he calls according to 
Highland custom by the name of his place, 
Scalpa, " told us of a dialogue in verse 
betwixt Ossian and Peter of the Psalms 
(supposed to be one of the first Christian 
missionaries}." Here we must beg the Irish 
reader to remember that Peter and Patrick 
were declared not many years ago at a 
trial before the House of Lords, to the very 
great astonishment of a learned English 
judge, to be in North Britain one and the 
same name. "Of the Psalms" is a well- 
known affix to St. Patrick's name in Irish. 
The account given of the dialogue between 



" Peter " and Ossian shows us the 
"supposed" early Christian missionary 
doing just what we read of in our own 
Ossianic poems. "Peter," says Lord Webb, 
" is endeavouring to convert Ossian, wlio is 
represented as extremely old." 

Mr. Hill is a great deal more particular. 
From his friend, the ingenious blacksmith 
at Dalmaly, he got an Ossianic manuscript, 
he calls " Peter" Patrick, he gives Gaelic 
verses at full length. In his edition of the 
dialogue between Patrick and Ossian, the 
eighth Gaelic verse corresponds to the first 
in the " Dialogue" published by our own 
Ossianic Society ; the first line indeed is 
exactly the same in both the Scotch and 
the Irish form, the second has " the psalms" 
in Scotch for " the psalm" in Irish, and the 
third and fourth lines are so like in both 
languages, not only in sense, not only in 
words, but even in the collocation of 
words, that it would be quite impossible to 
consider such a resemblance accidental, 
even in the case of bards accustomed to the 
Ossianic st}'le and manner. In the course 
of the dialogue we find, of course, our own 
Ossianic St. Patrick. Mr. Hill remarks in 
a note : " St. Patrick, Jesuit-like, seems 
willing to compound with Ossian ; and to 
admit the pagan songs, provided Ossian on 
the other hand would admit Christianity." 
Neither Mr. Hill nor Lord W. Seymour 
has the slightest admiration for Patrick or 
for Peter. He is but a poor " polemic." 
But neither of them seems to have the 
slightest idea that the poor missionary's 
way of living was in any degree unworthy 
of his vocation, or that he was in his deal- 
ings with Ossian anything like the " Hail 
fellow 1 well met!" of Macpherson. Indeed, 
in the twenty-fifth stanza of Mr. Hill's 
" Dialogue " Ossian addresses St. Patrick 
as " New Roman Cleric !" 

The reader will admit that this docs not 
appear to be exactly the style of a father- 
in-law. Everything we can make out 
about the Highland poems, as well as the 
Irish ones, seems to lend no countenance 
whatever to the idea that any family 
connexion between the pagan and the 
missionary ever entered into the imagination 
of the old Celtic bards. Yet the idea does 

not seem to have originated with Mac- 
pherson. Both Lord Webb Seymour and 
Mr. Hill have it, unfortunately for its value, 
in different forms. Lord Webb says that 
" Peter " had married Ossian's daughter. 
Mr. Hill, after mentioning that Ossian 
was usually represented as Fingal's son, 
observes " MacNab said St. Patrick was 
Fingal's son." It should seem that the 
supposed relationship was a theory started 
by Highland viva voce commentators, to 
explain the intimacy between Ossian and 
the saint, which they found sung of by 
the bards. Unfortunately for it, like other 
theories of commentators, it appears to 
be, to use a mild term, quite unsupported 
by the authors. 

Notwith.standing the unpleasing appear- 
ance, on the whole, of the austere St. 
Patrick of the Ossianic poems, it seems to 
us undeniable that there was great activity 
of thought displayed in confronting him 
with the wholly heathen-minded Oisin. 
In the piece called especially, as we have 
already remarked. The Dialogue of these 
two personages Oisin relates story after story 
of the old Fenian days to Patrick. We 
have not time to enter upon the description 
ofthese brilliant pictures, suffice it to say that 
they are poetically written after the manner 
we have sketched. Butthererecursagainand 
again throughout these poetic rhapsodies 
of the old man, whose mind and memory are 
clear about early da3^s, the hard practical 
struggle of principles set before us in 
their tangible conclnsioits for ordinary 
life, and renewed with clear, plain harsh- 
ness by the pagan and the saint. Here 
if the saint is the strict ascetic, Oisin is 
represented with painful consistency and 
truth to nature, as almost be)-ond the 
stage of the "lean and slippered pantaloon;" 
and turning from the recapitulation of past 
glories to inveigh, with something of the 
bitter helplessness of second childhood, 
against the poor diet of Patrick and his 
clerics. Patrick encourages him, indeed, to 
speak historically of the past, but checks 
his gross moralizing, asks him to recount 
events, warns him not to dwell with 
attachment on his recollections of persons. 
i But at times they both speak in very 


elevated terms, even in the midst of their 
wrangUng; the saint proclaims the power of 
the Creator, the works of the Most High, 
and the poet, with almost startling bold- 
ness, makes the pagan boast with prefer- 
ence of the wild prowess of Fionn and his 
companion heroes. In the piece termed 
the "Lament of Oisin," we have no stories 
of the past, but the contrast between Oisin j 
and Patrick worked out in what we call i 
the plainest and most natural form. The 1 
poem opens with a long lamentation from 
which it has its name. There Oisin first 
calls on his old companions, distinguishing 
their different characters as he invokes 
them ; he then turns to speak of the God of 
Patrick, and asks from Him to be removed 
like his companions from the hateful clerics; 
but after some time, abandoning this 
prouder language, insists more grossly than 
hitherto on mere food, indulges more at 
length in vituperation of the clerics, then 
bursts into slighting and threatening 
language towards the Most High, but soon 
grows humble, and declares in his 
wretchedness that he is ready to serve 
God for food. There is surely deep 
philosophy, satirical insight in all this. St. 
Patrick works on Oisin in his softened 
mood, and succeeds in making him consent 
to everything he is told is necessary. But 
there is a considerable play of quiet irony 
in describing how as the saint gets his 
unpromising convert right on one point, he 
suddenly finds him speaking shockingly 
in his pagan simplicity on another. At 
last the grand closing comes. Oisin feels, 
we are told, the first sting of death, in the 
words of the original, "the first sharp 
arrow that death darted into his bosom." 
There are some fine passages between the 
two speakers about the approach of the 
dread visitation. But the lines with which 
the author concludes the poem are so 
calmly sublime, and yet terribly pathetic, 
that we cannot help giving them in full 
from Mr. Standish Hayes O'Grady's 

" The weakness of the extremity of death 
came full upon Oisin indeed most miser- 
ably. Alas ! he then took no delight in 
the mighty Oscar, or in Fionn of the 

hosts ! The body was deserted in every 
limb by its Vigor, its nerve, its strength, 
its motion ; Thus was overthrown by 
death Oisin of the Fenians who had 
been but foolish. Thus it was that death 
carried off Oisin, whose strength and 
vigor had been mighty ; as it will every 
warrior who shall come after him upon the 
earth. That it is which shall, indeed, 
vanquish all that shall come, and which 
has vanquished all that ever yet have 
come ; without distinction of form or 
choice, whetherthey be wretched or mighty." 
Here we have a rare instance, at the end, 
of the moralizing which we so often miss in 
the course, of an Irish composition. 

{To be continued?) 

íìotfs anil ©ucriis. 


'■ Palaeographical Minutiae. 

[Having aske 
prieturs to copv 

and obtained permission from the pro- 
be following letter from the Irish Eccle- 
iastical Raoi d. we bes; to direct our readers' attention 
thereto, and also to the remarks appended, and join in 
the hope expressed that the original entry may be care- 
fully examined. We must at the same time express our 
surDrise that any writer aware of the existence of the 
Gaelic Join mil zo\\\à assert that "Celtic students in Ire- 
land have no nicdmin of intercommunication, &c." — 
Ed. G. 7.] 

(From the Irish Ecclesiastical Record for April.) 

" Explanatory Note. 

Sir, — In the ŵtwí/ for October, 1880, I had occasion 

quote, the Fac>imde (R) in O'Curiy's Lcclures, 

well-known entry in the Book of Aim.igh : Sanctus 

, mandavit totiini fructum laboris 

causarum quam elemoisinaiuni, 

icae urbi quae scotice nominatur 

Arild Macha. Sic reperi in bebliothica Scotorum. Ego 

scripsi, id est, Caluus pereniiis, in conspeciu Briain, 

impeiatoris Scotorum, et quod scripsi finiuit pro omnibus 

regibus Maceriae. 

•' I added, m a Note, that there were some blunders in 
O'Cui ry s transcript, the inost inexcusable of which was 
the Latin genitive, Briani, — the Irish Briain, instead of 
Brian." [sic] 

" Last week my attention was called to the fact, that a 
portion of the entry containing this blunder has been 
co|.ied from the Lectures into the Gaelic Journa: (p. 36). 
Allow me therefore to supplement briefly my original 

Palricius iens ad cael 
sui, tam babtismi, t 
deferendum esse apo 



" Tlie following is a full list of the misreadings referred 

1. Coelum, for caelum. 

2. 3. Bnptistiam, „ babtismi. 

4. Quod, ,, qiiam. 

5. Que, „ quae. 

6. 7. Bililiothicis, „ bebliotliica. 

8. Briani, „ Briain. 

9. Que. „ quod. 

"The explnnatioii of the foregoing errata is, that O'Curry 
— derkeinelingnisti^chen Kenntnis^e be^ass. Windisch : 
Iri-rhr Tr-Mi", p. 152 — in tlii--, ns in similar cases, un- 
f"r iiii !'■ '\- <.■■ ;1 I '1 1.1 a\ail of com|-ieteiit assistance. 
Bui whii 1- -111 1 -iiii; i>, thit lie failed to recognise an 


■in pel n 

lh.-it n-.ivtiiieof hisli 
(.four National MSS. In the Facsiiin,. . -i- 
forniini; i and /i are all connected ; a cm , in-i.ii i .■ n 1. . 1, 
LMVi ^iliriii 1' ,■ ,1 I earance of an m. To show how an- 
|"> 1 : I ill,,; ni. we have only to bear in mind 

iliai 1 ii !^^, as a rule, when : immediately follows. 

11 1- 11 1 I .ii;i i 10, ;;. Tn proof of this I may quote 
f'iii-iiiiis. cninii'iis. anOiJiniuil. from the entry given above, 
and direct attention toother words, which it isunnece-sary 
to ci>py, in the Fac-imile of a paL;e of the 
i.hIox, in llie first volume of Ascoli's Eiiition. The 
sain- ii.h, -- ■; oven wlieie no ambiguity can arise, as 
in/ . 1 . led form of Domini, in the Milan MS. 

■■ II 1 I .: "iiLjh not often. ! is connected to Î/. But 
tlKiiii ■; , , 1 . Mdent at a glance. For, it either lias 

an ■. ,!.,., ;. 1 . < , p.irt of 'tie down siinke. 
llih 1 . - ■ 11, , 1 111 uishin- marks, llie first is 

sli.n\ii 111 I 1 I 1 1 . iiile E. Naeraani ; the next in 
o. .Ill : :i ■ 1 . ;, 1 1,1,1, nimdih 

"1 ; 11 lis occupying your space with 

rale , , i : , , .My reason for doing so is, 

tt.ii I I I II s III hcland have no medium of 

11.1 1 I I. sueh as the Fienc'i possess in the 

A'rT..- ,, , I li the Germans in the Beilräge zur 

:■«;,,., .',,.■,■■/ . ra.-hpi-uhung. 

'B. MacCARTHY D.D." 

This letter is particularly important, as though its main 
subject belongs to palae. .graphical minutiae, and is the 

qiie-i >vhr. a.-.i-a,sa.i ■.; in a .\l S. is to be read /« or ;«', 

111 ' ii:- refeis to two points in paiti- 

lu' I ) liigher interest. Judging that 

I) I I I , , ;entw"asablundei,liem.iin- 

lainsiii.i. , I „11, lu.eiilioin having " in this, as in similar 
cases, uiilortunately neglected to avail of com])etent 
assistance." .^1 d seeing that thechangein readingwhich 
he rC' oinni' nils lunis «hat iv as a Latin genitive (orm into 
asniii.:. Ill !i ■iiiii,\e. he remarks that we have here 

".Ml 111 Ill 1 'I i:,e uf Irish and l.atin which is 

soii.i 111 I I N lamal MSS. We donot think 

tliai I 1 < 111. \ - o ailiii:', ■ 1 lie jiseudo m was the consequence 
of neijlcciin'^ to avail himself of competent assistance, and 
cannot look upon an Irish genitive in the place referred 
to, as an instance of the characteristic mixture above 

We lio not of course know what are the " other cases " 
to which I 'r. M.acCarthy alludes, but there can be little 
doubt that so far as verbal criiici m was concerned, 
0'(_:urry availed himself of competent assistance. Asa 
render of Irish MSS. written in m.ddle or modern Gaelic, 
he stood clearly foremost amongst all Celtic scholirs. 
O'Donovan surpassed him, we believe, in antiquarian 


I. as well as m gram- 
niself, in the prefice to 
'uriy the extraordinary 
in Irish that had been 

his great work, I 1 

te-timony, that In 1 . ' 
lead l.y no other living scli..lar. 

On the other hand, O Curry was never tired of reinind- 
ing people of his own ignorance of l.atin, and in the in 
troduction to his Lectures on MS. Materials, he even 
shows us that he felt that deficiency so strongly as to have 
considered that it quite unfitted him for the chair of Celtic 

With regard to the very i^assage to which Dr. MncCnrthy 
refers. O'Cnrry tells us (MS. iMaterials) how he had once 
heard it discussed by ODonovnn and Tetne, how when 
they were unable to explain what the last word Maceriac 
reierred t.v. he asked tliem to give him the Engli-h of 
\\- I I..1111 \ lol, and on hearing that it meant « -r<r//, at 
liiit that it must naturally stand for Cashel, 
i, :.i : . if the Munster Kings. It surely appear» 
ao,,.ot i,,i,icJi;.le that such a man as this, who had in this 
precise pissage actually translated, with the help of 
O'Donovan's Latin, what had puzzled O'Donovan himself, 
who had thus felt in the strongest way the advantage of 
securing the information a scholar could give, would 
himself, with .assistance at hand, have chosen to edit this 
Latin passage without consulting any scholar on the 

But ill addition to these general views, we have most 
strong internal cvid. nee that his reading the pseudo in as 
he did. «as the result, not of his having neglecie.l, but of 
his ha-, ing had recourse to help. His reading of the " m ' 
shows u- lh,.t he relused to recogirse the word in which 
it occurre.l as Irish, and accepted it as l.atin. That he 
should have done this purely of himself : that he, so versed 
in Irish iiiaiiuscripts, was unab e t.j do what we all have 
to do constantly in reading letters, viz , an.dyze what 


something which seems incredible. Nowon.ler Di. Mac 
Carthy declaies it •" surprising " that " he failed to recog- 
nise an Irish word wherever p'aced." We cannoi but feel 
.satisfied that he fully recognised the letteis in question as 
sufficient to spell the Iri h word Briain, and that he felt 
he knew too little of Latin to venlure of himself to say 
that those same letters could represent a Latin form. But 
then we know he was not left to himself. We know of 
cour-e that he had competent assi-tance. He mentions at 
ihe end of his preface to his first Lectures the obligations 
he was under to many for their aid. We can understand 
how some one of his kind and admiring helpers, who knew 
l.atin, must have pointed out to him, that in this Latin pas- 
sage where " »;■' appeared, ihewor 1 it terminated ought to 
be expected to have a Latin lorm and end in ni rather than 
in. We can understand how strongly this view may have 
been urged; O'Curry may have been reminded how the 
old writer insisted on giv ng even to Cashel the Latin 
name which it had needed such ingenuity to imlerstaml ; 
it mav have been pointed out to him that when ihe writer 
decided to use the word Armagh in the Irish form, he did 
so, carefully setting before it the circumlucution " which 
is called in Gaelic." Hut a great .leal less than this 
would have been enough to mai-e O'Curry think that in 
the Latin passage, where Maelsuthain called himself Calvus 
Perennis, he had given his masttr also some kind of Latin 
name. By supposing that O'Cuny availed himself of 
competent assi-tance from a Latin scholar, there is no 
longer any ilifficulty in understanding how O'Curry chose 
to read Briani instead of Briain. If on the contrary we 
adopt Dr. MacCarthy's explanation that O'Curry neglected 
competent assistance', the thing remains, as Dr. MacCarthy 



himself acknowledges, "surprising." We certainly must 
prefer the explanation, which both appears antecedently 
prol able and when once gn en leaves nuthmg behmd it 

In til ill 11^ that the proper readmg 

«emi I nliL calls thi an mstance 

of dm 1 ml L tin There 1 

hert j 1 li 1 n m the 

case I 1 1 atm 


I this 

Is like the I'ah) Ẅ\eI/oritn in i 
1 n Engli h W e h-i\ e indeed a Lharacteu tic n ixture , 
of Irish an 1 I atm t h %\ 1 un r adei «ill easily see ' 
that It IS M.r\ different from writing I mn 1 e 1 le ;m/ 
il 1! The foil wing is in e\aii]lt i( \ hat we mi) 
reall) call chaiactenstic It 1 the enliv uf the leath 01 
Cuchullam in the Annals of Tighernach as publi hcd by 
O Conor. 

Mors ConcuUiiii fortissimi Herois Scotorum la 
lujôi-o mc rii cpi con 7 ti. hepc nic CAmbpe niAirep. 
vii. mbl. A &ey in ua^v no gibli jaij-ce-o, xvii. ah 
Tin b.\i Än-oiiroh Cana bo CiiAiLgne, xxvii. an can 

If alter Mors ConcuVlain forti^^inii Herois Scotorum 
we found all the rest in Latin, we should have almnst a 
parallel passige to the emr\ of LiUu> 1 trennis in the 
book of Armagh with the r dm- A; /;« which I)r Ma 
Carthv insists up m so strmgl) Butwecann t admit that 
the passage w uld then c nti lue t3 be a characteristic 
iniMuie in the sense in which it 1 now o called II 
even all the pr per nanus pre erxe 1 llic r lusi crmani 
all the cthei woi Is wcic wiitten in Latin the pi 1 
tio s in 1 the wor Is le eriing t Ncrsinla^ the 1 
fCuLliulhinskni.;ht o I fhiscam) igning a 1 
death bc)ondquc tion the ch ra ten tic ;/ 
cf the extract w ul 1 li a| pcai Surel) it is co 
natural en ugh tu write in Latin our m lern proj-ci names 
in their own nati c rms It is not considered alwa)s 
necessan It chin^^e Herm nn into Heimannus o 
\rmii lus L\c I oecl 1 hmsclf n his greit w Jik on 
Pindar after tiling jf H a mi ti nc m nt n 
with c mplac nc> ] I c li t ail Lu 1] 1 s 
Geoigius Dissen \\ c cann t limit tha ih nicm 
landum cf ("7 11 Ft nn i woul 1 be a charactcu tc 
ini\ture if it hil/ 1 un along with impeiatons 

Put hii It ^ On this point loo we venture to make 
a few re 1 rks 

It IS clear fiom what we have aid that on gc eial 
grou ds we cin i3t otject ver) strjngU to the new read 
ing hin n It lie nut ceni to us may w i) ridi 
culous rr rut of) lace 1 up 1 al le even 1 the man 
who callel li f ( iK I eienni 11 \ima,h 

the ap t 1 I 1 I sc 11 n 1 1 1 \i 1 1 

Macha' We 1 1 I th t t I ti 1 1 

hniiii aipci t 1 1 ic hlch I I c \ I 1 h 

aminwoullcln et writ but the extrni t cc lent 
] r I al 1 It) seems after all so slight an I problemitieil 
that we are fully 1 repired to accept the other reading, 
if it be really proved 10 exist in the manuscript. This, 
we venture to say. Dr. MacCarthy has by no means 

lie tells us indeed that "to show how impossible is 
the rcaiiiig ;//, we have only to bear in mind that in 
Irish MSS. as a rule, when i immediately follows, it 
is nut joined to «." But, in the first place, we cannot 
see the cogency of this reasoning. We cannot see how 

the existence of a general rule— of a general rule under- 
stood as Dr. MacCarthy understands it here— that is, 
of a general rule which has exceptions, such as Dr. 
MacCarthy notices in regard to this rule himself — we 
cannot see, we must say, how the mere existence of 
such a rule, open as it is to exceptions, can i>rove 
that in a particular case like ours one of the exceptions 
does not occur, ."^econdlv, even supposing that no ex- 
ception can .1 i I, lii-ugh it would then be true 
that the /.' >. 1 i : nd lor iii, we might be still 
as far as ■ 1 '. 1 ■ : lishiiig that it could st.and for 
in. To c-!,,: 11; li -, «e should have expected from 
Dr. MacCarthy in favour of /;/, the counterpart of his 
statement about ni ; we should have expected hmi after 
setting up as rule No. I, that i was not joined to a 
prcifding n, to m.iintain as rule No 2. thnt i ti'ns joined 
10 ail «yi'.'.'iiîí'i/;;- it. Tills i, :. - 11.1 ; ■. i'"iom begin- 
ning to end of his leiter tlic • ^; liest attempt 
to give any positive, dircc ,;i_: m , 1 :. ■ '.ir of ex]ilain- 
iiig the w/ as an 1». Tlii^ le.i.c 11 c, c:i lu a render to 
regard ihe w ill the MS. as a mere l:ue m, written by 
mistake, through distiaclion or some other cause, and in 
no wav sluiwiiig w helher ihe woxà was intended to be 
Bnaiii or Byiuni. Dr. .MacCarthy indeed directs the 

jmnibiis. and ẁ/»;/, where he shall see that the /that 
fellows n is not connected with it. Unfortunately the 
attentive reader must notice, at the .same time, tiiat the i 
whch piuiies n \\\ fimuit la not connected with it a 
whit moie 

Aftei peak 1 g of the rule ofnotjo ning t to a preceding 

n Dr MicCarihy prjcee Is to ti eat of the except ons to 

tl at lule wh ch hcexeni| lihesin ll e ih ce w jrds \ ; maJit, 

n, us m I n m ul He te Is us heie that u I <-n i is jcin 

e t ap el >; t 1 le uv c ill be rec gnise 1 at 

] clear ch iracleri tics 

1 l^e Dr MacC artliy s 

c w th manusciipts 

W I 11 lule as well as his 

j^eneral rule adiiint n^ of except ons But we cannot 
adm t thit it is a lul w t out e\ce| 11 n Foi il it we e, 


all III 

UUcUpt tulc.t 



1 adr 

lit a leil g CO 

111) to what 


as 1 

n ab olutelv un 

eisal rule m 


elieved is tl e re 

u t f f hi, ex 


1 q ic 01 miclit 

well be up 



im|o iblelo u 

to thi k that 


1 1 

tl Ji 1 u v b 

c n becjn 



upts \\c 



may we 1 be one ol ihe excep 1 n 

But can uo positive aigunient be b ought forward ? Aie 
we condeiin'-d to aigue mereh 1 1 luectly abiut the " ;« 
an»l speak oid;. of what it cannot stand for? Is it not 
1' -I le -o |, , III out -ome characteristics of its formation 
' v : 1 to show with some degree of probability 
\\' vi:, ,- lor in reality? We think a little at least 

In the first place we notice that in this " ;«," which 
ought to be either in or ;;.■', the middle down-stroke is less 
distant from the last one than from the first. To a person 


nccustoined only to the writing ol the present day, it 
would probably seem that the more closely connected 
strokes represent one letter, « ; the more solitary looking 
one/; an>l that as the solit.iry looking one conies first, 
the reading must be in, exactly as Dr. MacCarthy proposes 
we should read. But it is needless to say that the fac- 
simile is to be read according to the way letters were 
formed liy the original writer, not according to the way 
letters m.iy be formed to-.lav. And louking at the ad- 
mitted examples of ;;/ to which Dr. MacCartliy calls our 
attention in the iac-sunile, tlie v.orú piiaiins m the line 
above, the -words /riiiiii and oniiiihiis in tlic next line but 
one below, we shall perceive r - !i .>iir surprise) 

that though the letters are. ,i ! i, * itliy rightly 

observes, not joined, nevertiie!' i Ice of the « 

is nearer to the / that follow, w iii,i;i i.:!,.' first down- 
stroke of its own letter. Thi, 1,1. Ml i, Hired a matter that 
should astonish any one wlm i, ac< n^toined to the 
"appended" /, of which Dr. .M.ieC.irlliy speaks. But 
whether it be expected or ni.t. ihc iVi.-i i. indispiUably 
as we have said. ConsequeulK', in tlii'- Li. -Miiiiie. we 
ought naturally to regard the In' y.w. "I :i.ikr-, «hi h 
is the wider one, as representni, . ..e K:,,ii. /. ,■ .md ilie 
second narrower pair as standing loi ilie hitter lialf of n, 
with i subjoined. 

One other characteristic may be noticed which tells on 
the same side. The h we see separated from the /, in the 
three words lately mentioned, as elsewhere, has its second 
stroke decidedly more curved than the first. In the lit we 
have to study there is very little curvature anywhere, it is 
true ; but there is clearly a little more of a bend in its 
middle down-stroke than in either of its two others. 

All this is indeed but little. Vet it is more than has 
Ijeen brought forward on the other side. We must say 
that while we consider Dr. MacCarthy's reading j^ood, 
we look upon O'Curry's as better still, from the i-Jiäence 
brfoyi us at pnsenl. 

We venture to hope, however, some scholar may be 
found who will examine the original entry itself, and 
throw further light upon the question. 

íEaclíc 5Entoix PuöUcatious. 


Our readers will have observed through 
the announcement elsewhere in i\\\s Journal 
that Mr. Chamney has just published the 
first number of a series of Irish Language 
Copy-books for the " Gaelic Union," to 
rank in future among the useful and popular 
publications of that body. It is expected 
that the popular feeling of the country will 
henceforward assert itself in extending and 
acquiring a knowledge of the National 
language ; the boys and girls attending the 
National Schools are the recruits in the 
army of progress, and it is for them the 

copy-book has been written and published. 
Once a few boys in a school procure copies 
and " break the ice," the matter becomes 
contagious, and even if, through the 
desperate scramble for results now going 
on through the country, there is little time 
left to write an Irish copy, the pupils will be 
sure to write them at home if they only get 
a word of encouragement. It is well known 
that what is written makes the deepest im- 
pression on the mind as well as on the 
memory ; there is therefore no excuse for 
not learning Irish when a copy-book can 
be had for a penny. Everywhere Irish 
boys and girls will find persons to pro- 
nounce the Irish words for them and tell 
them the corresponding English words. 
The copy-book and the First Gaelic Book 
(price öwt'/í'wwj/ each part) shouldgo together, 
and be conned and learnt together. One 
word to the teachers. It is they who can 
either make or mar the good work. By 
distributing even a dozen Irish copy-books 
among the most advanced boys in the 
school, a teacher will be assisting in 
preserving the Irish language. Why not 
give Irish copy-books as premiums ? The 
next point is that results' fees should be 
obtainable for second, third, and fourth 
class pupils for handwriting in Irish, and 
for a fair knowledge of the First Irish Book. 
If the teachers' associations throughout the 
country consider this matter, and think well 
of adopting resolutions bearing on the 
point, they may rely upon it that such re- 
solutions will be carefully copied by the 
Gaelic Union, and pressed in the proper 
quarter. But copies of the resolutions 
should also be forwarded, to be laid before 
the Commissioners at tiie Education Office. 
The English of the Irish zcords in copy- 
books zuill íìppear in our next number. 

This copy-book has been prepared by the 
same hand that produced, six years ago, 
the first Irish copy-book ever issued. It 
has been carefully lithographed from his 
handwriting by the City of Dublin Steam 
Printing and Lithographing Co., Abbey-st., 
and published by Mr. A. E. Chamney, 4 
Lower Ormond-quay, Dublin. 

{ To be contiiiued.) 




[Second Leila- : seep. 25.] 

To THE Editor of the "Gaelic Journal." 

Dear Sir, — All, Saxons and Celts, will be glad of the 
inferences from the facts stated by the Census Commis- 
sioners, in their Kepoit published since I last wrote to the 
joiiriia! — ihat the Irish laiigiuige is Ikely to be preserved 
for many fuuire generations of Irishmen ; and that, so far 
from its being unaijle to assimilne nutriment, it hai shown 
itself cipab'e of very consideraljle developmeiu within the 
census decade, twenty percent, been added within 
that peiiud to the number of Irish S|ieaker> who we:e in 
the island at the Census of 1S71. This has surprised alike 
those who wish the old tongue to be preserved, and those 
who think that its extinction would be for the benefit of 
tlie country. It is veiy hard to extinguish the language 
of any of the higher varieties of the human family. The 
son of iiw great antiquarian and scholar, Dr. O'Donovan, 
found in Merv seven families of Jews who have been set- 
tled there •' from time immemorial," and who, with their 
religion and customs, have also i>re^erved their liini^iia^^e. 
Tiie English Inngu.ige had been proscribed for three hun- 
drrd year, after the Hattle of Hastings— .-o far, at least, ns 
influence and fashion could in. -cr 1 c it. It was b;inished 
from the piesence of r . i bility ; from the 

courts of law ; from tl:' - could be done ; 

from the school-, in \\\. . i ;ench only was 

taught, 'rhechilhen u ■. , :_, ...e sent to France 
to be educated. He ay 1 1., l.e l.iih u: t::e Norman kings 
in, liid not know what the English word king 
meant; and his succe sor, tl-.ough a scholar, di 1 not know 
much more of the lan^u.ige of his s.. !,;..-:»- in F'-;!.""!. 
And. So :ar from being :elixe ' \', ;• . ■ . ■' : : 

fluences h:id become more stn: _; • 
ginning of the rei;.;n of Fdwar i lii. i; : 1 ; i 

end ot this reign, after three centuries of Nuraiau rule, 11 
w,;s found " that the French language was so unknown 
in England that the parlies to law-suits had no knowledge 
or unoer.-tanding of what v.:is said for or against them, 
beciuse the cour.sel spoke in French." A law was, tliere- 
fore, passed in 1 362, which enacted that all "causes 
should be pleaded, etc . in E ^bsh ; " and bv the year 1385 
the teaching of Freneli in all the schools had been dis- 
continued, and English substituted. This attempt to 
extinguish the English language, and to instruct the child- 
ren of England throu-h the medium of an unknown 
tongue, failed most signally, as all such attempts have 
failed eveiyivhere. Strange to say, Dr. Keating ho'ds up 
William of Normandy as and Christian, because 
he did not extinguish the language of Eng and by the 
extirpation of the English raee. He sr.ys : — An ci, 
iomoni\o, x>o jni jiliiLcuf CiviorcAiriaib, ni ttiúc<.wn 
All îieAiijA bio]- i\oiTÌie Y-^n éi\ic cun\eAi- po ni )-incicu, 
«5"r T '"-51M-'" fo r'" U'Lbiin 5.%balcur &\\ ni 
Suspjib. nion vie ri- n-A ,1... Sispoiiic. '• He. how- 
ever, wiio nil' i . e a Christian never sup- 
presses the a;. -. e counirj' he reduces to 

obedience; a:._. ii. n he conquereil the Fng- 

lish. did not ....-..,.. ..e u-e of the Eiii^li-h dialect - 
(Keating's Ireland, Iiaiud..y's eiiition, Prefice. pp. xlviii., 
xlix.) The worthy Doctor thought no penalty that did 
not entail at least forfeiture of goods woith mentioning, 

though the Emperor 

to St, mp out Christii 

he Gal ! 


" the 

n believed that he would be able 
by turning awMV the light of his 
' ,d lorhidd ngthem to 

,h tongue did not e\lingui-h it in Eng- 
conirar)', many of the nobles after a lime 
knew no other lan-uage. Similarly, in spite of every 
proliiiiition, the Norman invaders of Ireland learned the 
IiiJi languanesogene^ally that Lionel, iJuke of Clarence, 
the son of Edward III., by the staiute of Kilkenny in 
1367, punished the use ol the Irish tongue toi:à:!2 the pnle 
by the forfeiture of the offender's property. And did this 
penal statute extinguish the Iiish tongue even within the 
pale ? No ; one hundred and twenty-eight years after- 
v\ards, when by Poyning's Act the otlier portions of the 
Statute of Kilkenny were re-enacted, the provisions hav- 
ing reference to the use of the Irish tongue and to riding 
without saddles were not re-enacted ; " both of these 
practices had become so universal that it was thought to 
be hopeless to forbid them" ("Kingdom of Ireland," 
page 78). Two hundred years more brings us to the Re- 
volution, and in that time' all the Irish-speaking porti ms 
of Ireland were twice depopulated, or nearly so, and 
twice planted again from Eni^land ; and so complete was 
Cromwell's clearance of the three provinces effected, as 
Mr. Prendergast somewhere states, that three old men 
had to be l>rought back f om Connaught to point out 
some boundaries on tlio Ma qir.s of Ormonde's property. 

Anil the end of ,. 
" Forty years afi r 
numbers of the eh.' 
to speak a word of i _ . 

passed away since that I in / ; a g 
was once more confiscated ; half a 
fifty years didl in the service of F: 
laws deprived the Irish-spea 

Walpole. that 
ijieen nccom]ilis!ied, 
-oldierswere unable 
centuries more have 
it p iitioii of Ireland 
llion of Ivishineii in 
ice. and the pen.-d 
opie for a period of 

a time the-e laws üe; 
ere alio A ed to educate 
lit a worse enemv th,-; 

dead letter, and the iieople \ 
selves as best they could. 

,1,,. ,,„r,al liws had risen uo n^r ir^sr tii,> lnn"-n.i -i- an I I te- 
f Ireland. This - ' '• s' ion 

1 these vulgar- .'. oili- 

I people scoffed a- "- ■■■ .13 

ueueved, as it i- Still be',; ■ ' re- 

vented a person from writ!,: ".lid 

speaking that lan.^unge. a -to 

the accent a vulgar tone ; . -.lei. 

The Irish people are great lovers 01 ie.;raiir_; ; oniy are 
also most aft'.ctionate p.irents, and tliese tuo adnuraiile 
traits in them were made the ]irinclpd ins'ruments to ex- 
tirpate the Iii-h tongue. The eager desire of Irish |)arents 
to see their children educated so lar overcame their natural 
affection for these chiidren that they gave them up to be 
mangled by the more illiterate of the brutal hedge-school- 
masters, in order to lake the Irish out of them. Tiiis 
flogging the Irish out of the children of Ireland was. it 
appears, practised in most parts of Irel.ind successively. 
When I was four or flie yesrs of nge I he.srd my fither 
describe his meeting a little fellow named H.mnigai 
coming into my native village to school, wi h a tally tied 
under his chin. This tally — a slender piece of «ocd — 
wrmld become notched if 1 he wearer o: it spoke a word 
cS !,.-•,_,:, rh.. tr..thfi:l v-en-s and ;e, cacrs t.jld the 

fellow whcihcr he li.ida..y lec.dlectiùn of Seijin Si0i\ 
(Cheap John), the teacher who liad put on the tally. 
"No," he replied, " except seeing my brother Robert's 



back all cut from a flogging he gave him." Nor have I 
any recollection of this teacher's appearance or of his 
school, except seeing a boy of about nine years old, with 
his little coat off, tied acn ss the table while the master 
flogged him. I recollect distinctly his screams and strug- 
gling, and thiit at last he drew the table over and lay 
under it. The boy whose back is referred to al;ove as 
being cut did not speak a word of Irish until he was 
twenty years of age, though neither of his parents could 
speak more than a few words in English. A priest, who 
has made much use of the Irish language in his missionary 
labours, told me that twenty years after Che.Tp John's 
he, wiih his brothers and sisters, regularly left the 

enmg wl 

Irish < 


taught. Living in an Irisli-speaking locality, he couM 
not avoid learning a good deal of the language, which he 
afterwards studied in college, and which, as said above, 
he has turned to very good account on his diflerent mis- 
sions. In the courts of justice, too, the Irish language as 
a rule was sneered at, and the witnesses who could speak 
a few words of English were forced to give their evidence 
in this language. It is but a short time since the judge 
has left us who, in the most Irish-speaking district in the 
countrv, refused to allow their expenses to any but Eng- 
lish-speaking witnesses : the father of this judge, I be- 
lieve, spoke Irish well. This is a point of such importance 
that all should understand it. Witnesses are compelled 
to try and tell the tiuth, and often to reply to puzzling 
questions, in a language that they do not understand, 
whereas they would ha^ e explained what they had to say 
as well as the lawyer examining them if allowed to speak 
in Irish. This subject was incidentally referred to in my 
former letter in an excerpt from Dr. Sigerson's Report ; 
but as all should be well instructed on it, the following 
extract is given from " Sketches in Ireland," by the Rev. 
Ca:sar Otway. He was in Lord Bantry's domain with a 
friend, he tells us, and : — 

"A shower of rain sent us to seek shelter in the hut of 
the man who looks after the pheasants. He was alone, 
and, with all the civility that never deserts an Irishman, 
he welcomed us in God's name, and produced stools, 
which he took care to wipe with his great coat before he 
permitted us to sit upon them. On inquiring from him 
why he was alone and where were his family, he said they 
were all gone to Watch-Mass (it was the Saturday before 
Easter iJay). 'And what is the Watch-Mass?' He 
could not tell. 'And what day was yesterday?' He 
could not tell. ' And what day will to-morrow be ? ' He 
could not tell. 'What! Cannot you tell me why yes- 
terday was called Good Friday and to-morrow Easter 
Sunday?' 'No.' Turning to my companion, I was 
moved to observe, with great emphasis, how deplorable 
it was to see men otherwise intelligent so awfully ignorant 
concerning matters connected with religion. ' Not so 
fast with your judgment, my good sir,' said my friend. 
'What if you prove very much mistaken in this instance 
concerning the knowledge of this man ? Recollect, you 
are now speaking to him in a foreign tongue. Come 
now, I know enough of Irish to tiy his mind in his native 
dialect.' Accordingly he did so ; and it was quite sur- 


how the 

soon as the Irish • 

spoken, brightened up in 
ceive, from the smile that played on the face ot my friend, 
how he rejoiced in the realization of his prognostic, and 
he began to translate for me as follows : — I asked him 
what was Good Friday? ' It was on that day the Lord 
of Mercy gave his life for sinneis : a hundred thousand 
blessings to him for that.' ' What is Walch Saturday?' 
' It was the day when watch was kept over the holy tomb 
that held the incorruptible body of my Saviour.' Thus 

the man gave in Irish clear and feeling answers to ques- 
tions concerning which, when addressed in English, he 
appeared quite ignorant ; and yet of common English 
words and phrases he had the use, but, like most of his 
countrymen in the south, his mind was groping in foreign 
parts when conversing in English, and he only seemed to 
think in Irish : the one was the language of his commerce, 
the other of his heart." 

Such is the illiterate Irish-speaking peasant in Cork. 
Dr. Sigerson in Connemara found him, when " ques- 
tioned in the native tongue, expressing himself with cor- 
rectness, and often with remarkable grace." Professor 
O'Mahony found that the young Irish-spenking children 
in Donegal " almost invariably hit on the right idea with 
almost metaphysical precision when they esplained [the 
meaning of a word] through the medium of the Iiish." 
In Waterford, too, he and Mr. Curry, agent to the Duke 
of Devonshire, in the presence of the duke, "put several 
questions to the children of the lowest classes in Irish, and 
they answered them to their satisfaction." Throughout 
Ireland, in the National Schools, the same questions are 
given to the children in the seveial classes respectively, so 
that the comparative intelligence of the chililren in these 
schools can be tested as conclusively as their physical 
powers could be tested in field exercise. In the English- 
speaking portions of Ireland the school-houses and .all the 
school appliances are better than in the Irish-speaking 
localities ; the roads to school are better ; the children are 
better off in respect of food and clothing ; the teachers are 
at least as good— they should be better, for the good 
teacher from the West is often found coming to the East, 
on account of the higher emoluments to be found in this 
latter quarter of the island ; and, in spite of all these dis- 
advantages, the Iiish-speaking children, by their natural 
intelligence, earn higher, far higher, results fees than their 
little kindred in the English-speaking quarters. And 
whence comes this natural intelligence ? It comes, doubt- 
less, from the prevalence of the Irish language in the sea- 
board district— there is no other way of accounting for it. 
It is further to be remarked that no use has been made of 
their knowledge of the Irish language to instruct these 
children ; their superiority is derived solely from their 
superior natural intelligence. But would instructing these 
Irish-speaking children through the medium of their 
native language be an advantage ? Sir Patrick J. Keenan, 
in his reports and evidence, has so incontrovertibly proved 
this that all adverse pens and tongues have been com- 
pletely silenced — not a single line in answer to his reason- 
ing on the subject has ever appeared, so far as I am 
aware. And in practice, the people of Wales have put 
the question beyond yea or nay. In Wales the Welsh 
langu£ige is not taught in the National Schools ; it is 
taught at home and in the Sunday Schools, and the 
poorer Welsh children come to the National Schools with 
just as little English as the children of Ballyferriter or 
Camus. In school they are taught in English — taught 
reading, arithmetic, grammar, geography, along with 
English-speaking children, with children who spoke Eng- 
lish in the cradle, and nothing but English ever since. 
And the Welsh children are able to hold their own against 
these — so savs the Rev. Mr. Pryce, one of her Majesty's 
Inspectors of Schools in Wales. He says :— " Practically 
I do not find that the Welsh language is any real difficulty 
in the working of a school. . . . It is a fact that, 
citleris paribus, the percentages of passes in Welsh 
schools are very little, if any, belo.v those in English- 
speaking districts. When it is considered that very many 
of those children have been in school only a short time, 
that they knew no English when they entered, and that 
after school hours Welsh alone is spoken, I often wonder 



at the proficiency with which some of these poor Welsh 
children read English books." The explanation is quite 
easy. Listening to shrewd parents like Lord Bantry's 
man, they learn shrewdness ; they speak their native lan- 
guage at home and at play without let or hindrance ; they 
then come to school to a teacher who knows their own 
language, and who will tell them the names of turf, bog, 
and all other objects in Welsh. Thus they are able to 
contend in English with their English-speaking school- 
fellows, or with the children in the oiher portions of Eng- 
land. It is sad to contrast these Welsh children with the 
poor little ones of Coumeenole, where " the young child- 
ren, though they attend school, and are able to read the 
Third and Fourth Books tolerably well, feel «holly at a 
loss to comprehend any question addressed to them in 
English." The little fellows of Coumeenole liave received 
from Nature talents and faculties as good as those ot their 
little Welsh cousins— the systems of education make all 
the diflerence. When, a century and a half since, the 
Welsh people had made considerable progress towards 
voting their own language unfashionable, one man, the 
Rev. Griffith Jones, turned the tide. "Ireland had no 
man like Dudley," said Sir Robert Kane. Alas ! she 
had no man like the Rev. Griffith Jones. It is certain — 
at least, I have no doubt on the subject — that Sir Patrick 
J. Keenan, had he been untrammelled, and had he been 
in a position of influence like the Rev. Mr. Jones, would 
have acted the part of this gentleman in Ireland ; but 
then perhaps the loss to others of our school children 
would be comparatively great. He, without any doubt, 
recommended, and with all his heart, that the Irish- 
speaking children of Ireland should be instructed 
rationally. Had he been listened to, how many thousands 
of the children brought up in ignorance would be en- 
lightened — how many kept from vice, from being out- 
casts ? The school managers in these poor districts have 
made superhuman efforts to educate the little ones under 
their charge. Can nothing, wiil nothing, be done to help 
them ? Surely, neither the hand nor head of Sir Patrick 
has yet lost its cunning. \\'hen he recommended to the 
powers that be the advisability of having the Maltese 
children instructed through the medium of their own lan- 
guage, his recommendations were listened to and acted 
upon. There are in the Irish-speaking districts of Ireland 
at least 'three times .as many children as in the Maltese 
Islands, and to whom it is as indispensable that their 
instruction should be in Irish, as it is to the children of 
Malta that theirs should be in Maltese ; and there are as 
many mure in Ireland who are more or less bilingual, and 
to whom a word, a hint, or a question in Irish would 
occasionally be of the greatest advantage. Is there nobody 
to speak for the poor Irish-speaking children of Ireland ? 
\'ery many of them are now steeped in miser)-, but that 
certainly is no reason why they should not be as much a 
concern to us as the children in the Islands of the Mediter- or of the Carribean Sea. 


To THE Editor of the "Gaelic Journal." 

Sir, — Can you contrive to allow me a little space for a 
ew words of direction to your young readers — to those 
especially who have no teacher to instruct them, (i.) 
Never say ■o.ioniib, bói\'Oiib, te.jb^\Aib; always read or 
say ■DAOine, bóip-o, teibpa : in a word, always read the 
dative plural as the nominative plural. (2. ) Never say 
buûiU-D, ounAÌ-ò, ici-D, obait), but buAibgi-o, ■oiinAigi'o, 
ici^i-D, ólûigi-ô ; i.e., in the second person plural, im- 
perative mood, imagine the letters 15 before the m final. 

The expression 111 b-puil has been condemned by the 
reviewer of the Gaelic Journal in one of the Dublin 
newspapers, the condemnation has been heartily 
sanctioned by Mr. O'Neill Russell ; and I have been 
asked either to defend my use of the expression or to 
confess that I was wrong in using it. Well, I have only 
to say in its favour, that it is used in the Irish Bible ; by 
Keating, O'MoUoy (Rev. Francis), and by Donlevy ; 
and in our own times, by Father Daniel O'Sullivan, 
Patrick Denn, Thomas Hickey, and William Williams : 
— not only was it used by them — it was almost exclusively 
used by them, and certainly they were all good Irish 
scholars, who had heard Irish spoken in their cradles, and 
who continued to speak it during their lives. Patrick 
Denn was a native of Cappoquin, in the County of Water- 
ford, where perhaps the best Irish in Munster was spoken. 
He published an Irish translation of "Think Well On't " 
in the Roman characters, and nearly phonetic in sound, 
and in Chap. XI. of this work he says : "_AV vfuil aon 
imeacht uaig, caihfe siv é hcasav amach." To most of 
your readers this little extract below from Keating's work 
on Death will be a proof that a writer may write m b-puib 
without being either pedantic, or ignorant, or careless. 
It is his rendering of the latter clause of verse 12, Chap, 
iv. of the Acts of the Apostles : " lli b-puil &on Ainm 
eile A\\ r\& wail -oo ■oioniili ■(& ne&m lonnib ei-oip 
l-inii no vlÁnugd-ó." In this verse of his Bible, Mr. 
O'Neill Russell will find the expression used twice. Per- 
haps it were well to tell young readers that ri b-^ruil, 
ni full and ni'L are identical. The former is that mostly 
used in prose, except of a light or colloquial kind ; the 
second is substituted for the first by some of our best 
authorities, but, notwithstanding, it is ver)- sparingly em- 
ployed by our writers. Ili'L is chiefly used in poetry, in 
dialogues, and in catechetical works ; but even in these, 
tii b-vuil is occasionally used, and e\en by our best 
scholars. Incidentally looking into a number of Petrie's 
works on Irish Music within the last few days, I found 
this line which I took down: nj b-puil 'pjm poinn 
eopûip 4on c-i-eoi-o niof T>ei]-e '11Á cu. The song from 
which this line was copied was given to Petrie by 
O'Curry, who had it taken down from the dictation of his 

My attention has been also called to another letter, of a 
very different kind, that appeared in the Fireman's Journal 
of the 7th inst., over the signature of Mr. Daniel Lynch, 
of Philipstown, Dunleer. In this letter it is said : " You 
hold the National Board responsible, through the difficulty 
of its curriculum, for the small number ot teachers who 
fail to obtain certificates of competency to teach our time- 
honoured vernacular." 

These are very fine-sounding expressions, but I cannot 
pretend to understand them : Davus siim. But no matter 
Mr. Lynch then goes on to say : " [Only] let the teachers 
learn to acquire a sound grammatical knowledge of Irish 
grammar, and certificates will be given, results' fees 
earned, and the Irish language will prolong its e-iistence 
into the far future." 

Now. Mr. Lynch is a National Teacher, and the 
National Teachers in the ' Congress of 1S74 unanimously 
adopted as a principle that the Irish language could be 
preserved from extinction only by having the children in 
the Irish-speaking localities taught in Irish at first in the 
National Schools, and this adoption has been renewed at 
every successive Teachers' Congress since. Mr. Lynch is 
also a member of both the Irish Societies, and on the 
council of each, and these societies have adopted this 
principle : in fact it was the foundation-stone of the 
monster memorial addressed to the Commissioners of 
National Education, and it has in some form been repeated 


in almost every clocumtnt of importance i-sued by eiiher 
soci' ty. And Mr. Lynch knows as well as any man 
in Ireland, that by the iirogiamme of the Naiionnl 
Board no chiid in the first, second, third or fouith 

cl.iss, can be tnii-: t in Iri-h, lior earn r.ny lesilt^ ; 
nor can . ! \ ■ , ' ■ ; 

too, that tf eveiy fv.cher in the Ii 
ties had a certiticate of competcn : 
that the number of pupils in these i! 
to satisfy the condiiiunä required, ■■ _ : _ .. y 
i-mall iraciional percentnge of the schoul-^uing 
children, and the results' fees they would earnin'liith 
would be almost ml. And he knows, moreover, that any 
intelligent Irish-speaking teacher, without any theoretical 
knowledge of Irish Giammar, and without a certificate, 
would instruct the >«7/ẃ?- classes in Irish as well as he or 

As I 'ir-v- "-n often to refer to the Commissioners of 
Nr: ■ 1 I ' ■■ '--n, under whom I passed thirty-six years 
of i: - you will allow me to quote the follow- 

ing . .' ni a letter I once wrote to you, and which 

ytu afierwarus li.ought it for the intere^t of the Irish lan- 
guage to print in the Gaelic Department of February 5th. 
1S81 : "A Saracen general, it is said, directed the Library 
of Alexandria to be given to the flames ; but in two cen- 
turies or so after the Caliphs in Asia, in Africa and in 
Spain were vying with one anotlier to repair the great 
injury that liiera ure had suliered at the hands of Amru. 
England, too, is repairing the injury inflicted on the peo- 
ple of Irelrdid when it was a cause lor pains and penalties 
to teach the alphabet there. It must be confessed, too, 
that were it not for the Board of National Education the 
Irish teachers during the years of famine — the decade 
from '47 to '57 — would be as completely starved in the 
conntry places in Ireland as were the Irish fiddlers and 
story-tellers." Believing, then, as I do, that by the Na- 
tional Board thousands of my fellow-teachers were saved 
from stanation and the workhouse, and my country from 
being the lowest in education of the civilized nations in 
Europe, I do regarJ the Commissioner-- with feelings o! 
sincere gratitude. But I am not ccmversant enough with 
'■ humnn nature " and its a.ijuncts, to affect to hold them 
111 . melees of the ignor.mcc of the thousamls in the west of 
Ireland now leaving their nitive country, and who, with 
the brightest intellects, are going to seek a living among 
a people of whose language they are as ignorant as they 
are of Sanscrit. 

I am yours sincerely, 

49 South Circulnr-rond, 

19th March, 18S3. 



Pear Sir — In the third number of the Irislcahhar 
there was a long letter on tlie above subject from 
clinn Concob,Mi\, a writer who, by his pai-ers on the 
" Sounds and Letters of the Irish Language, ' shows that 
he is one of your ablest contributors. .\s I appear to be 
the only heretic there is now on the question that has 
been raised, I think I need make no apology for asking 
a little of your space to contest some of cL<iiin Con- 
6obûip's statements, and to show that such views as I 

hold are not really so foolish and unreasonable after all. 
But as )-ou have already printed one letter of mine on this 
subject, in which I have already answered some objections 
similar to those raised by ClAuti Concob.Mp, and have 
there given some reasons for my preference ol the ordinary 
Roman character for |iractical work in, 1 shall have 
all the less to do in this letter, and will, therefore, confine 
myself to what did not come within the scope of my 
answer to the revievver. Let me, in the first place, pro- 
:. I V ;;>; cU\iiii Coiicobo,ii\s calling the ordinary 
1 ,1 \ • i-iurs " English " — a mistake made also by 
I ■ !'■ irvii -.vlinml have already answered. To speak of 
i;,e rii.iKu It 1, v.hich are used by a dozen different nations 
in Europe, and by all the nations of America, from North 
to South, in the literature of the four chief languages 
spoken on that continent, as " English " in any way or 
under any condition, is certainly out of all reason, and 
looks like an attenint to create, or rather to perpetuate, a 
foolish and groundless prejudice. Neither can I allow 
your correspondent to speak of the Irish letters as our 
"native' char.^cters. Let us say all we can within the 
bounds of fact for the Irish character : but Cliiiti Con- 
cubAii\ himself admits, both in his letter and elsewhere, 
that it was not really '•native." as was thought so long, 
it was common in early Christian ages all over the West 
of Europe : Christian Rome being the source whence the 
western nations all got it. After all other nations had 
discarded it for a newer and more convenient style, of 
writing and printing, the Iiish retained it ; and so at this 
day it is "Irish" only by survival. The name will do 
well enough, and it is pretty generally understood now 
throughout Eurojîe ; our alphabet certainly has more 
right to be called " Irish " than a certain style of old 
character has to be called " Old English ' — a term which 
is allowed, and which is generally understood. But to 
speak of the Irish character as being '' native " is mis- 
leading, and, like the mistake about the " English " cha- 
racters, only tends to confirm old prejudices. 

Mr. Colin Cliisholm, in his temperately written letter, 
very reasonably pointed to the fact that for more than a 
century several Irish works have been printed in the 
Roman character. But, says Clinn CoiicobaiT\, this was 
because in almost every case the printers had no founts of 
Irish type at their disposal. Very well, suppose it was. 
Was it not vastly better to have them even in this form 
than not to print the books at all ? Or should they have 
refrained altogether from printing them, not having the 
characters that your correspondent says are "specially 
de.-igned and suited to our language?" I greatly fear 
that our language has suflered much through the preva- 
lence of this superstition. Further, CÌAmi Couòobûip 
tells us. in all these works " the language was ungram- 
matical, the orthography barbarous, the general get-up, 
miserable, and full of printers' errors." But surely he 
does U0Í mean that these faults were due to the fact that 
Roman ' '^ And yet his reasoning would imply 

tliis. 1 ilait Zeuss's Graminatica CfUica^ 

Ebcl s . Windi-ch's Jiisc/ii Grnnimntik, 

\V. ,' : ' and other modern works, are a 

sufficient and final proof that Irish can be (oriictly ami 
/c-yi'i//)' printed in the Roman chtracter— without errors 
of grammar, without barbarous orthography, and without 
pr nters' errors. 

Is e\eiything written or printed in the Irish character 
correct and free from er. or of any kind ? cLoiun Con- 
cob<iiiv seems to askume so. I can tell him I have seen 
some queer Irish in that same Iri h character— as queer 
and as barbarous as any that ever appeared in the other — 
written at various times during the past three hundred 
years. Vou, Mr. Editor, in your capacity of Director of 



the ''Gaelic Departments" in some of our Dublin jour- 
nals for the past two or three years, cou'd, I think, bear 
me out in this, and could point to hundreds of pieces of 
■' Irish " that at one time or another you have received, 
who?e only recommendation was that they were written 
in most excellent Irish penmanship — which, in the opi- 
nion of the authors of tho-e pieces, seemed to be the chief 
thing necessary — such little matters as spelling, grammar, 
and sense being but of small account. 

One would think, from the attitude taken up by some 
Irishmen on this question, that the only things Irish that 
should be tolerated in the ordinaiy Roman characters are 
such choice specimens of the naiional tongue as 
" nabocklish," '• omadhawn," " cushla machree,' •' Sog- 
garth .-Vroon," "Faugh-a-ballagh," "floghoulagh colleen," 
" slangeramohugudh." and such like — the last sample 
beini; tlie truly neat, the only neat and intelligible way, 
we .suppose, of writing the "uncouth" 5/o';/, ^0 rail'A 
mait/'i a-ad (Well, I tliank you). And it is not in Eng- 
lish or Lond n journals only we find such precious speci- 
mens of Ireland's national language, but even in Irish 
journals jirinted in Dublin — printed and published in the 
capital of Ireland, in the midst of all the societies and 
learned bodies, which have been dong, and are doing, so 
much to spread a true knowledge of ihe language. Has 
it ever occurred to Cbjiin Coiicob^ip to con-ider how far 
this vulgarising of noble words and phrases is due tn the 
foolish notion '.l:at Irish words cannot be correctly repre- 
sented in ordinaiy type, and that, therefore, people may 
take what liberties ihey like with them when they do use 
the ordinnry Roman character ? 

Your correspondent would have done well to have left 
cut his i^aragraph on the " beauty " of Irish writing and 
printing. All Irish writing most certainly is not beauti- 
ful. (J Curry had a very poor opinion of the handu riting 
ill some of those manuscripts that he describes to us in 
his "Lectures;" and though he might overlook other 
faults, he was down on bad penmanship. And a glance 
into some of our printed books — such as O -MüUuy's 
Graniiitatica Latino-Hibeniica^ MacCurtin's I/ isk Grdin- 
mar, the Paris edition of u'Donlevy's Cniahisin, Con- 
nellan's Eti'^lish- Irish Dictionary, and other works — will 
be sufficient to show that some firms at any rate of the 
Irish character are anything but beauti;ul. No doubt, 
these were all badly printed, but they must have had for 
their models some well-known type of Irish penman>hip. 
But I beg cLaiiii ConcobsMi\'s pardon. What he says is 
that " the best Iri.^h type is beautiful." He is safe enough 
here. The Irish type in Hardiman's Mtnstreisy is most 
certainly beautiul. The type used in O'Donovan's 
Annals has a certain beauty about it ; and undoubtedly 
the Irish type used in this journal is very elegant. I 
might say in passing, too, that I have observed with plea- 
sure that all the Irish in this journal is piiiUed with re- 
markable care and accuracy — a thing of far more import- 
ance in such a work than mere beauty of letter. But 
Cbivmi Coiicobo,n\ should be f.iir all round, lie says : — 
"The b-st Irish type is beaiuiiul, whicli is more than can 
be said for ordinary Roman type." So iie compares the 
best Iiish with iv,;7;/íín' Roman ? Is this just? Surely, 
nothing is commoner than 10 speak of a French or Eng- 
lish book being lieautifully printed. And I think most of 
your leaders will c.-nsi ier ihe Roman type 11- ed in this 
magazine 2S both cle-an-cut an'! '-'•"• "":• ^" ''•'--'';- ■•■' 
that neither beauty nor ugline- 
of any particular alphabet oi 

It is not the fact that in ] 1 
character the accents mu-t iiecesoaii:y ue je.i out. rm 
months past cL<inti Concobiip might have seen letters 
and articles of considerable length in the " Gaelic Depart- 

ment" of the Irishman printed in Roman, with all the 
accents most faithfully reproduced. It may not be pos- 
sible 10 do this always, for, no doubt, an extra supply of 
accented vowels («. /, /, 0, ú) must be kent in store ; but 
even if this has to be done, surely there is m comparison 
between the slight extra expense neces-aiy for i his and 
the great difficulty and expen-iveness of st iking off en- 
tirely new Irish ty|:es, with accents and eveiytiiing else. 
But your respected correspondent mu^t know, il the fac- 
similes of Irish MSS. given in O'Curry's Lectures are lo 
be relied on, that in the mo^t flourishing ages of our lan- 
guage, and by the best w-ri;ers, the accents were very 
little regarded, thrown in pietty much at random, and 
ofteiier omitted than inserted. Doubtless, those marks 
were less necessary formerly than they are now ; besides 
this, the writers were, no doubt, too much engrossed with 
their subject-matter to set much store on mere matters of 
form. For my part, if I feared that the assumed neces- 
sity for accented type placed the slightest obstacle in the 
way of printing Irish, I should say the sooner we learned 
to dispense w-ith the accents altogether the better. 'Ihe 
vowel-quantities are never marked in English, nor in 
German, nor in .Spanish, and seldom in Welsh, except in 
grammars and dictionaries. And if I cared to compare 
a modern living tongue with an ancient dead language — 
a thing often done— I might point to Latin also, in which 
tlie quantities, outside grammars and dictionaries, are 
tiever marked. No doubt, to beginners in the language 
an occasional difficulty might arise as to whai was the 
true pronunciation of a particular word or syllable ; but 
the same difficulty occurs in the other languages I have 
just mentioned. To tho-e who can read the language at 
all, I feel certain that the absence of the accent r.irely 
presents any real difficulty. This absence of the quan- 
tity-m.irk mlgln be a little strange at first, but we should 
soon get used to it, and learn to rely for pronunciation on 
habit and custom. As a matter of fact, when pronuncia- 
tion cannot be acquired from the living vciee, it must be 
learned from dictionaries and gr.immatical works, and in 
all such works in Iri-h the quantities should be carefully 
and scrupulously indicated. 

Cbŵnti Coiicobciip makes much of the -i's — a strong 
point, too, lyith the reviewer in the Irishiiian. Your 
correspondent is troubled that such an expression as 
"mo shlánnightheoireacht," so written, would be enough 
to " frighten the ignorant S.ixon back to the deepest mine 
of the Black Country." The writer might, surely, have 
found a better illustration than a phrase which is hardly 
Irish at all — I readily admit he could find many a good 
Irish word with four or five h'% in it. Your correspon- 
dent, then, has hit upon au apocryphal Irish word of four 
syllables, having four entire li\ in it — one for each 
syllable. But even in English — with which the compa- 
rison is made by implication — we often come across such 
phrases as '' through thick and through thin" — the true 
pronunciation of which has often proved a sore crux to 
many an enlightened foreigner — in which example we 
have no less tlian six h's in four syllables. The writer, 
however, had no need to go to the Saxon to find one who 
would consider such a phrase strange and "barbarous." 
Nine out of eveiy ten Irishmen in Dublin, or even in 
lowns more Irish than Dublin — though 1 think we may 
hope that the propor.ion is harpily dimini h'ng — world, 

mcy woui.i no; coiiie.-.. uaruaruu- a. i.'cy m gi.. taink it, 
that tiiey actually knew more about the word in that form 
than the did about i-lûr\iii5ceoi|\eŵcc. So that if we 



considereil ihe feelings and opinions of ignorant Saxons 
or ignorant Irishmen, we should have very little respect 
for anything really national. 

I admit, however, that the points — which in later times 
came to be the recognised marks of aspiration —are in 
some ways more convenient than the /i's — they are easier to 
put in. .ind they shorten the words considerably. But they 
have some disadvantages. In the first place, it is very 
easy to forget and omit them, both in writing and printing. 
Every one familiar with our old writings must have oli- 
served how often these points were omitted, and how 
difficult it often is on that account to determine the true 
pronunciation of words, or to arrive at correct vuks for 
aspiration. I do not here mean the writings of the earlier 
centuries — say from the sixth to the tenth — when many of 
tlie consonants now aspirated were — as I hold — still pro- 
nounced pure. I refer more particularly to the writings 
of the si.\teenth and seventeenth centuries, in which — 
even allowing for much that may not as yet be very well 
understood — great carelessness and irregularity in this re- 
spect are observable. But/<;/«/i are easily omitted even 
by the most careful writers. In the second place, if we 
are to consider foreigners, I think ch, g/i, ph, and bh are 
more generally intelligible than c, g, p, b— though I ad- 
mit that the other aspirated consonants m Irish are not so 
simple or so regular in their sounds. But in truth, even 
if there were no wrong or unnecessary aspirations in Irish, 
and even if the diflerence between Irish and English as to 
the frequency of the aspirate were much greater than I be- 
lieve it re.illy is, it is not the h or the point (•) that is to 
be blamed at all in this matter, but the genius of our lan- 
guage — or rather our system of orthography. To any one 
curious about our language, half-an-lii "in' ir, :; ;i"'ion 
or half an hour's study will furnish li;i;i v M 1 . ; h, 

the whole of this part of Irish ]in.iiiii. ,. I in, 

thirdly, there is the serious objection il i • ;.-ii)i, 

are used in the Roman letter thuTL- aii-r, the n.v.' -iiv l-r 
new type. This is the only, or at any ratr. the chiri ob- 
jection there can be to what I iiui-l call — with all rc^jiect 
to Cljtm Concob^ii\ — the praiseworthy and excellent at- 
tempt made first by Father Furlong in his Prayer Book ; 
next by Mr. MacPhilpin in the tuam Nnvs; and lately 
also by Canon Bourke in some of his works, to popularise 
dotted Roman type. If there were any material difierence 
between the expensiveness of full Irish type and dotted 
Roman, I think much could be said lor the latter. 

I have not done yet with Cbann Concoboiip. The mo- 
dern Scottish Gael were not the first to use the /; to ex- 
press aspiration. It is the faints that are modern — as 
used for this purpose at any rate. In the oldest Irish 
MSS.— written in what your respected correspondent can- 
not blame me for calling old Roman — points were used 
only over the j and the /—as often to express the sup- 
pression or " eclipsis " of the \ (as in c-f-iiil) as to denote 
its aspiration (as in ŵ full), and always to denote the sup- 
piesssion of the sound of the p (as in intj pip, now An pip), 
though in modern times this sinking of the sound of p has 
been strangely referred to the general principle of aspira- 
tion. In old Irish, the only consonants .aspirated were 
the three tennes c, p, c, and sometimes p and p. But the 
aspirate sounds of c p, c were in the earliest times repre- 
sented not by points over the letters, but generally by 
writing the h after these letters — as some of us venture to 
do now in modtrn Roman. For this I need only refer to 
any of the more ancient MSS., or to O'Curry's fac- 
similes — as also to O'Donovan's Grammar, pp. 41, 42, 
and 43. The last-mentioned author on p. 43 of his Irish 
Grammar gives — in illustration of this very point, some 
monumental inscriptions from the earliest tomb-stones at 
Clonmacnoise, among them the following :— Opoic tio 

ChuichoilC'A prayer for Tuathal"): opoic apChuuiTibepp 
("Aprayerfor Cuindless"): opoicTJO niielphicpaic (-'A 
prayer for Mael Phatraic "). Are the h's " barbarous " in 
these words? Sometimes, also, but less frequently a mark 
(something like 1-) which was really nothing less than half 
of the H was placed over c,p,c, to express the same thing * 
In later ages when the vtedials b, t), 5 also came to be 
aspirated, our ancestors clearly saw it was but an extension 
of the principle recognised in the case of the tenues, and 
logically and consistently they expressed the aspiration in 
the same way — by the h. So bh and T>h and jh, and also 
mil became familiar. Later still there arose some confusion 
of the different marks, until at last the/i'/K/which was at first 
only used for one or two letters, came to be considered a 
convenient substitute for the h, and was adopted as the 
most general sign of aspiration. But to the latest times 
the h continued to be occasionally used, especially for 
initial aspirates. Nor must it be forgotten, that in at least 
one standard modern Irish work — Hardiman's Minstrelsy 
already mentioned — throughout the two volumes the h is 
used to the entire exclusion of the point— though the type 
is most certainly Irish, and perhaps the first really beau- 
tiful Irish type ever cut. But I suppose clûnn Concobiiiv 
considers this also was a "fad" or " crotchet." 

The thing to find most fault with is, not that the Irish 
consistently used //s. or changed them for points to ex- 
press aspiration, but that letters which, in course of ages 
became silent, should have been still unnecessarily re- 
tained, when most other modern languages — in which as- 
pi lation of the consonants has been e(|ually at work — have 
either changed those aspirated consonants to single letters, 
or have sunk them altogether in writing — as we see, has 
been the case with Italian, French, Spanish, and also in 
English and in Welsh. Some may think that the reten- 
tion of this traditional spelling points to a conservative in- 
stinct in the Celtic nature ; but this can hardly be so, 
when we consider the simplification that has taken place 
in the writing of Welsh and Breton. Within the last 100 
years a great simplification has occurred in the orthogra- 
phy of most of the modern languages of Europe. It is 
only indeed within this period that most of these languages 
have arrived at a definite and regular orthography — if it 
can be truly said that any living language ever att.ains an 
absolutely fixed and regular standard of writing. I cannot 
but think, too, if our language had been much written a 
hundred years ago — if it had been studied as widely and 
as keenly then as it is now, we should have had at this 
day an orthography much more rational, more regular, 
and more fixed. If I should hint that a simpler and more 
rational mode of writing Irish — in the one sort of charac- 
ter as in the other — is not only possible, but extremely de- 
sirable. I daresay I should be considered terribly unortho- 
dox ; especially by those who forget that the ancient 
fadesiii (self) has melted down to "fein," (which indeed 
was often written "fen" by O'CIery and MacFirbis); 
that btidesta (henceforth) has'becnme " feasia ;" that hhoes 
(yet) has been made " f(is;" tliat /.?;;/..■// (to get) has be- 
come " fághail," which is i.r.nMuiued " f.iil ;" that lathe (a 
day), has become "la;" that trcJaiiis (abstinence—but ori- 
ginally meaning a three days' fast), has been made 
"treanas;" that Cadhri^/ieas [LtViX — e.i. Quadrages-ima) 
has been softened down to " Caraos," just as the same 
Latin word has become " Garawys " in Welsh, and 
"Carême" in French ; in all which cases, and numbers 
of others that might be given, we have obvious and well- 
known instances of the shortening and simplifying pro- 
cess. This, however, is another and a wider question 

* Scholars tell us that this also was the origin of the 
Greek stiritus asỳer. 



than the one now under consideration, and can wait a 

And now to conclude. I can admit a great deal that 
cLitm CoiicobAn\ adiances for our old characters — and 
if these characteis could be easily and cheaply procured 
in every part of Ireland, and throughout Europe, America, 
and Australia, I. too, would prefer— every Irishman I 
think would prefer — them for old times' sake — iii spite even 
of some disadvantages attached to them, which I have 
pointed out elsewhere. Even as it is, if the majority of 
the Council of the Gaelic Union should decide in favour 
of the exclusive use of the Irish character, I should for 
harmony's sake — though regretting the resolution — at 
once fall in with them, feeling how presumptuous and un- 
wise it might be for one or two to set themselves up in 
opposition to the general wish, and thus, perhaps, stand 
in the way of real practical work. But it is mainly on ac- 
count of this difficulty of procuring Irish types, and be- 
cause I feel that the superstition as to the supposed 
necessity for them has been one of the causes why we have 
had so very little printed literature during the last couple 
of centuries, that I have ventured, with a few others, for 
some time past to show by word and example that even 
if we cannot command Irish types, the language can be 
every bit as correctly printed in the ordinary modern Ro- 
man character, as in that form of it now known as Irish. 
If the assumed necessity for special types should prevent 
any attempt to print Irish in any part of the world— as 
I lear it has done and will do — I am sure eveiy real lover 
of our language should seriously consider this. We need 
not fear that there will not always be a considerable de- 
mand, in Ireland at least, for the old characters— many 
will always prefer them on national grounds — they may 
well be used in reproducing our old books — and they will 
always be in steady demand for ornamental and pictures- 
que purposes, as the various styles of " Old English " and 
" Gothic" are used for many special purposes in Eng- 

If I thought the subject of this letter was no more than 
a mere matter of form, and did not involve to some ex- 
tent the future fortunes of Ireland's language, I should be 
Sony to take up so much of your space with what I have 
here written. Perhaps, after all, the best plan would be 
to admit fairly on both sides that good work can be done 
with either character or with bolh. Then, without bicker- 
ing and without allowing our indignation to rise over the 
shape of a letter — or even the shapes of eigliteen letters — 
we can devote our time to some practical woik, say to 
the investigation of the hundred difficult questions in Irish 
syntax and in Iri~h etymology — questions which have 
long awaited solution. 

I have but one thing more to say, and that is to express 
my surprise that in the course of his somewhat lengthy 
reply to Mr. Chisholni, Claim Coiicobjii\ never hit, 
even by accident, on one of the more real and substantial 
reasons that can be given for the use of the Roman cha- 
racter. But, Is maith sceul go d-tig an liaias ceiil. 
Yours faithfully, 


36 Eardley-crescent, Kensington, 
Feb. 17, 18S3. 


The following letter from our old and valued friend, 
Mr. T. O'Neill Russell, has been unavoidably held over 
from our fourth number. We have also received another 
communication from his pen concerning the use of the 
article before names of countries, &c., which will occupy 
our " Notes and Queries'' column in nc.\t number. 

Sir,— Please allow me to say a few words in answer to 
the able review of the Gaelic dm'oti j'ouma/iha.t appeared 
in the Irishman of January 13. I agree entirely with the 
author of the review in question in what he says in praise 
of the Gatlic Union Journa!. It is a most creditable -v 
publication in every way. I also agree with the re- / 
viewer in what he says about the solecism, ni bk-fuil. Such 
a phrase should never be printed, in spite of the lament- 
able fact that many writers ol Gaelic, and good writers of 
it, too, have written it — whether from pedantry, ignorance, 
or carelessness I will not presume to say. I have never 
yet heard anything but nifhitil, or «/'/.'in the mouths of 
Irish speakers, and I think I have heard Irish or Gaelic 
spoken by people from every county in Ireland and Scot- \ 
land where the language is yet alive. My main object in '^ 
writing to you is to express my strongest dissent from what 
the author of the review in question says about the em- 
ployment of the Roaian type for printing Gaelic. It is 
really lamentable to see such medieval views expressed in 
the latter part of the nineteenth century by one who claims 
to be, and I am sure is, a Gaelic scholar. 

If we are really in earnest about the resuscitation of the 
National language, if we are not merely a lot oi dilettante — 
and I fear many of us are — we should try and make the ac- 
quisition of the language as simple an affair as possible, 
and I maintain that the use of the Roman, instead of the so- 
called Irish letter, would vastly simplify the task. There 
is no possibility of looking on the employment of the old 
letters in any light but an unfavourable one. They throw 
difficulties in the way of beginners which are in some 
cases really formidable. I have noticed that many persons 
wishing to learn Irish are frightened by the strange look 
of the old letters, and give up the task. Then again, just 
as colour-blindness is common with many people, so is 
form blindness, and some students find the learning of the 
old letters a very difficult task indeed. There are thou- 
sands who can read the language in Roman letters, who 
cannot read it in the old ones. A publication in Irish in 
Roman letters would be understood by almost all who read 
Scotch Gaelic, but would be unintelligible to them in the 
old characters. There is no script as yet formed from the 
old letters, and it is not likely that there ever will be. It 
takes me, and, I presume, every one else who writes Irish, 
more than t~ájice as long to write an article in the old letters 
as in the Roman. Italics cannot be used in the old letters. 
Printers charge more for setting up Irish type than for 
Roman, and are more liable to make mistakes in the for- 
mer than in the latter. Now, I maintain that absolutely 
nothing can be said in favour of the old type to offset the 
disadvantages I have enumeiated. My advice to those 
who write Irish would be to follow their own inclinations 
as to what form of letter they write in ; but it I had sole 
control of a publication in the Gaelic language I freely ad- 
rait I would not have it printed in the old letters ; and if 
my countrymen objected to support it on the grounds that 
it was printed in Roman type I would simply despair of 
them, for I should feel that I had a nation of fools and not 
reasoning beings to deal with. There is no more reason 
that Gaelic should be printed at present in the old letter 
than that English, French, Spanish, and Italian should 
not be printed in Black letter. If all the ancient manu- 
script literature of Gaelic is written in the old letter, so is 
that of the languages just mentioned written in Black- 
letter, for it was common to ail of them before the inven- 
tion of the clear, neat, Roman letter now used by almost 
all the European nations. If we are to use the old letter 
simply because it is the one in which our ancient litera- 
ture exists, why not also employ all the contractions which 
exist in those old manuscripts ? Those who uphold the 
I use of the old letter in Gaelic should, to be logical, also 



upliokl the use of all the co.Uractions whicli are to be 

I commenced 

my review, not with a caoine, but with a 

found in all iliose manu^iripts. If ever anv fact has been 



■ic Taci-. in the hupe that these would 

proved, ihe fact ihe so-called Irish letieri, only a 

stir U]i ■ 

.:.,.,, , ap.alhy towards 

molificat'on of the Roman has been proved bevond a 

.1 th-n^s con- 

shadow of doubt. To say. as ihe reviewer of the Gaelic 

tinue '. 

Í; is time a se- 

;■,,',■.' •:■,•.•.'.',,;/ sTs. ih:it those who use the Roman 

rioiis 1 

K-: . laziness, nieiits ihe 

its uit 1 

■1 I'a staienient of 

6t ■•-. liie reinoiest idea who the 

of tb, 

1 -agreeahle, is what const uuies 

ci i!y tosavanvihing liard of 

irue fi , 

;ir nation and language. My in- 
1 e effo'is of ha d working, so-'ie- 


in si'.ie .-; 

tie., lik 

e t:ie ( Ja 

L ic Uiiiun, which ceriainly deserves well 

cates lor i'. 

of Irela 

id. I 

lave merely replie.l to the stricmres of 

(_;a,.iic I ii 

.Mr. FI 


nit manv positive advantages could be 



clum-y ; .uia heie j eniiit me to s,.y thai I v.oulJ also M'^- 
ge.t that the consonaius c and t should never be dotted fur 
two reasons— first, they have always the sound of h when 
aspirated or dotted, and consequently when modified 
should always have h written after them ; this would 
gie.uly simplify the teaching of the language, for none of 
the other dotti-d conso.iiuits has the sound oi ch ty: th ; x'' 
at the end < f ,. . 1, i ■ .ul.ably an exception, having 
iisuallv the ■ :,, .■ secondly, r and í are never 

füund'd.ittL ; , - i : : , ; is of authority. Only seven 
dotiea coii> I .1.:- v.. i-l I 1 .: ■-antiii;.;— namely, b, d, /Ç ç, 
m. p, s, and the e.xpei.s- would be very trifling. I would 
earne.tly btg the attention of the Gaelic Union to t'..e sug- 
gesiion contained in this paragraph. 

Very respectfully yotirs, 


Sir, — It is not customary for reviewers to reply to cri- 
tic'snis on their reviews, but as fmm what I have heard of 
Mr. Flnnnery. I believe hiin to be an hone,t, patriotic 
man, an.xious for the revival of the Iri.h language, I shall, 
out of re;:aid for iiim, bi îefly re])ly to some of his stric- 
tures. I spoke of the ordinary type as English to distin- 
guisli it from Irish, as boih are lorms ol the Roman, not 
because the type is peculiarly English more than French, 
&c. It was merely an express! m to suit convenience. Al- 
th.i, 'i t i .' V to read Irish tyne as English, most 

pc .1 lilt for the opposite reason. Of course, 

su I no practical knowledge of the subject, 

bat..: 1 ■ iiiii.T, their objection liad to be noticed. 

ng Irish books ou'side of Dublin, I will 

.Ic Ot 

: there is at 1 

any publisher of book 

Is there a single book-shop 

lai iJeol Sligo? And is not 

and Belfast on the 

-uiyone acqua nled 

I the matrices of any 
ol f Hills can be supplied and 
As for foreign namei. which 
form, a few additional letters for 
to the Irish f lunt. There is a cur- 
well as for English, but it is as yet 
ui-t lie also rememljered that if ac- 
ith the ordinal y type a special set cìT 
be cast for tiie purpose. As for the 
h's, which are continually occurring, they would make 
the words one-fourth as long again if dots were not used. 

■ part of Ireland. 

do not pi ssess an I 
these could be addei 
sive hand lor : 
very little u-ed. It 

i^.,...^,;, .iJui.i ul a L.jii.;iiiiain.c iii yuai juarnal, 
even if I had time, which I have not, to continue the 
discussion. I my.-elf remain afiim advocate for the use 
of the native character in Irish books. 


a r U c 21 n Í ir 


Recent Meetings of Council. 

A meeting of the Council was hcM at 4 
Gardiner's-place, at 4.30 p.m. on Saturday, 
3rd February. 

Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J., in the chair. 

There were also present — Rev. M. H. 
Close, Rev. J. E. Nolan, Messrs Cusack, 
Fleming, Comyn, and O'Mulrenin. 

The following resolution, proposed by 
Rev. J. E. Nolan, and seconded by Mr. D. 
Comyn, was unanimously adopted :— 

" That the Council of the Gaelic Union 
is glad to learn, through a communication 
from the Secretary to Council of the Society 
for the Preservation of the Irish Language, 
that in the interests of amalgamation a 
general meeting of the council of that 
society is to be summoned, to consider 
what further steps should be taken in order 
to secure the desired end." 

A communication was read from the 
Secretary of Kilbrittain Association, to the 
effect that a copy of the Gae/ic Journal, 
would be procured for every town land in 
the parish. 



It was announced that the third number 
of the journal would be ready on Wednes- 
day next. 

The following gentlemen were recenti)' 
admitted members of this Society, under 
the new rule, being also subscribers to 
Journal : — Rev. J. Lyons, C.C, Bandon ; 
Daniel MacCabe, Esq., Banteer, Co. Cork ; 
J. J. Doyle, Esq., Liskcard ; Denis Doyle, 
Esq., London ; John O'Dufiy, Esq., Rutland 
Square, Dublin ; Rev. Father Tuite, Prov. 
S.J. ; Rev. James P. MacSwiney, S.J.; Dr. 
Norman Moore ; Dr. C. D'Eventcr ; Mr. 
John Slatter)-, Limerick ; The MacCarthy 
Mór ; H. McGhee, Esq., Hanly, Stafford- 
shire ; J. H. Dunne, Esq., Liverpool ; Mr. 
Savage, Belfast ; Very Rev. Walter 
MacDonnell and Rev. John Golden (both of 
the Diocese of Auckland, New Zealand, 
per His Grace the Archbishop of Cashel), 
&c. Some of these had previously sub- 
scribed, and have rendered their sub- 
scriptions both to the prize and publication 
fund, as well as subscribing for the Gaelic 

The Council adjourned to the loth inst. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met as 
usual on Saturday, loth February, at 3.30 
p.m., at No 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

John Fleming, Esq., occupied the chair. 

The following resolution was proposed by 
Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J. ; seconded by Mr. 
A. K. 0'Farrell,and unanimouslyadopted — ■ 

" That as the resolution passed on the 
30th of January, 1SS3, by the Council of the 
Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language, announced that unless we 
waived our demand for full powers for the 
Amalgamation Committee, there would be 
a Special Meeting of their Council sum- 
moned, it plainly presented to us two 
alternatives, and we certainly believed that 
by welcoming one of them we clearly 
signified that we rejected the other. We 
are still of that opinion, and we are in- 
clined to think that the public will generally 
adopt our view ; but as the Council of the 
Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language, after our welcoming one alter- 
native, calls on us to make a declaration 
about the other, we now state as a matter 

of courtesy, but definitively and for the last 
time, that we do not, and that we will not 
waive our national objection to assembling 
the Amalgamation Committee, so long as full 
powers to effect the desired amalgamation, 
subject to the approval of our common 
Patron and our common President, continue 
to be refused to that Committee by the 
Council of the Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language." 

Mr. R. J. O'Mulrenin then proposed. 
Rev. John J. O'Carroll, S.J., seconded, and 
it was unanimously agreed to — 

" That the standing orders of the Council 
be suspended, in order to allow the names 
of Rev. James MacSwiney, S.J., of London, 
and Dr. Norman Moore, of Cambridge, 
both translators of Prof. Windisch's 
"Compendium of Grammar," to be 
proposed as Honorary Members without 
the usual delay." These two distinguished 
Celtic scholars were then proposed and 
seconded by the same members of Council, 
and were unanimously elected. 

Mr. O'Mulrenin then gave notice that 
at next meeting he would propose Mr. John 
O'Duffy, Lie. D.S., Rutland-square, West, 
Dublin, for election as a member of the 
Council of the Gaelic Union. 

The Council then adjourned to Saturday 
ne.xt, same place and hour. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met as 
usual on Saturday, 17th February, 1883, at 
3.30 P.M., at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, Dublin. 

John Fleming, Esq., having taken the 

Rev. John James O'Carroll, S.J., pro- 
posed, and Mr. David Comyn seconded, the 
following resolution, which was unanimously 
adopted : — 

" That, as the Council of the Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Language 
have called a general meeting of their body 
for the 27th of this month, to consider what 
further steps should be taken to secure 
amalgamation between their association and 
ours, after the business of this meeting, we 
adjourn to the first Saturday of March." 

Mr. Fleming being obliged to leave, Rev. 
Father O'Carroll took the chair. 
I Before Mr. R. J. O'Mulrenin (who had 



given the usual notice of motion) arrived, 
Mr. M. Cusack (on his behalf) proposed the 
election of John O'Duffy, Esq., Lie. D.S., of 
Rutland-square, Dublin, as member -of this 
Council, which was seconded by Mr.Comyn, 
and unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. Cusack then gave notice that at next 
meeting he would move the election to 
Council of the Rev. John Egan, Rector of 
St. Gall's School, Stephen's-green, Dublin ; 
and Thomas O'Hara, Esq., B.A., Inspector 
of National Schools, Portarlington. 

Several important communications were 
considered, and many letters from Irish 
scholars and others were read, expressing 
their approval of the Gaelic Journal, and 
their gratification at the appearance of the 
third number ; amongst these being Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, Doughorcgan Manor, 
U.S.A., who promises to use tf//his influence 
to spread the Gaelic Jûurnal in America ; 
from Rev. James MacSwine}-, S.J., Manresa 
House, Roehampton, London, S.W. ; Dr. 
C. D'Evenher, Professor at the Royal Col- 
lege, Glatz, Silesia ; Dr. Zimmer, Greifs- 
wold ; Dr. Windisch, Leipzig ; Colin Chis- 
holm, of Inverness ; John Murdoch, do. ; 
Dr. James MacMastcr, F.R.U.I, Magee 
College, Derry ; Very Rev. Canon Bourke, 
P.P., M.R.I.A., Claremorris, Co. Mayo ; and 
many others. 

The Council adjourned to 3rd March, 
same place and hour. 

The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturday, 3rd March, at 4 Gardiner's-place. 

Rev. Maxwell H. Close, M.A., M.R.I.A., 
F.R.G.S.I., occupied the chair, 

There were also present the following 
members of Council, — Rev. John James 
O'Carroll, S.J. ; Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C., 
Hon, Sec. ; Mr. Michael Cusack, Hon. 
Treasurer ; Mr. David Comyn, Editor Gaelic 
Journal ; Mr. A. K. O'Earrell, Central Se- 
cretary National Teachers' Organization of 
Ireland ; Mr. John Morrin, Mr. R. J. 
O'Mulrenin, Mr. John Fleming. 

The minutes of last meeting were read, 
confirmed and signed. 

A communication was read from the Se- 
cretary of the Council of the Society for the 
Preservation of the Irish Language, trans- 

mitting a copy of the following resolution 
of that body : — "That, with a view of facili- 
tating the desired amalgamation of the 
societies, we respectfully ask the Gaelic 
Union to submit the heads of the proposals 
on which they are willing to amalgamate." 

The following resolution was then pro- 
posed by Mr. O'Farrell, seconded by Rev. 
Mr. O'Carroll, and unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved, — "That we cannot entertain 
the proposal to leave the question of 
amalgamation to the separate discussions 
of the Councils of the Gaelic Union and of 
the Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language, inasmuch as we hold that the 
only practical way for arriving at a con- 
clusion that will be satisfactory to both 
bodies, is for a small committee such as we 
have already suggested to have full powers 
for settling once for all the questions they 
have been appointed to consider." 

Mr. Cusack moved, Mr. Comyn seconded, 
and it was unanimously agreed to : — "That 
Rev. John Egan, Rector of St. Gall's School, 
Stephen's-green, Dublin, and Mr. Thomas 
O'Hara, B.A., Inspector of National Schools, 
Portarlington, be added to the Council of 
the Gaelic Union." 

Rev. J. J. O'Carroll moved, Mr. John 
Fleming seconded, and it was resolved : 
" That the Council adjourn to the first Satur- 
day of April (7th prox.), so as to allow time 
fortheelectionsof Council of the Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Language to 
take place before the question of amalga- 
mation again requires attention." 

The Council accordingly adjourned to 
the day named, when a large attendance is 
requested, to consider the propriety of 
holding monthly meetings in future, instead 
of weekly, as heretofore. 

A Special Meeting of the Council of the 
Gaelic Union was held on Saturday, 31st 
March, 1883, at No. 4 Gardiner's-place, 
Dublin, at 3.30 p.m. 

Rev. Maxwell H. Close, M.A., Vice-Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

The Honorary Secretary (Rev. John E. 
Nolan, O.D.C.) stated that he had called 
this special meeting of the Council in 
anticipation of the date fixed for the next 



ordinary meeting, and in compliance with 
the request of several members, to consider 
what steps should be taken to give effect to 
the general opinion of the Council as to the 
propriety, justice and desirability of having 
the Irish Manuscripts in the Ashburnham 
Collection (now, as is reported, about to be 
purchased by Government for the national 
benefit) placed in the custody of some Irish 
Institution, where they might be readily 
available to native Irish scholars. He also 
reported that he had already, in the name 
of the Council, written to His Excellency 
the Lord Lieutenant on the subject. 

The Council was also glad to learn from 
the Chairman that representations had 
already been made to Government on this 
question by the Royal Irish Academy and 
other learned bodies, and with fair prospect 
of success, if supported by public opinion 
in Parliament and elsewhere. The reply 
received by the Academy was considered 
encouraging, and the meeting became 
unanimously of opinion that the whole in- 
fluence of the Gaelic Union, both as a 
society and as individuals, should be used 
to aid in obtaining the custody of these 
valuable Manuscripts for the country which 
has the first claim to them. 

The following resolution was then pro- 
posed by Mr. Michael Cusack, Hon. Treasurer; 
seconded by Mr. D. Comyn, Editor Gaelic 
Journal ; and adopted unanimously : — 

" That a committee be appointed to pre- 
pare a memorial to the Right Hon. the 
Prime Minister on this important question ; 
said committee to consist of Rev. J. J. 
O'CarroU, S.J., Mr. Fleming, and Mr. 
O'Mulrenin, and that efforts be made to 
obtain for said memorial as many influential 
signatures as possible in the short time 
now available before the matter shall be 
brought up in Parliament." 

It was also resolved that a form soliciting 
signatures to this memorial be sent to every 
Member of Parliament for the three king- 
doms, and that a statement showing the 
importance of the request, the value of the 
MSS. in question, as well as the original 
claim of Ireland to them, be sent with said 
form. It was also agreed that these papers 
accompany each copy of the next number 

of the Gaelic Joìirìial, so as to give its many 
influential and distinguished subscribers an 
opportunity of aiding in this patriotic work, 
by their own signatures and those of others 
which they may obtain for this memorial. 
The fifth, number of the Journal will be 
published on Wednesday next, and it is 
specially requested that the forms, with 
signatures, may be returned as soon as 
possible to the Hon. Sec. as above, who 
will also be happy to forward, on application 
by letter, any number of forms required. 

The memorial prepared by the Com- 
mittee will then be signed by the Council, 
and transmitted as soon as possible, the 
time for such a work being very short. 

No other business was transacted at this 
meeting. The Council will meet as usual 
on Saturday next. 




The Council of the Gaelic Union deems 
it its duty bringing public attention to the 
following facts concerning this famous 
collection of manuscripts ; especially in 
order that the object of the memorial to 
which they request signatures may be 
clearly understood, and its prayer strenu- 
ously supported by every friend of litera- 
ture and of Ireland. 

These manuscripts were collected and 
preserved from the destruction which 
attended so many others, by the care of 
members of the once-royal house of 
O'Conor of Connaught, to which house most 
of them had originally appertained, and 
whose representative, Charles O'Conor, of 
Belanagare, the ancestor of our President, 
and the friend of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was 
the chief collector of this fine library of 
Irish MSS., and of books and writings 
relating to Irish history, especially to the 
family of O'Conor. This great Irish 
scholar and antiquary was direct in descent 
from Tirlogh O'Conor, who died in 1345, 
and whose father, Hugh, was " Lord of 
Connaught." The latter was descended 
from a brother of Rury O'Conor, the last 
King of Ireland. Charles O'Conor, called 
the "Venerable," died in 1791. 



His grandson was the Rev. Charles 
O'Conor, D.D. This gentleman passed a 
considerable part of his life at Stowe, tlie 
seat of the Marquis of Buckingham, who 
had purchased these manuscripts, chief!}- 
collected by the elder O'Conor, and who 
emplo)-ed this Dr. O'Conor as librarian. 
He was not such a good Irish scholar as 
his illustrious grandfather, but, nevertheless, 
he too did much for Irish literature. Besides 
arranging this great collection, he wrote a 
catalogue and compendium of many of these 
manuscripts, entitled Rernm Hibcrnicaruiii 
Scriptures Vetcres, and which was published 
at the expense of the Marquis of Bucking- 
ham, in four large volumes, in Irish and 
Latin. These four volumes have been long 
out of print. 

The Stowe Collection of the Marquis 
(afterwards Duke) of Buckingham was 
sold to the late Earl of Ashburnham, who 
added it to his other great collections. He 
refused to permit learned men to examine 
any of these books, in order, perhaps, by 
mystery to enhance their value, as many of 
these manuscripts were unique. Dr. 
O'Donovan, Professor O'Curry, and other 
Irish scholars have lamented being thus 
hindered from consulting the veritable 
originals of several of the works, of which 
only copies were available to them when 
preparing their editions. 

It will thus be seen that it has been — 
until recently — almost impossible to 
ascertain even the titles of many of the 
works of which the "Ashburnham," or, as 
this portion of it should properly be called, 
the "O'Conor" collection, consists; though 
catalogues, more or less complete, have been 
prepared from time to time. But, from 
the unanimous opinion of Irish scholars 
— living and dead — and the fame of the 
original collector (Charles O'Conor), an 
idea can be formed of the value of these 
manuscripts and of their importance to Ire- 
land. Even though the restriction were 
removed which prevented Irish scholars 
from consulting these manuscripts, still, 
their being deposited in any public Insti- 
tution in England, or anywhere but in 
Ireland, would still place our native scholars 
at a very great disadvantage, and render 

impossible that careful inspection, trans- 
cription and collation which is so necessary. 
VVe learn also, that the German govern- 
ment desires to get possession of \\\q entire 
Ashburnham collections. In such an event, 
they would be completly lost to this 
country, like so many others which found 
their way from time to time to the 
Continent. Of course the only portion of 
this vast collection with which we are 
concerned is that part of it which contains 
the Irish manuscripts, and we hope that 
our Government, by becoming the pur- 
chasers, as it is reported they purpose doing, 
of the entire collection for the nation, will 
be in a position to place in Ireland — in the 
National Library, Kildarc-street ; in the 
Royal Irish Academy Library ; in Trinity 
College Library, or some other similar 
Irish Institution, those treasures of our 
native literature of which all Irishmen are 
so justly proud. In the interests of justice, 
literature, science and education, and in 
view of the true advancement and enlighten- 
ment of the people, it is to be hoped that 
the representations now being made to 
Government from so many quarters may be 


The Council of the Gaelic Union met on 
Saturday, 7th April, at No. 4 Gardiner's- 
place, Dublin, at 3.30 p.m. 

Thomas L. Synnott, Esq. occupied the 

There were also present — Rev. Maxwell 
H. Close, M.A. ; Rev. John J. O'Carroll, 
S.J. ; Rev. John E. Nolan, O.D.C, ; Messrs. 
John 0'Duff\',Lic. D.S.; R. J. O'Mulrenin, 
M. Cusack, John Fleming, A. K. O'Farrell, 
John Morrin, N. Corcoran, D. Comyn, &c. 

The minutes of the last ordinary meeting 
and of the special meeting held on 31st 
ulto. were read, confirmed and signed. 

The draft memorial relative to the Ash- 
burnham MSS. was submitted by the 
committee, and approved. It is specially 
requested that all signatures be sent in 
during this week. 

In reference to a communication received 
from the Council of the Society for the 
Preservation of the Irish Language, the 



following resolution was proposed by the 
Rev. J. J. O'CarroU, S.J., seconded by Dr. 
O'Duffy, and unanimously adopted : — 

" That as we have already more than once 
publicly stated that the appointment of a 
committee with full powers to decide was a 
necessary condition for treating of the much- 
desired Amalgamation with the Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Language, we 
regret we can take no further steps in the 
matter, unless that condition be complied 

Dr. C. Deventer, Royal College, Glatz, 
Silesia, and the Very Rev. Thomas 
MacHale, D.D., Irish College, Paris, were 
unanimously elected corresponding and 
honorary members of this Council. 

The following resolution was then pro- 
posed by Mr. John Fleming, seconded by 
Mr. Cusack, and passed unanimously: — 

'■That for the regular and ordinary trans- 
action of the business of the Gaelic Union, 
this Council do adjourn to the first Satur- 
day of May ; but that on all Saturdays, 
except the first Saturday of each month, 
there be held a meeting for consultation, at 
which the proceedings shall be conducted 
in Irish." 

The first conversational meeting of the 
Gaelic Union took place on Saturday even- 
ing, 14th April, and lasted from four to 
half-past six p.m. 

There were present — Mr. John Fleming, 
Chairman ; Messrs. Cusack, D. Lynch, 
Morris, O'Mulrenin, and the Rev. Messrs. 
Nolan and O'Carroll. 

The Memorial concerning the "Ashburn- 
ham " Manuscripts was, with a number of 
signatures, laid before the meeting. It is a 
follows :— 

"To the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, 
P.C, D.C.L., M.P., First Lord of the 
Treasury, Sac. 
" Sir, — We, the undersigned members of 
the Gaelic Union and others, beg to call 
your attention to the following facts: — 

" Whereas the collection entitled the Ash- 
burnham Librarj-, has been offered for 
purchase to the nation; and 

" Whereas the said collection contains a 
great number of books and manuscripts of 
much importance to the elucidation of Celtic 
philology and antiquities, and of Irish 
history; and 

" Whereas these latter books and manu- 
scripts were originally taken from Ireland 
to England ; and 

"Whereas they would, if remaining in 
England or any other country but Ireland, 
be practically inaccessible to the great ma- 
jority of Irish scholars, and therefore to a 
great extent useless, we, therefore, pray you, 
sir, as chief of the present ministry, in the 
interest of literature, archaeolog}-, and his- 
torical and philological research, to use 
your influence, in the event of the purchase 
by your Government of the Ashburnham 
Collection,tocause that portion of it relating 
to Ireland to be restored to this country. 

" Confidently trusting in your favourable 
consideration of our request, we beg to 
subscribe ourselves." 

[Then follow the names of officials and 
members of the Gaelic Union, and of other 
influential persons.] 

A discussion ensued, in which the Rev. 
J. J. O'Carroll, Messrs. Fleming, Lynch, 
Morris and Cusack took the principal part. 
The different accents of the provinces were 
well represented, the Irish language being 
de regiieur, and no English allowed. 
Waterford, Galway, Kerry, Clare and Ros- 
common were each represented by the 
speakers.but the difference in pronunciation 
and accent was so slight that there was not 
the smallest difficulty in their understanding 
each other. This being a preliminary meet- 
ing, the subjects for discussion were not 
fixed, but alternated between the Memorial, 
the late trials, Irish folk lore, &c. A plan, 
however, has been drawn up for regu- 
lating the progress of the Irish-speaking 
meetings of the Gaelic Union. It may be 
remarked that Mr. Lynch delayed his return 
to the county Louth in order to be present 
at the meeting. The conversation was of 
the most animated character, and proved 
the capability of the language for political, 
scientific and general topics, and its strength 
and sweetness. The meeting having settled 
the subjects for the next discussion and 



otherbusiness, broke up about 6.30 p.m., after 
a most agreeable and successful sitting. 

The following letters have been received 
by the Editor of the Gaelic Join-ni/ from 
Dr. Norman Moore, M.D., F.R.C.P., trans- 
lator of Windisch's Grammar ; and from 
Dr. Hugo Schuchardt, Professor of Romance 
Philology, University of Gratz (Austria) ; 
Corresponding Member of the Imperial 
Academy of Vienna. 

" The College, 

" St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
"London, CojiJAf, 1SS3. 
Cmj iijü.Mji liui-leAbAin ua gAeTliilje. 
" <\ Saí, 

"111ci|\Án buiüeACA]" iDuir •s\\ i-nn ■oo 

" Cui)\ ye oti-.]- mó\\ 0)1111 é léjet) : 50 
5Ciii|ipt) "OiA ẃn \\ò.t <\i]i. 

" ÜÁ cjuuẂAp món OH111, Acc cÁ ]"úiL ajaiii 
A111 ỳÁjAil le A léje-ó jAc iiií. 

" 1)' bum K\-o -00 -oAncA, aju)- i)- blẃi-OA 
lAt) ■00 fjél innjeAcrA. 

" buAi-ó Ajii]- rnéi]' loAq-A aju]- le 
CIaiiiia J^Ae-oel. 

"nii]"e llupiiiAii inoo]\e. 

'"OoCxiip léigif." 

"Graz, ^th April, 1883. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I wish to become a member of the 
Gaelic Union and a subscriber to the 
Gaelic Joiiriial, of whose existence I regret 
not to have been apprized until a very 
recent period when I received the four first 
numbers of it. 

" I send ten shillings by postal order via 
Gotha (Germany). 

" My heartiest wishes for the complete 
success of the Gaelic Journal, which I hope 
will aid me to write you next time in (a bad) 
Irish in the place of a bad English. Of 
course it would be bad viea culpa, not by 
the fault of the excellent publication. 
" Yours very truly, 

" Dr. Hugo Schuchardt." 

©pinions of tl}c iprrss. 

"The Irish Te.\chees' Journal," 

The first number of the Gaelic Journal has at length 
made its appearance, and we believe our opinion of it 
will be only in accord with the unanimous veidict which 
has been pronounced upon it On all sides, namely, that it 
is a credit to the body from whom it has emanated, as well 
as to the Editor under whose immediate supervision it was 
published. It cannot fail also to reflect credit upon the 
country wherever its pages are read and studied — in Ame- 
rica, in Australia, in Canada, and in every portion of the 
globe in which Irishmen are to be found. We are pleased 
to observe that about one-half of the Journal is in the 
English language (there are 32 pages in all, and about 
iS pages are English); this arrangement we presume was 
found to be absolutely necessary to its success, as it would 
be the height of folly that all the matter should be in the 
Irish language. As published, the Gaelk Journal is 
equally interesting to the English as to the Irish reader. 
The opening article in the Irish language, and printed in 
the Irish character, is a splendid classical contribution to 
Gaelic literature, and is from the gifted pen of the veteran 
John Fleming — a name that ought to be well known to 
the readersof this Journal. The subject, " The Irish Lan- 
guage in the Nineteenth Century " affords wide and ample 
scope to the learned writer to display his extraordinary 
knowledge of the idiomatic forms of the language, as well 
as the ease with which he describes the wonders effected 
by the introduction of the steam-engine, the electric tele- 
graph. The article should be copied and studied, and 
the telephone, and the beautiful process of p'hoto- 
graphy, the lessons it inculcaies taken to heart, by all stu- 
dents of the Irish language, whether they are preparing for 
the Royal University, for the Intermediate Examinations, 
or for certificates and results in the National Schools 
of the country. The " Amharca Cleasacha," (Dramatic 
Scenes), with translation by Rev. J. J. O'Carroll, S.J., 
display much power combined with a rare insight 
into the beauties of the language, as well of utilizing them 
in dramatic compositions, A learned article on the 
" Ossianic Poems," in the English language follows, by 
the same writer, and is well worthy of perusal. The poem, 
" Go mairidh na Gaedhil," by " Leath Chumn " is excel- 
lent, and has the true ring of Irish poetry. The contribu- 
tions in Welsh and in Scottish Gaelic will " open the 
eyes " of our young students, who will begin to compare 
the various changes through which the Irish language has 
passed, even in friendly hands, and several dialects will 
soon begin to acknowledge their long-forgotten mother in 
the written langunge of Ireland. The paper on '•The 
Teaching of Irish " is a remarkably well-digested article, 
full of sound views set forth in forcible language ; it is a 
paper that must be read through in order to be fully appre- 

There are some chapters in Irish of the " Life of Arch- 
bishop MacHale," by the Very Rev. Canon Bourke, Clare- 
morris ; a real //-«//-American letter from O'Neill Russell; 
Anglo-Irish Notes on odds and ends, and a capital reply 
from Mr. Fleming to an article in the London Times 
(which is also given) on the Gaelic movement. Recent 
reports of meetings of members of the Council of the Gae- 
lic Union naturally complete the contents of the Journal. 
Havnig thus taken a hurried glance through its well- 
printed pages, we cannot for a moment imagine that the 



Irish people (even if there only remained the Irish Na- 
tional Teachers to remind them) would peimit such a 
patriotic undertaking to languish for want of supporters 
and subscribers. True, the subscription is sixpence per 
month, but he who cannot spare tliat amount for such a 
purpose "will never set the Liffey on fire," much less 
the "lordly Shannon," or the "pleasant waters of the 
River Lee." We make no doubt that many a copy will 
also find its way towards "Lough Neagh's Banks," and 
away "'mid the grey mountains of dark Donegal," that 
youthful lovers of the old language will be found buried 
in the pages of the Gaelic Journal. We have observed one 
suggestion in the columns of our contemporary, the 
Freeman, which, by-the way is loud in its praises of the 
progress made by tlie G.xelic Union, viz. — that the next 
number of the Journal should begin a series of lessons in 
the Irish language. We are aware that it was not an 
easy matter to do this in the first number, but such will, 
in all likelihood, be expected, whether as a continuation 
of the published series of "Easy Lessons," ur independent 
of them. But in any case we are quite certain that the 
right thing will be done, and we join the popular chorus 
in wishing the GaeUc Journal a hearty welcome and many 
" Happy and prosperous New Years." 

The '• N.íiTTON." 

Many of our readers will be glad to learn that the first 
number of the long-expected Gaelic Journal has at last 
made its appearance. The publication is one highly cre- 
ditable to its founders and conductors. It is well pnnird 
on good paper, and its contents are varied and instructive. 
We have Gaelic prose and Gaelic verse, English prose 
and English verse, on Gaelic subjects, and several mi^cel- 
laneous articles. Amongst the productions in the verna- 
cular Mr. John Fleming's essay on the "The Irish Lan- 
guage in the Nineteenth Century," Mr. 0"Neili's Russell's 
paper on "The State of the Irish and other Tongues in 
the United States," the first two chapters of a new bio- 
graphy of Dr. MacHale by Canon Bourke, and the Rev. 
J. J. Carroll's poem, entitled "Brian Boru before his 
Last Battle," are worthy ol particular attention, but will, 
of course, be best appreciated by those who have an ac- 
quaintance with the Irish language. Of the contributions 
in English, Father O'CarroH's essay on the Ossianic 
poems, the essay on " The Teaching of Irish," and Miss 
Tynan's verses entitled "Resurgam," will all be read with 
pleasure and profit We cannot omit calling special atten- 
tion to the fact that Mr. David Comyn has been 
chosen editor of the Journal ; and in conclusion we heartily 
join in the hope that gentleman expresses that the enter- 
prise on which he and his colleagues of the Gaehc Union 
have so bravely embarked, will not be allowed to fail for 
want of adequate support from the Irish public. 

The "Weekly Freeman and Irish Agriculturist." 

The appearance of the new venture of the Gaelic Union, 
entitled the Gaelic Journal, ought, if properly supported, 
to form an epoch in the history of the modern literature. 
The names of the writers are a guarantee of good work, 
and the quality of the articles contained in the first num- 
ber of the journal corresponds to the reputation of the 
writers in the field of Celtic learning and literature. The 
first article by Mr. Flemmg, a veteran Irish scholar, on 
the Gaelic in the 19th Century is written in very classical 

Irish, and contains a very interesting discussion of the sub- 
ject as well as of All Hallow E'en observances. The Rev. 
James O'Carroll, well known both as a general linguist, 
and especially as a Celtic scholar, contributes a monologue 
in Iri^h blank verse, with a translation both elegant and 
smooth. The writer, known as "An Chraobhin Aobhinn," 
contributes a short poem on the new venture, and a longer 
one on the death of the late Archbishop of Tuam ; while 
Canon U. J. Bourke hasthe two first chapters of his Irish 
life of the same dignitary in a revised form. This is au 
entirely different work from the English life. A poem on 
the Iiish revival, by " Leath Chiunn," and a very interest- 
ing letter, by O'Neill Russell, on the present state of the 
Irish and other languages in the United States of Ame- 
rica, complete the list of contributions in the Irish lan- 
guage. In addition, we have reviews or criticism in Welsh 
from the periodical " Vr Haul," and a very friendly notice 
in Scotch Gaelic. Among the articles in English is the 
first of a series on the Ossianic Poems, by the Rev. James 
O'Carroll, a subject formerly so warmly debated by lite- 
rary men, and which the writer bandies with the sure 
grasp of thorough knowledge. The article on the teach- 
ing of Irish, which is anonymous, contains some very 
home truths, to which consideration is seldom directed. 
The poem entitled " Resurgam " has already appeared 
elsewhere, and it is the only portion of the journal not 
quite novel. The remarks of the editor on the contents of 
the journal, and those of Mr. Fleming on the article in the 
London Times, contain much information not genei'slly in 
the possession of the mass of our people, and therefore 
the fresher and more interesting to all those who have any 
concern for them. The arlicles quoted from the Times and 
Jersey Obsen'er tend to show, if nothing else, at least the 
amount of ignorance of the English press of Irish subjects. 
The reports of the Gaelic Union, which conclude the 
paper, show the practical efP.rts of that society in the 
cause of modem Celtic literature. We think that, every 
Irishman who cares for the language of his country, whe- 
ther he is fortunate enough to understand it or not, 
should lend a hand in support of the effort now being made 
in such a spirited and disinterested manner to revive that 
veneraljle tongue still spoken by nearly a million of our 
people, and the purest and best representative of tlie pri- 
mitive Indo-European language of these countries — a lan- 
guage beautiful in itself, and ende.rred to us by its asso. 

We welcome the first appearance of the Gaelic Journa 
with our warmest thanks to the Irish scholars who have 
brought it forth with such bright promise of a long and 
prosperous life. In its pure green cover it looks hand- 
some and happy, as though it were confident of a length- 
ened existence. We earnestly hope that its career will be 
the fulfilment of its auspicious advent. The type in which 
its truly Irish ideas are arrayed is clear cut and beautiful. 
The articles are lucidly written in the best and purest 
Gaelic, and easily read by students of the language. There 
are also some English compositions in the page>. A sweet 
pathetic poem by Miss Tynan is admirably suited for the 
initial number. The editor's words express our own con- 
clusion after glancing through the pages of this patriotic 
venture of Irish literature : " It will be strange, indeed, 
if this journal should be allowed to languish and die." 


'•Evening Telegraph." 
The Gaelic J««vm/ published by the Gaelic Union is 
a credit to that body, 1 lie j.mrna! is well prin:ed nn -ood 
paper, the quality of the arti-!- l-.'i: v. '-'" -'^ 'i" mi, is higli, and toall ji.i'i >■ ,.,-,. 

lover of literature, exceeiim of 

the introiuctoivartirle, l.y ,v . 

I'-i^'i r-'^--'' •■;:-':i:' ■:- 

Union, opinions of the press, and reports of meetings of 
the Gaelic Union. We 
of m.itter in the Irish 
in this number s .m_wliat 
about eight . . : ' 


otice that the propoiiion 
angnage and character is 

increased, as it occupies 

'■- :-!■■. • : M.c , le.ides the 
^ ! ■ ivoniaii 

ly.e , 


gancc. we iiurriurc coi\iiallv recomnieii 
7i>;»«<r/tothe favourable notice of our cou 
every creed and party. Its .advent has been w- 
our Highland and \Vel,,h brethren, and si. all 
that I, id, men would neglect their own ? The v 
evidently enthusiastic in the cause oftlieancien 
of Erin, but it i, an enthusiasm tenijjcred bv i 
ledge and wise discretion. 

" United Ireland." 
We h.ave a hearty welcome for the Gaelic Journal, 
which is presently about to see the light. It is a reproach 
to us that we are so long without a Journal printed in the 
Irish language or deioted to its propagation. There is a 
Gaelic Journal in Paris, and none in Dublin ! Just as 
there are saranH in I'aris and I eipzig who are G.aelic 
enthusiasts, while there are do.i, in Tr u tv Col e^e who 
scarcely give it a looting on " \'.'ales°nearly 

all the local papers are |. , We can 

s arcely hope to see a simil,,; , , ,„ our day. 

Yet It IS wonlei-ful what V ,,,;- of such 

soceiics as tlie promutei-s of the new Jujrual can ac- 

"Weekly Freeman." 

We have before us the fourth number of the Gaelic 

Jonrnnl, and wecanhoneMly .ay t: a: it keep, up the 

high standa.d which has all al u,,' di eiiuui.hcd it both in 

outward appearance ai.d th ■ oi i ,, o:,,,|i,y of its 

contents. It opens with a c..;,' en - i li ,. articles l>v 

T O'Neill Rus,el on the pr. ni -Lc ■, f tlie' Iridr and 
other langu.ages in the United Staler. We commend hi, 
on the injury to the learning of the language by 
on dialectical variations to our Irish-.speaking 
len b ) h in Ameiicaand at home. His account 
.' '-' ÌICU language of the Ameiicanised 

u , .1, ,ioes also the tenacity of the 
1 'I la' 11- own tongue. The fourth 




■.,',. ■ '• - - !;:- :ii.niuthe 

■ .- wiiii tl.u- numerous hs and want of 

i. We would .advise the editor to ce.ase 

! type, as he has such a lieaut ful Iri-,h type 

il. Ihe num.crconiains the letter of Marshal 

• ■ '' " ' ' I'-li' I- Nolo, -.;i t:,r s,i,|ect of his Irish 

' ■■■'- ^■" !•■ ■' ■ ■■ : V r. • i:ic Gaelic Union 

: ■'■■ ■' ■■■■ '' ■■' I' '■■■'■ ■ 1 a ■ ::. ' ^ : ae greater Ireland 

;:-);:■' yl"' --;' 'i:'.;a ,;-,.(,,,,., ,_, ^eep aUvetheold 

I e.iic language and its pr.actical way of directing these 

ellorts, and we thnik that every Irishman who has any 

regard for the old tongue should do something to assist 

the Union in canving oi,t its pat.iotic work. We are 

sorry to see bv n- i ■.,,ii ihut it is struggling with 

pecimiarydilhLi ■ ml of sufficient appreciation 

of Its efior.ts. 1: ,i ,, a „ „,_, duubt that its persevering 

and disinterested ,aOuui uiil successfully free it from these 

difficulties. When was there any good cause that had 

not difficulties to contend with in its inception? 

"The Month." 
Ga 7 I^e, " The Gaelic Journal." Nos. 

December, 1S82. Dublin : J. 

T' , in its two main dialects, the 

Gai 1 I I 1 I 1 IK may claim to rank as one of the 
most anc 1 nt of Iniig languages. From the beginning 
of this centuiy the Gaelic has been dying (nit more or less 
lapidly, bith in Ireland and in the Scotdsh High- 
lands Ti e Gaelic Union has foi some years past 
set Itself to le-cue from final extinction Ireland's native 
language. The success of its efioits k sufiicientb' attested 
by the contents of the two first numbers of the Gaelic 
Jo nnal The (.oniiibution, aie paitly Gaelic and partly 
English— the latter ingredient, however, is intended to be 
a vanishing quantity. We have read with special interest 
Ml. J. F eming's eaine-t appeal to his fellow-countrymen 
in behalf of 'h- 1 m'n- t 1 "up Mr. O'Neill Russell 
deals with the 1 t 1 , ,, of the Gaelic in that 

"laiger Iielaii I 1,. rt of the great Trans- 

atlantic Rpi 1' 1 1 I I u .ag.rinst the slovenly 

Pnn 1 " - 1 ' I , , 111 iin Uaehc publications will, 

«em ' 1 nded to. The closing glories of 

Binij [ lul re gn aie presented ill dramatic 

'/rm ' i ill O'Canoll, S J., whose English 

' ' 1 i r itms gives promise of 

1 I their true origin ; while 

ihe opening chapters of 
I of Tuam. Besides these 
n i, slioit poems de circoiistance in 
I Elegv and the Lament for the 
' tin ilestrve special mention. The 
tvonuiib 1, call, for no special 

:- " aiibci the Day of Ju.ig nent 

' I airke contributes the seventh 

' i"P-MaeHale. A contributor 

^ - - ",-, ' sends some lyrical lines of 

wel.omc lo tiie journal from Waterfoid. The rest of the 
jouinal IS occupied with the editor's remarks, with 
correspondence, the general annual report of the Gaelic 


.■, tha 

the supjior 

DoLLARD, Printer, Dame-street, Dublin, 



jt^ The Editor begs to apologize to the subscribers and readers 
of The Gaelic Journal for the unreasonable delay in the issue of this, 
the seventh number, and for his failure to redeem his repeated pro- 
mises to issue each number at least within the month for which it is 
nominally dated, and which, up to the present, he has not been able 
to do. 

The unsatisfactory state of his health for some time past, and 
which he regrets to say shows little improvement, has been the chief 
cause of these delays, so disappointing to careful readers and enthusiastic 
students. His absence from home, owing to the necessity of seeking 
change, has also interfered with the preparation of this number ; and 
his continued weakness will, he fears, necessitate the termination of his 
connection with the Journal. 

He hopes, however, on his return, to be able to arrange in some 
way to avail of the assistance of several kind friends who have offered 
to take up the heavy part of his work, and thus enable the Journal to 
appear regularly in due time, and relieve his mind of anxiety concerning 
its future. — Editor G. J. 

Oxford, \itii June, 1883. 

inisiev\bv\ii iK\ 5..\e-oiL5e. 



No. 7.— Vol. I.] 

DUBLIN, MAY, 1883. 

[Price Sixpence. 

<\n "oibmceAC ó émitin. 

le UoiTiAi- Cdmbeul. 

■dljl Tl-A ACllU JA-Ò Ó'll b-pHlOlil-CAJA]! 1 

SAC]"'beuntÄ 50 J-^&^'^^S 1 in-bliAuAin Á]\ 
fAoi]ii-e, 1816. Le SeÁj^n Ua CoiteÁm. 

OilicneAc no "OibqiceAC GiiieAiin : 
•di]! n-A Aici'C]n'obA-ó ó leAbAji a cá A15 
SeÁJAii pLéiimon. 

["Oo CAiiA-ó le Saoi iia)-aI a cuijieA'ó ai)\ 
iotiA]\bA-ó Ó n-A ri]\ niircAi]' in]" An j-coiii- 
5LuA]-Acc A-obwl t)0 cmn 1 iii-bLiÄ-ÓAin 1798.] 

ÜÁniic cum nACAOiTDO -oibiiiceAC ó éi]\inn, 
bí lion]\<.\-ô nẃ ]'péi)\e ai|i a eu-OAC bA cÁiji;* 
1]' p5i'o]'nu\]\ -oo cAoineẃ-ó a ii]\ ']• é 'n AonA]\, 
'SAn oiüce fAOì bléin-cnoic nA i-jéiiroe-j" 

5An 1-5ÁC : 
"Oo bi A fúiL Ajn)- nicmn 50 c]\iiinn ai]\ An 

"Oo cugA-ó yio)' An Lac -óó Aip Inj-ib nA 

m~.\]\ A 5-CAnA-ù i'e le -oiojnAip a cuoiue ye^l 

All -DIleACC ]'in, 

" DuAiTÍ) AjuiTnémeleAC, <x éine 50 b|\Ác !" 
"If cnuAJ 1 1110 ciiif," Aj; c\n fgunnlinj bocc 

"5<^" I'tijcAfno yAOi]-eA-ó Ó péin no ó jÁ-ó; 

* A/íà-r. A t)lAoi yUlic ó'n ]yéì]\ &'y a euv&i ó'ii &\\. 
t tlo, i-péi]\e. 

11í'b Á)iiif iTio cmiiüAij 1 -o-cinuccMb ah 

c-f AOJAil yo, 
■piAW-iDoic a'p -pAobcoin ji-ó ]:éiT)i]\ ieo pÁ jŵit ; 
îlí }:eic|:eAt)-pA coi-óce aii coilL cbúcAip, 


HIa)! a iTi-bi-óeAt) mo finj-in aj pío]i-cleACüAt) 

Hi cmnpeAO biÁc nÁ niín-pjoc ai]\ mo CAom- 

c]\uic x>'i. jbeuf At) 
'S ni buAilpeA-o a ceii-OA ai]\ éijiinn 50 b]iÁc ! 
" O ! éi)ie 1110 'Óúiccé ! cm m'lbAC a']- cni 

1]' púJAC iiiipe Am' neulAib aj peucAin tjo 

CHÁ5A ! 
-<.\i]i liuipjAilc 'j-Aii tiuicce yo, iy úy plim 

gAn i'úil ]Ae ■oul 'o'éi'Liom mo jaoIca 50 b]\Ác: 
A cineAiiiuin TionA ciiuaiu ! An b-puijcA-o 

cuAip-obeAj, UAi]i éigin, 
"Oo'ii ci|\ yv) All c-puAi]\ci]-, jAn buAi-ojieA-o, 

JAll bAOJAb ■OAlll, 

Oc ! 1110 boiiiATD tuAin ! ni tuAij-jyeA'o mo 
lllo cÁi|iüe, üÁi-D c]\AocèA no a' jeilleAu -o'Á 


CÁ b-pinb ■oo]\ii]- m'Ájuii]" bi lÁiiii jiif An 5- 

COlll jÍAIf ? 

A cÁi|\üe 'y A liiumon An -oic ]iib é aiji lA)! ? 
An mACAiji cug pÁi]\c Ajnp 511Á-Ó ■ÓAm aiti' 

Ho bpÁCAiiimo c)iorôe 'pcij ip-oiLi'e 'nA cÁc ; 
ÜÁ An c-AnAiii ]"o 1110 tineobAn lebpor, guipc 



CvX b-i:uil Anoi]- All foj pn bim -óóij Imne 

-o'ỳÁJAil f eŵt. ? 
Oc ! ]-ilini mile ueonA jac ló iiia]\ ah 

i,Aii AoibneA]', z^Aii -ooccA)' le i-ójcA]- 50 

b,uxr ! 
Ü>-V]i t;Ac inbe ytinuvineA-ò tj'á iii-bi-óini-]'e 1 

iiT^HÁ-ó lei]', 
pÁjAini All juiúe i'o 'y me ai|\ iiirinii aii bÁi)-, 
Aij éi]\iiiii, ci-ó rÁiiii-]-e Ai]i i'Án luvice, ẃi|\ 


<\i5 iiK\cAi|\ iiiofnini'eAH, 'y A15 cjiic cijic aii 
50 iii-bA-ô jIa]' lAü ■00 iiu\i jeAmiA, a tlíojAin 


50 m-bA-ò nednciiiA]! iA-oT)0]-Aoice, 50 111-bAt) 

lioniiiA]\ -00 flóijce ;* 
50 iii-bATÌ> ŷA-oA beró -oo CAOin-c)\uic 50 ]'íc- 

lillll]' ceoliiiA)!, 
-cV é\\\e 1110 liniiniiín ! A Gipe 50 b|K\c. 

By Rev. John James 0'C,a.rroll, S.J. 


We now conclude our series of articles 
on the Ossianic poetical Romantic Literature, 
but as we close we find we have still some 
words to say on what we regard as the princi- 
pal point we have been able to maintain. 
Thatis.weneed not say,the fact that in refer- 
ence to compositions, as a whole, not merely 
for occasional fine passages, our old Celtic 
Literature can show most striking character- 
istics of its own, and striking characteristics 
for which it may deservedly rank high. 
We do not wish to end these papers with- 
out noticing in some detail how the opposite 
view, the theory of Irish Curiosa Felicitas, 
has been maintained by the English 
writer (Mr. Matthew Arnold), whom we 
have largely quoted, for his admiration of 
Irish literary execution hi detail ; it is only 

* no, 50 ni-baw ỳi-Oi.\ beiẃ ■o'f-iop-òL.imi ag pop- 

fair to recognise his blame as well as his 
commendation ; and we are anxious to 
point out, in a clearer way than we have 
hitherto done, how admirably Dr. Joyce's 
book disposes of Mr. Arnold's unfriendly 

We believe that now, thanks to Dr. 
Joyce's book, it has become possible to 
satisfy the English reader that there really 
exists a fine Irish imaginative literature. 
Before the appearance of the " Old Celtic 
Romances," we believe, of course, that the 
contrary opinion prevailed. There was no 
doubt that Irish literature, in a wide sense, 
was extensive. But not only the Irish 
Archaeological Society, whose very name 
seemed to encourage no expectations of 
beauty in the works it published, but even 
the Ossianic Society, as we have already 
more than hinted, and shall now plainly 
show, bade its readers look to it for historical 
enlightenment, rather than any imaginative 
pleasure. When the latter association 
closed its sadly unappreciated labours, it 
was announced in its last volume that there 
were many " books in preparation," and 
one was advertised as a " ver}' ancient and 
curious tract," containing "many interesting 
details;" and a second as " full of rare infor- 
mation;" and a third as copied from "a 
vellum manuscript of the fifteenth century;" 
and a fourth as trustworthy for " the ac- 
curacy of the text ;" and the fifth as con- 
taining "derivation of the names, local 
traditions, and other remarkable circum- 
stances ; " and the sixth and last as 
"containing a list of the several families of 
the Macnamaras." Not one of them was 
said to have any value beyond that of an 1 
historical curiosity. Dr. Joyce's book has 1 
changed all that. He has shown the 1 
Engljsh-reading world that our Irish litera- 
ture, apart from all questions of antiquity, 
deserves ,on its own merits, as a literature, 
high respect. Not only has he, as we have d 
already pointed out, annihilated the rough 1 
theory of mere Curiosa FcUcitas,hy showing 1 
that Irish works as a whole can bear trans- 
lation, but he has practically refuted the 
peculiar objection of the kindest advocate 
of that theory. When Mr. Matthew Arnold 
pleads in his well-known Cornhill Papers, 



for a Celtic chair at Oxford, and maintains 
that it is from the Celts that Englishmen 
have derived not only "style" but the charm 
and " magic " of their best descriptions of 
Nature ; when he, the man of letters, not of 
history, calls the Stowe Irish manuscripts 
" invaluable," and is indignant at Lord 
Macaulay's having considered them not 
worth purchasing — at the same time he 
denies Irish poetry all realism be}'ond its 
descriptions of nature, and thus explains 
his own definite modification of Macpher- 
son's general theory on Irish poetry. " Celtic 
poetry," he writes, "seems to make up to 
itself for being unable to master the world, 
and give an adequate representation of it, 
by throwing all its force into style." 

One has not to go far to see the more 
salient beauties, as distinguished from the 
linguistic delicacies, of style; one can dis- 
cover them in scraps ; and Mr. Arnold had 
advanced far enough in his Celtic studies 
to perceive them clearly. To judge accur- 
ately of continuous thought requires far 
more attention, and Mr. Arnold had not 
perhaps the proper opportunities to examine 
thoroughly Celtic literarj- composition. Yet 
even Dr. Joyce's book, which has appeared 
since Mr. Arnold's criticisms, is, we are 
satisfied, enough to show that the English 
scholar's unfriendly judgment cannot be 
maintained. Dr. Jo}-ce has indeed given 
up what we look on as some of the best 
proofs of Irish realism of conception ; — the 
development of Kian's worm, the second 
marriage of Grainne, the confronting of 
Oisin and St. Patrick. But he has retained 
enough to prove that in our Irish literature, 
the characters of men, the ways of life, were 
carefully^studied ; that even in our Celtic 
magic world, the figures that we see 
enveloped in wonderful adventure, are but 
models imitated with varied skill from the 
men and women of flesh and blood whom the 
author unmistakably saw around him. The 
supremely well-drawn character of Diarmaid, 
an ideal if we will, but an ideal that seems 
to live; themi.xed worldlynatureof Fionn; — 
these andother things which we have studied, 
and again other things which we have not 
touched upon ; the masterly conception of 
the cowardly braggart Conan, who may in 

truth be defined as an ambitious Falstaff; the 
way in which brave )-ouths are received who 
must fight with men for other possessions 
are allowed by maidens in their admiration 
to carry off without resistance the magic 
treasures which they have come to seek; the 
isles ofweeping and of laughter, where all men 
who landed wept and laughed respectively, 
and with regard to which strange behaviour 
the only explanation given is "We cannot 
tell; we only know that zvedid what zve sazv 
the others doing " — these master-strokes, and 
many like them to be found in Dr. Joyce's 
work, supply perfect proof that Celtic 
thought was not obliged to invent another 
world, that it was not "unable to master the 
world " we have, and to give an adequate 
interpretation of it. 

As Dr. Sullivan's great Introductory 
Volume, published with O'Curry's Posthu- 
mous Lectures, put an end to the old 
historical theory of the Celtic purely 
patriarchal social system, so does Dr. 
Joyce's work destroy for ever Mr. Arnold's 
literary theory about Celtic inability to 
interpret and describe our busy world. 

In Dr. Joyce's book there are some 
Ossianic poems besides Tirnanog, and 
their originals have been published by the 
Ossianic Society, though not in those 
volumes which we have been considering. 
In Dr. Joyce's book the peculiar characters 
of St. Patrick and Oisin are not presented 
to the reader. But this does not arise from 
any slowness on Dr. Joyce's part to appre- 
ciate that peculiar Celtic insight and gentle 
satire which quietly exhibits the weak 
points of the heroic. He has published in 
his book, and even himself been the first to 
translate the " Gilla Dacker," which, as he 
says, "is a humorous story of a trick ;" and 
we must say cordially that "as a work of 
imagination " it seems to us no less than to 
the accomplished editor " a marvellous and 
very beautiful creation." Any reader who 
has had the patience to follow us through 
our humble investigations will, we are sure, 
be only too well inclined to turn to Dr. 
Joyce's work, where he will find many other 
Celtic stories — not indeed Ossianic, but all, 
without exception, written in what we have 
called the Irish Manner. We^pause to in- 



vestigate no longer, we refer to Dr. Joyce's 
admirable book. One single point however 
we would call attention to. The reader can 
not have forgotten the wonderful death of 
Diarmaid, and the grand effect produced by 
safety appearing at the time to be almost 
within the doomed man's grasp. We have 
pointed out that this is the great interest 
awakened in Ernani. We would now add 
that this magnificent kind of interest was 
familiar to our Celtic composers. In Dr. 
Joyce's book alone, in tales which are not 
Ossianic, we find something of thispresented 
to us in two different forms. In the tale of 
the Fate of the Children of Turenn, the 
terrible Luga refuses apples that would 
have saved life, like water from Fionn's 
hands ; but unlike Fionn he refuses boldly, 
with all the fixity of hate that we arc 
familiar with in the enemy depicted by 
Victor Hugo. And he has indeed prepared 
the snare for his victim in a manner worthy 
of the cool and desperate calculation 
depicted by the modern French dramatist. 
In the Voyage of Maildun we have wander- 
ings and adventures like those of the 
children of Turenn ; but here, when Maildun 
at last comes upon his enemy, and the 
slayer of his father, whom he has been round 
the world to find in order to wreak vengeance, 
a Christian not a Pagan spirit is unexpec- 
tedly displayed; and hearing his foe say that 
he has laid aside his enmity to Maildun, 
Maildun suddenly buries his hatred too, 
and enters as a friend the home he had 
long desired to make desolate, and with the 
companions of his marvellous expedition 
relates all the wonders God has revealed to 
them in the course of their voyage ; and one 
of them " Diuran Lekerd," took the five 
half-ounces of silver he had cut down from 
the great net at the Silver Pillar, and laid 
it, according to his promise, on the high 
altar of Armagh. 

So true is it that composition had become 
a regular study among the old Irish, that we 
are thus confronted withunmistakablemarks 
of highly developed artistic s)'stem, even 
where Curiosa Felicitas might most of all 
be naturally expected. Even where we are 
not investigating the plan of a piece but its 
details, we find that the bold invention, the 

powerful conception which charms us in one 
place, re-appears in another, in a modified, 
a developed form. In the cases just pointed 
out we see the man who, in a great crisis 
can destroy or save, in one tale shows un- 
dying animosity, in another wavers till it is 
too late, and in a third is moved to 
clemency and forgives. Amongst our 
ancient story-tellers a grand thought was 
not — to use the misplaced metaphor of 
Macaulay — gold that could not be separated 
from its rude ore ; gold that its finder and 
his fellows knew not how to purify and 
polish, and turn into many and varied 
shapes of beauty. On the contrary, the 
grand thought that occurred to one, roused 
the attention and called forth the genius of 
others, to give it an unexpected application, 
to invest it with a new and possibly a 
yet grander form. Well did the old masters 
of the Irish language understand how in 
their own art to give variations to a theme. 
They could deal with a Locus Communis as 
Cicero would have had it dealt with. They 
were real artists, and belonged to a great 

Their school was not indeed that of 
Spenser's Arcadia or his Fairy-land. But 
the great English poet, with all his manner- 
isms, declared that they, " yea truly," had 
■'Art',' and proceeded to pay them the best 
compliment which even he could pay. In 
the middle of his '• View of Ireland," he 
undertook the task of imitating in glowing 
language the Manner of the Irish bards, in 
order to show how supremely well they 
possessed the Art of ennobling an apparently 
ungrateful subject. His authority must 
ever outweigh its misrepresentation by 
Macaulay. There is everything to make it 
greater than Macaulay 's, and even as com- 
plete as the authority of one man can be. 
Of the two illustrious writers, Edmund 
Spenser was the great poet, Edmund 
Spenser was the marvellously calm, yet 
thoroughly critical intellect ; he knew 
Ireland far better than Macaulay, and he 
was, moreover, a far keener foe to Irishmen. 
No authority of one man we believe can 
ever on this point rival his ; and his is to 
this effect, that the Art of the Irish bards 
was no Curiosa Felicitas, but a noble 



Manner of treating their theme, a regular 
Artistic Manner, which he, their great 
brotherpoet, could imitate in another tongue. 
In an incomparably humbler ^va^^ we too 
have given testimony to the truth which 
was before Spenser's eyes, and to which his 
pen bore witness ; we have not deemed, like 
the great poet, that we could write in the 
Bardic Manner, but we have felt that we 
were able to point it out in some relics of a 
grand literature which have not as yet 
entirely passed away. 

[See-Nota,p. 226.] 


It being the province of the Gaelic Jour- 
nal to occupy itself with everything relating 
to the Irish language and literature, it 
would ill become it to neglect that depart- 
ment of antiquities and archeology still 
existing to a certain extent among the mass 
of our people, and well denominated folk- 
lore. By folk-lore is commonly understood 
all those traditions relating to ancient 
observances, customs, prejudices, super- 
stitions, and peculiar notions, retained from 
old times up to the present among the 
peasantry of a country. A considerable 
part of this folk-lore consists of myths, 
thousands of years old, some founded upon 
fact, but all originally handed down as fact. 
These myths are common to the Celtic and 
to the other Indo-European races, and most 
of them, however changed during ages of 
transmission, were in existence even before 
these races separated on their western 
journey from the plains of Central Asia. 
Their very antiquity therefore entitles them 
to our respect. But it is only within the 
last century that folk-lore has attracted the 
serious attention of learned men. Its 
value as an assistant to history and archje- 
ology, by giving clear glimpses of past 
modes of thought, manners, and customs, 
has come slowly to be recognised, and the 
unsophisticated utterings of the old peasant 
woman at the winter's hearth, or of the 
shepherd on the lonely hills, have been 
collected as precious remains of a fast 

disappearing state of societ\'. The ghost 
story, or the fairy legend, or the tale of 
hidden treasure or perilous adventure, which 
was long handed down from father to son 
in remote districts, has been collected, as 
near as possible in the words of the simple 
narrator, and transferred to paper, and 
has become a valuable text to the anti- 
quary, the philologist, and the student of 
social life and human nature. The Germans 
have distinguished themselves in such 
researches, but in their wake have followed 
Russians, Italians, Swedes, and other 
writers, till we have now, by comparing 
what has been collected in each country, 
what may be called a comparative folk- 
lore of the Indo-European peoples. The 
legends in each country correspond wonder- 
fully, yet each people gives its own peculiar 
stamp to its own version. Thus the Irish 
legend of " Hudden and Dudden and 
Donal O'Leary " has its corresponding 
form in Russia, Denmark, and Germany, 
each differing from the others, but the 
ground-work of the story recognisable 
throughout, as being essentially the same. 
Even in Ireland there are variations, as 
exemplified in Lover's " Little Fairly," and 
Griffin's " Owney and Owney na Peak." 
The Brothers Grimm, in Germany, have 
worked at folk-lore in a systematic manner, 
and their collection is therefore doubly 
valuable. Our own Crofton Croker has 
made an attempt in the same direction, and 
has succeeded to a certain extent. But in 
this country the scientific working out of 
this mine as an assistant to anthropology, 
ethnology, and archeology has been but 
imperfectly carried out, or, we should rather 
say, scarcely begun. The reason of this maj' 
be partly traced to ignorance of the Irish 
language on the part of those who attempted 
researches in this direction, together with 
the neglect of connecting Celtic folk-lore 
with that of the other Indo-European races. 
We intend to do something to remedy this 
neglect, be it only an humble effort. We 
have therefore chosen to translate Grimm's 
" ]\Iärchen von Einem, der auszog das 
Fürchten zu lernen," as supplying the 
purest, simplest, and most complete form 
of a legend common to all the Indo-Euro- 



pean races. We have ourselves heard 
portions of a similar story related in West 
Connaught, but never in such a complete 
form as that given by Grimm. The English 
translation spoils the story, by attempting 
to give it in a more complex and orna- 
mental style than the original. We have 
accordingly taken it direct from the German, 
and have been at some pains to imitate the 
conversational style of speech. If any of 
our readers can supply us with a form of 
the story current in any part of Ireland, 
and approaching completeness, he will 
confer a favour on us. In this way, like 
that highly meritorious periodical, " Notes 
and Queries," we might be able to furnish 
our readers at the conclusion of the legend 
with various readings of some of its in- 
cidents. We trust that in the matter of 
Celtic Folk-lore, as in all things connected 
with Irish ethnology and philology, the 
sphere of usefulness of the Gaelic Journal 
will tend to become wider and more com- 
prehensive, thus rendering it more attractive 
to a greater variety of readers of our native 
tongue. The "story of the young man who 
left his home in order to learn to shiver 
with fear " will form what we presume 
will be a fitting beginning to a series of 
legends common to the Celts, Scandi- 
navians, Teutons, Sclavs, Latins, Greeks, 
Persians, and Hindoos ; and extending even 
beyond the confines of the Aryan race. It 
is a good average specimen of a popular 
myth, though there be others showing more 
fancy, humour, or invention. As such we 
decided on its selection. If our correspon- 
dents can furnish us with similar or better 
specimens, either in Irish or any other 
language, we shall be happy to make use of 
them. But if Irish, or indeed almost any 
folk-lore, is to be saved for posterity, no 
time must be lost. Popular traditions are 
rapidly disappearing, swallowed up in the 
vortex of the 19th century life-struggle. 
We shall do our humble part to rescue from 
the whirlpool some precious remnants of 
primeval simplicity, fancy, humour, and 
Celtic fire, but we shall require to be 
assisted in our labours by the contributions 
of local tradition. Apologizing for our 
nvoluntary short-comings, and bespeaking 

our readers' good-will, we now present them 
with Grimm's " Marchen " in its Hiberno- 
Celtic raiment. 

ClAiin ConcobAiii. 

sgeiit All piiüo ciuMt) x.\iiu\c le 
pojUinn cuiotiniijce le \oxz- 


bi feA]\ -ctX) Ó Ann, aju]' if -j-'At) ó bi : tji 
beijic 111AC Aige : bi au iiiac but) ptie aca 
■oeAf-iÁiiiAC, cuigfiotiAc, cin'onA, aju]' cÁinic 

lei]- JAC \wii A •OeAUATJ, ACC bi An T)A1\A 111AC 

t)All Aii\ 5AC 511ÁC Agu)' bi \e ■oiccéille ajui" 
ni ýeu-0]:A-ó )-e \\qx) ai]\ bic a cuiji'm no a -óéA- 
nA-ó. lluAin ■00 connAi]\c ua -OAome é — fiAü 
pn, UA cóiini]i)'AnnA — Agup 50 ni-bei-òeAt) 
pe 'iiA uaLac rpom ò.\\\ a ACAtji, ■oiibnAtiAji 50 

b-];AJAt) A ACAl); ■OOltjl'o]' 111Ó|\ UAlü. IIIa)! 

po, iniAi|i "00 bi 111-Ó Aiji bic le üéAnAÛ 
cuiiceAll UA h-Áice, i]- aiji ah iiiac bu-ò pine 
■00 cuic A cu]i cum cmn. "OÁ n-iAiijipAt) 

A ACAIH Al)\ All lllAC bub \W\Q X)ul 1 U-CCAC- 

CAi)ieAcc, uA iii-beibeAb pe caihaII ni]- ah 
oibce Aju]' "OÁ in-beibeAb ah beAlAc 
UAijneAc, iiiAji bi pe AniAC ó n-A ü-ceAC-pAii, 
Aju]- bi An bócA)\ Ag imceACC le cAoib jieilje, 
■00 bióeA-ó cajIa iiió]i wiji ŵii iiiac po i 5- 
cóiiinuije A beic Aiiunj 'pAii oibce. Aiiii]-iii 
•oéAppA-ó pe len-A ACAip, " bibcAnn pAiccioi- 
opiii -oul An bcAlAij pm." UpÁcnónAibe 
jeniijie Ẃ15 coi]- ua cemeAW, nuAiji -00 
bibeAb pgeulcA uAcbÁpACA, 'pe f" V'-^o' 
cAibbpib Agup pA0i nA ■OAOimb ihaca, a^u]- 
pcAjicA -oe'n cmeul po '5A n-mnpeAcc, no 50 
n-T)éA)\pAiT)íp ■oAoine a bibeAt) aj éi]'ceAcc 
leo, le céile, " cÁiiiipe ŵj cpeACAü le 
pAiccio]- :" Ai)! peA-ó nA cAince po no puibeAb 
All ■OApA 111AC inp An 5-cuAine AJ eipccAcc 
le jAC nib d'a pAib piAü aj i\á-ò. -á^up ni'op 
cÁmic lei]- cuijpin ciA An pÁc a n-xjeAppA-o 

plAt) 50 pAbAt)Ap-pA11 Aip epic le pAICCIO]". 

"CÁiü-peAn 1 g-cóiiiinnje A5 pÁb, cÁ ]'e aj 
cu]\ cpeACA ojijiApp i'on5>xncAC au pot) é, 



Acc ni f-eut)Aiin <\ cmji-in cu\ ah y<\t a 


■c\nni-in üo cÁ]\Ia ^-e lÁ Áijvijce 50 ■o-cÁniic 
All c-ACAi)i Aj-ceAC Aju]- DO lAbAi]! ye lei]- 
An tiiAc yo Agu]' t>úbAi]ic ye lei]', aj jIaowac 
Ai]\ AAinm — "éi]-clioin,cu]-A,inf Aiig-cuAine, 
cÁin-|-e Aj yc^y yU'Sy, mó]\, tAmi^A, piieAbwc, 
Ajii]- i]- micit) 50 "b-yóijleonicÁ cum ]\qx> 
éijm A -oeAiiA-ogo •o-üinl.lj.-eÁ 00 beACA leif. 
Hac b-]:eiceAnti cu ah'iaj' aju]' cjiuatja]' "oo 
■ôeA]\b]iÁCA]\ Ajuf An Ai]\e a bei)ieAnn ]-e no 
5AC Aon yov cniiceAlL nA h-Áice Ajuf An 
nimiue a bfoeA]' My y^\oi jac nit) ü'a 111- 
bi-óeAnn be ■oéAnAu, acc bcAcpA cÁ ah 
feAnbLu)' Aju]' An b]iAic cAillce." T)' 
ý]\eA5Ain An c-ójÁnAc; — "<X acaiji," núbAiiic 
I'e, "buu lii Aic liom yon éijin v' i.-Ó5ltiiiii Ajti]- 
•OA b-yóijleoiiiAinn yox) ai)\ bir -oob' ÁiL lioiii 
l-'ó jbûini le cneACA-ó, ói|i iiac •o-ci.1151111 aoii 
yox) in A ciiiiceAlb yóy." "Oo cuAbAit) ah 
tiiAC biiu ]-ine Ati yjicAjnA üo cuj An niAc 
eile Ai]i A At-Aiji. llinie ]-in l^jne ye 
jÁiiie Agiij' üúb>M)ic ]-e leij- yéui ; — '-Cia ah 
r-AiiiAuAn 1110 ■óeA]\b|\ÁcAi]\ ; ni peA-opAiinnti 
Aon ceo -oeAnAT) -òé coi-óce, acc cAicpmit) 
cii]\ I'UA]- lecoil "Oé." "Oo béig An c-acai]! 
oi'nA Ajnj' -D'yiieAjAiii ye é ;— " -oeiniii-Te 511^ 
111AIC beAC ]rójLuini be ciuornii jAt) acc cá 
eAjbẃ 0)ini job-yóijbeoiiiAit) cu le c|\eACA-ó 
luAc 50 leo]i ACC ni ciiill|:i-ò cu do bcACA 
lei]' conice." 

ÜAiiiAllgeÁH]» 'iiAbeij ]-in cÁinic cleijieAC 
All ce>Mii]3uill cum aii cije aca a)]i cuaijic, 
Aju]- in]- All j-cómjiÁt) A bi eA-OAjinA ]U5ne 
An c-ACAi]\ miniuJAD -ôó "oe'n C]uoblóit), 
Aju]- 50 li-Áqnjce An meuD buAit)eA]icA no 
bi ]-e i'ÁJAil ó'ii niAC niccéille ]-o ; cuille 
eile iiAC ]iAib yioy Aije Aon nin a -ueAnA-o 
no ]\on Ai]i bic •f.-o jluim. " C]ieuD a 
meA]-Ai]\," A núbAi]\c An c-acai]i, " iiuai]\ 
n'ýiA].-]\ui5eA|-né cia An céi)in bAn riiAic lei]- 
Ì-'ójlunn, cé An ].-]ieA5]\A ].-uai]i me? 'OúbAi)\c 
]-e 50 m-b>.\n iiiAic lei]- i'ójluim le 
c]ieACA-6." — "lllunA b-}.-uil acc au nib ]-iii 
UAin," núbAi]ic An cléi]>eAC, " cuiji liom]-A é 
Agu]- múin}.-eAn-]-A An céi]\n]-in no." t)i An 

C-ACA1]! ]-Á]-nA ; núbAi]ic ]-é lei]- ].-éin, "Hi 
].-éiDi]i nAC n-cioc].-An ]-e ai]i AJAin ini]\ é 
•péin Aju]' An cléi]\eAC." Di 50 niAic ; cuj 
An cléi]\eAC lei]- ']-*-^ bAile é, Agu]- ah obAi]\ 
A bi Aije le neAUAt), nA cloij a buAlAn. 
"ÓÁ lÁ no c]u', Ai]i oince An c]\iomAn Iab, no 
mú]-5Ail An cléineAC é aijiuai]! ah riieÁnoin- 
oince, Aju]- núbAi]ic ]-e leij-, " ^tpij, céin 
AmAc in]- All n-ceAiii]jul, aju]- i]- eigiii nuic 
nul ]'UA]-i n-cu]i ua b-eA5lAi]-e aju]- nA 
cloig A buAlAn." "OúbAijic ah cléi]ieAc lei]- 
yém, — "C]\ein nii]'e, Aiiuc, 5U]\ jeÁ]!]! 50 b- 
póijleoiiiAin cu c]ieACAn no néAiiAn iii]- aii 
Á1C A b-].-uili]i A5 nul." X)o leAii aii 
cléi]\eAC A]-ceAC ']-An ceAm]3ul jAti ýio]- é, 
Agu]' no CUA1-Ò ye ]ioime, aju]- no J-ca]- ]-e 
Ai]i nA ]-CAin]\ib lecAOib ^-umneoige. 11uai)i 
n'iom]Doi5 ah yS'Sy 05 ]-o cimceAll lei]- au 
5-CI05 A bAinc no coniiAijic ]-e co]>c nuiiie, 
5leu]-CA, jbaI, 'ua ]-eA]-An in ajato ua ywn- 
neoige. "O' ỳiA].-]iui5 ]-e 50 ceAun : — " Cia 
CÁ Anti]-in ?" ACC ni b-].-uAi]i ]-e Aon i:]ieA5]iA 
Aju]- nio]i con]iui5 An co]\c. nuc\i]i comiAijic 
]-e iiAC b-].-UAi]i ye aoii ý]ieA5)iA, ni'ibAi]ic j-e 
lei]- ; — " Ui Aj iniceAcc A]- ]-m 50 CA]DAin no 
cui]ipeAn-]-A A]- 50 I'giobcAin cu ; 111 yuil 
^iiÁcAine Ai]\ bic ajac Ann]-o 'ysn oince." 
■cAcc n'f-An An cléi]ieAC mA]i bi |-e jau 
co]i A cu]i né, lonno]- 50 5-c]\einpeAn ah 
C-Ó5IÁC 5U]i CAinb]-e a bi Ann. "Oo jlAoin 

All C-Ó5IÁC AIIIAC 50 1l-Á]in All nA]\A UA1]1, 

Aju]- núbAi]\c ]-e a]\í]- ; — " C]ieAn a ca cu aj 
néAnAt) Ann]-o: lAbAt]i,inÁ']-].-eAH cncAj-nACu: 
muuA lAibeo]icÁ cAC]rAin me ]-io]- 11 a ]-cai-ò- 
]iecu" "OubAiiic An cléi]\eAc lei]'].-éin — "llí 
ỳuil A ]\ún CO h-olc a']- cá a leijeAn aiiiac." 
nio]i cui]i i-e co]i né, acc no j-eA]- mA]\ 
beineAt) ye<\y 5eA]\]\CA a]- cloc. 'OúbAi]\c 
All C-Ó5IÁC leif féin : — "DéA]i].-Ain me ah 
C]\eA]- •[-•Ó5]íAn nó Ajuf muuA njlACi-'Ain 
]-e 1-111 ].-euc].-Ait) iTii]-e beAlAc eile lei]-." 
11io]i co]i]iui5 All CAinb]-e iiia]\ f-A0il ]-e]-eAii 
5U]i b'é ]-in A bi Ann. vAnnj-in no tug ]-e 
iA]i]\ACC yAOi Aju]- no ]\U5 i-e ai]i aju)- no 
CAic ]-e ]-io]' nA ]-nAin]\e é. Dun in netc 
]'nAin]\e cloice no cuic ]-e, aju)- u'i.-An ]-e 



<Min|'in 'iiA tiiitJe '|-An j-cuAinne. -dnii)-iti vo 
buAit ẃn c-ójÁnAc iia cloig jati i-iiim a)|i 
bic Aije inf An jniorh a injne ye, c\u]\ ye 
j^Ia]' Aip All ceAinpul, Ajiq' 1)0 cuaitd I'e a 
bAile. CuAm ye ai]i a teAbA Agu]- Ann ]-m i]- 
j^eÁ]!)! n A t)éi j ym 50 n-T)eACAit) ye Ann j-uAin. 
"O'-frAn beAn An cléijii j 'riA |-iii-ó 1 b-iTA-o 'j'An 
oi-óce Aj ]:AnAcc le n-A yeA]\ ceACC a 
bAile, Acc ni ]iAib ^-e aj ceAcc, Ajuf -oo jIac 
iiimi-oei niuM)niAcb-].-ACAi-óp éAjceACC. "Oo 
ciuMt) fi cum An yeoinnA a ]iAib am c-ójÁnAC 
'nA cot)Ia-ó Ann, ajii]- ■00 jIaoitÌ) fi ai^ Ajuf 
■D'yiAfiunj yi vé, An ^iAib ftoi' Aije cÁ iiAib 
All yeA]\ ; 511^ imèij ye ahiac UAicein]' An 
run "^1" * cóiíuM]>. "Hi yuit Aoii po)- 
A5Ani-]'A," ■oúbAi]\r An ye^\\\ 05, " cá b-puiL 
I'e, ACC bi üutne éijin my An cuji aju]- ■[.•oIac 
jeAb Ai)i, 'nAfeAfA-ó in a^ai-ò nA yuineoije ; 
tjo ceii"ci j iiieé, ni b-fUAHA]' ypeAjpA ; 
Ann]-iii -00 f-Aoil me guji jAucMUe a bi Ann, 
no ]\u^ me ai]i aju]' -oo cŵic me ywy nA 
^-OAiune é. üéi-ó AmAC Aju-p ireuc An é a 
CÁ Ann, Ajuf mÁ ye cÁ Ann, beroeA-o AicméAl 
o]\in iTAoi n-A ■oeAnAU." 11io]i ieif An mnAOi 
A beAÌAije vo yit pi AmAC Ajup puAiji 
]"1 Aunpm é ni]' An Áic a]i "oúbAipc An 
C-Ó5IÁC léi A]i CA1C )-e é, "nA tin-óe 'f An 5- 
cuAme 1 b-pem mói]i Ajtif é aj cAomeA-ó 
Ajup Aj cneAt) Aju]' A cof b]\iixe. "O' 
iomc<M]\ I'l A ye-^y A bcvile Ajuf but) 
c|iÁi-óceAn fgeul noi é. lluAip "o'ỳÁg y^ Aip 
A o'AbA é ■o'nncij fi Agup i A5 jub 50 h-Ajro 
50 ■0-CÍ ceAc ACAp An ójÁnAij. "OúbAipc pi 
leii', — "Ûnj "00 iTiAC-'pA mi'-AW mop cpeA^nA 
opm Ajup Aip mo ẃui]ii jin ; vo pug ye ^ìy 
m'peAp fuAp 1 n-cup An ceAmpuilb Ajup •oo 
CAic ]-e pio]- iiA ptJAi-ojie é Ajup 'oo b^ip ye 
A CO]-. 111 Ap pm CÓ5 beAC Ap An ceAC UAinn 
é ; ni p-iu -OAtiAi-ò é." "Oo jbAc jeice mcjp 
An c-ACAip Aip A cloipcm •00, ■oo ]\ic pe 50 
b-peicpeATJ ye ah cléi)ieAc Ajupbi buAi-ó]\eA-ó 
mop Ai]i é peicptn tnp An 5-cumA aju]' tnneAlb 
A bi Aip. ÜU5 ye ■Diob mop ai]\ An mAC p"Aoi 
All pot) A iMJne ]-e, acc but) puA]^AC An 
l'ÁpAt) t)o'n cléijieAC Agu]' n'Á liuuiujin 
pgille An ACAp Aip An mAc. "CiA An 

cmeub nAiiiUAi)' é ]-o" — mibAipc An c-ACAip — 

" A CUip All tJlAbAÌ CACUJAt) OpC A tléAnAt) Aip 

An 5-cóiiiuppAin cneApuA, liieApAiiiAib a bi 
Aj;Ainn ? " "-cVcAip," — tii'ibAipc An niAc, — 
" eipc lioiii ; CÁ mipe I'Aop ai]! iiit) Aip 
bic A cuiiieA]' cu Atii' leir. 'O'-pAii pe Annj-m 
Aiji yew nA 1i-oit)ce iiiAp bei-òeA-ó nume A15 
A pAib t>poc-pmuAineAt> aj t)ub tym ah 
inncinn. TI1 pAib piop ajaiii cia b-é vo bi 
Aim, ni •üéA]inA me le npoc-piin Aip bic é. 
Úug me puAjpA t)ó cpi 1i-uAi]\e aju)- niop 
jLac -pe é ; t)'iA)i]\Ap Aip IẃbAipc no imceAcr. 
Hi -óéAnpAt) pe ceACCA]i aca." "-dec" — 
tiúbAipc An c-ACAip tei)', — " béApp'Aip-pe An 
111Í-Á-Ù opm : imcij; A)- m'AiiiAjic ; ni niAic 
Liom ru t>'petc]-in nio]' mo." " T)éAnp-AT) 
pin, AC Aip,' — T)úbAipc An iiiAC, — " p'An 50 n- 
éipij An lÁ, Ajup Annpm imceocAt) 50 pAj-nA 
AjuppóijleoiiiAT) le ciicACAt), Ajup Ànnpin 
beit)céipt) AjAm AcuillpeAt) mo beACAlei)".'' 
■' pójluim ciA b é Aip bic pot) ■pogAiiAp cu," — 

tìÚbAipC All C-ACAIJl, "if CUniA liom CAT) é. 

So CÚ15 ]iAnnA neuj wijijit» nuic; imcij 
Ai]i p'An An uomAin, Agup nA b-innip 
Ti'AoinneAC cia cu péin, cAt) a]- a t)-cÁinic cu, 
no CIA h-é t)'ACAi]\, oip vo beitieAt) nÁipe 
mop o]im." " "OeAniTAti-pA, ACAip, niAp tiei)i 
cu," — t>úbAi]ic An c-ógÁnAC, — "munAb-fuil 
cu Aj iA]i]iAit) neice Aip bic eile acc pn, 
peutiAit) me pm a t)éAnAü 50 yém." 

ClAnn ConcobAip. 
(le beic Aip leAnAiiiAin.) 

ffiaclic SEnioii îPuîiUcattous. 



Since the issue of the first book of the 
kind, many improvements have naturally 
suggested themselves to the writer and to 
several friends interested in the subject. 

The chief of these availed of in the 
present number are — The cheapness of the 
price ; the more easy and careful gradation ; 
the introduction of Large-hand (as distinct 



from Capital Letters) ; the use o'\ ^medium- 
sized hand ; the employment oi perpendicu- 
lar lines, so as to enable the student to keep 
the words exactly under those of the head 
line, and to give the proper amount of space 
to each word. 

The'dcsign on the cover was presented, on 
the issue of the first Irish copy-book, by 
the distinguished artist, J. F. O'Hea, Esq., 
to Rev. John E. Nolan, who has permitted 
its use. 

The first two lines show the capital 
letters ; lines 3 and 4 the same, consonants 
being dotted, and vowels accented ; the 
next three lines show the letters in simple 
large-iiand. The three following lines are 
devoted to the diphthongs and triphthongs 
{large) ; thus commencing the combination 
of letters. The next line gives the alphabet 
in viediuiii hand ; four lines then follow, 
consisting of simple words of three letters ; 
and the remaining lines give examples of 
longer words, containing diphthongs, triph- 
thongs, dotted and accented letters. In all, 
the book contains 28 head lines and 130 
words. Sentences will be given in No. 2 ; 
in which also small-hand will be introduced. 
No. 3 (more advanced) will follow, if the 
work meets with encouragement. 

It has been suggested that the English of 
each word should be given at the end ; but 
it can be found in the cheap primers recently 
issued, with which students, in any case, will 
have to be provided. They may be had of 
the publisher of this book. 


The first two lines show the capital letters : there are 
three styles for writing .\, two for D, and two f 'r M ; 
line-. 3 and 4, tlie capit.ils, consonants being dotted (for 
aspirati jii) and vowels accenied ; the next three liiie.^ sliow 
the let;er5 ni lar^e-hand ; the lines 8, 9. and 10. show 
diphthongs and triphthongs {large-hand) ; being accented 
where nece>sary : line n shows the alphabet in viedium 
hand. The following are English translations of words 
in each succeeding line: — (12) brood, time, there, high; 
out of; a swelling; death; a cow; crooked; a tnrn. 
(13) a foot ; a hound ; thy ; fist ; a fortress ; yrow ; yet ; 
scarce. (14) a stalk; a goose; butter; a day; with; 
bare; a loop; hnnev : menl ; ijient. ii;i nof : nr ; bad ; 
on me; alio; : ^^.:•.J: iL,- :-:-: s..-r.,, m.;!-. (,6) 
a bush ; a gi. r. ;. : 1 : ; Ale;ge; a 

bird ; a fish ; .. ,., , , :..:,.,; ,.:. (17) a 

cliff; better ; do ;" a maa ; a i^.,p ; .^ai ; ..u^ ; with me. 
(iS) for ; just ; an eye ; blood ; ; mild ; a dunce ; 
flesh. (19) a sound ; and ; a name ; silver; beautiful; 

bread ; hii;h. (20) a woman ; a spit ; a c 

nw ; sppckled ; 

lasting : gentle ; a church. (21) honest : a 1 

i!I ; a I'O ti'in ; 

a blockheail ; red ; adoor. (22) com iil 1 v 

; :i sti ; ling 

wide; generous; a goat; bright. {2U l 

le n; ,> fish 

an island ; an eagle ; a dav ; a -.Iiln ; ni' 

mil g ; .T bng. 

(24) airro'her; V : . . : ■ ' . : • \ : .. 

Jen ; a little 

child. (25) a e. : 

1 sige ; sour 

(26) clear ; bare 

,:ic ; firm ; a 

standing. (2S) opportunily ; nob.e ; wa 

a fire ; under 

er ; humble ; a 

floor ; a door-post. 

Irish Publications. — The Gaelic Union has pub- 
lished the first of its series of " Irish Language Head-line 
Copy-books," prepared by Mr. John Morrin, whose 
scholastic experience will go far as a guarantee of their 
practical usefulness. They are well printed on good 
paper, and are sold at the low price of one penny. No. 
1 contains large and medium hand head-lines, .and a 
peculiarity in them is the introduction of perpendicular 
lines, so as to enable the student to give tlie proper 
amount of space to each word. We would suggest the 
advisabilit)', in the more advanced numbers of the series 
yet to appeal, of furnishuig a good Irish running or 
cuisive hand, a thing at present which foims a great 
desideratum. The Gaelic Union is doing good work for 
our native language. Tlie objection to learning it derived 
from the want of good, easy elementary books no longer 
e.xists, and these copy-books ought to render the practice 
of writing it a pleasure. We tiust that they will obtain 
a rapid sale, and will prove of all the practical use of 
which they are capable. — Freeman^s Journal. 

beái:<\ sedScMti ihichéit, ^uii-o- 


6.\\. 11-A i-gfiobẃt) 'o'úon-oicc iii Jieuilje Lei] 
Ate^X' 1otnii\i\<Mncd, Uileoj 1. t)e buivc, Coinón<jò 
CiLie mói]\e 1 ■o-üUAini. 

An "Oón'uẃ CAibitiit neug. 

1)- jiAt) p)\inneẃc I'o, niÁ cÁ ].-onii Aipwom- 
neAC oi)--i5 eẃi'boij <_\ jLo^caü, u\|1]iaiü fe 
obAi)! liiAic. n. pól. I, Uun. III. I. 

bifó liión All ciuimtiuiJA-ó ■OAonieA-ó a bi 
An lÁ ]-in 1 5-clocA|i lÌlAije IIuauac miAi]t t)o 
coij'peACA-ó SeÁJAU niAc lléiL te beit 'nA 
cAi'pog. Out) h-é An ceuT) peAiti'A-eAgLAife 
A cóijeAü, Ajuf Ẃ ].niAin 01-oeA]' no bi 'iu\ 
Dine in]- An j-cbocAii ]'in a ü' Ájt-ouijeA-ó 50 

CACAOI]! eAI'pOlJ ^ijltj" Al]! A CmUCAt) bAl)\)líll 

eA]-i3oi5 Ai]\ A ceAim, cótiu\]\CA ŵii-o-ceAnnAi]- 
fpio]\At)ÁlcA m A cíji yéiii aju)- in a ýAiitce 


Ilo-o eile, ni jumId ye nonii <mi aiii fin 
jtiÁcAc lei)- n<,\5-ciAnrA,coi)'|\ec\cA-ò e-Aj-poig 
Cŵcoilicij A -oeAiuvt) Ó]- Á]m, Aiji CAj^LwifeAC 
&i]\ bic in einmn, acc o]' lYiol ajju)- yAOi 
l'gÁc. An 01]- -oéAnrẃii 50 ):ollu|\\c é, ó]- 
cóiiuMH An -ooiiuMn, aju]- rAjAiin nA CacoiLi- 

dje A]' bAlle-ACA-CllAt, AJU]' A)- ÁlClb CAJIC 

cimcioll le bueAcnuJAu Aiji ■òeA^jnÁc a 
■oéAncA]i 50 1i-AnAiii, aju)- vaoi ì.-]\ìocóLaiìi 

1 iiieA|'5 nA iiuinici]ie a rÁniic An Ia ]-m óy 
C01Ì1AIH All BAi'poig nuAiü le irÁiLce a c\.\\\ 
lioiriie, Agu]' cóiiiliiACJÁin ŵ ■óéAnA-ò Lei]", t)0 
hi Aniỳm ÁLiimn, liiAifeAc, loniiieAi-oA Ann, 
A yuAin cni|ieA-ó cAinr ajii]- cóiìiiia-ó a 
■oeAnAW Lei]' ai)\ ye<s-ò r]\Ár. 1)' ]'i Cdinlin 
nic -diiiAlgAi-ó A bi mnce. II1 11lACAi)\->.\bA 
A bi nince An La ]'in, no bcAn jiiajaIca yé\u 
— m' 1i-eAt), Acc beAn ]'ocAtp, f-AiTi, j'AOJAtŵc 
1 lÁi\ jnócA-ò An ■ooriiAin, ŵg •oéAnŵ-ó a 
■oócAine üiA -oo giAÁ-óuJA-ó Ajup clAnn T)é 
Aiji rAlẃni A cocuJA-ò Aguf r]\eo]\nJAT) 1 
]'ii je nŵ |"ubÁilceŵt). "Do bí )-i ni Anii]'i]\ a 
li-óige 'nA PnocefCAnc, acc cá ]'i Anoi]' 'ua 
p'on-CACoibceAc ; bi Ain Ann Agiif bí ]-i ]\ó- 
bocc, Anoi]' cÁ i"i ]'Áit>b))\ ajm]" An-c-]'An!)bin. 
níoi\ jIac fi yóy iu]\ye yéìn bjiAC jeAl nA 
iiiAij-oeAn A beijieA]- yv<\y vo "Óia a 111-beACA, 
A j^-co)<p ■^^j;i'l' <'■ n-AnAin. Sé iii-bLiAbnA 1 n- 
üiAig An AiiiA ]'o, injne fi aiìiIato niu\in ■00 
ciitn i'i A1H bnn ó]\t) bAn-niAJAlcA nA " ünó- 
CAine." Oi)\ !]• ]'i 1llÁi]ie CAinlín 11ic -cVtiiAb- 
jAiu A emu An c-ó]\ü nAoiiiCA yui ai]\ bun 1 
111-bliA-ÓAni 183 1. 

ü'ýÁ]- An C-Ó1TO ]-o iiiA)i cjiAnn ^'jiaiìiac, 
copcAC, fiiA)- A1]\ 111Ó-Ó j^o b-yutl a jeujA 
Ajnf A concA I'jAiDCA wiioi)" ruit) An ■ooiiiAii 
iiió|i. In v\iiie]\icA A511]' ni v\]'r|\ALiA, aj;u]- 
Ó éi]i50 50 Inibo nA gnénie. TJiUjAiirc An 
r-6ẃi-po5 1llAc1léil 5U]\ i-nuiAui ]-e An LÁ 
j-m, iiuAin T)o conAi|ic ^-e 1 ^wy beAn ion- 
liiobcA A bi ninre noc V)0 -oeAny-xo yóy 50 
leon iiuMceA]- Ai|\ I'on "Oé Ajnp An üunie. 

t)i luAC5Áii\ n'ió]i 1 iiieA]'5 oiTjeAx) aju]- 
]'colÁi]\cAt) An clocAip An c-]'eAcciiiAni ]-in. 
X)o cu^AtiA]! X)o'n eA]-pû5 to cûiìia]ẃa a 

vjup A 5-CAHCO 

;CA A TAirbeAnAt) 

unHAit) bói]\x) ueAncA ne AipgeAXj jeŵl, aju)- 
pqiibnin ceApcAip aj ■oeAi\bA-ò a nieAjXA Aip, 
AT^U]' A j-coiiiAome no. 1 m-bliAtiAm 1823, 

pUA1)\ AH pÁpA put]' VII., bÁp, AJll]- peAÌ 

'nA TJeij pin Á]roin5eA-ò pÁpA miA-ó ■o'Án 
cujAt) Ainiii teo XII., 50 cacaoih llAonii 
peA-0Ai]\. bu-ó b-é An cjiioiiiA-o pÁpA a bí 1 
5-cilb peA-OAi]i le linn beACA SeÁJAm 1Ì1ic 
héil — pe pni pnip VI., a bí 'nA pÁpA ó 
bLiA-ÓAin 1774 50 1800 no m ja)! nó, ajii]" 
pnip VII. ó biiAWAni iSoo, 50 1111 nA Lúj- 
nÁ]'A 1823, Ajup Anoip Leo XII. a iìiai]\ j^o 
■o-cí 111Í nA b-pAoilleAü 1829. 

lUuMH A C15 pÁpŵ Ai]i bic 50 nuA-ò le 
|nnt)e 1 j-cacaoih peAxiAin, ij' jnÁcẃc tei)' 
lÁnlójA A b]\oiinŵt) Aip CjuopcAitiib An 
DüiiiAni liióip A5 popgtAt) lonrinnp nA b-G-Aj- 
Iẃipe ve yé\y An C|ieiT)irii CacoiIicij. 1]" 
^nÁCAC All mx) ceuünA -oo ■óéAnAu, ai]! có- 
tyom 5AC leAC-céiT) bbAt)Aiii, Ajup ceAc- 
)\AifiA-céit) bliAt)Am. Acz Anoip "oo cajiIa 
iiAC ]iAib ioJA Aip bic A15 Cjn'opcAitiib An 
üo)iu\ni le leic-céi-o bliAt)Ain. "Oo bi' Aii 
üoniAn 111 ón Ag C|ioiT3 Agup Aj coiiib)\c\c le 
céile, Agiip ni' jiAib mónAn pi'occÁnA Ann, 
Agup An bliAüAni 'nA ■oétj pin ni' iiAib yc 
nió|\An niop peÁ]i]\ : níon b'péiT)i)\ lei)- An 
b-PÁpA msy pm -oé loniiiup nA li-e-AjlAii'e a 

popjAllc CO pATJA aY bí nA CpíopCATOCe pAOI 




ip p 

(1808) cnipeAü Pni]' VII. ApreAc 1 j-cAjicAp 
Le li-ójrouJA-ó Inipipe nA ].''pAincc, IIa- 
)jüleon I. 

-dec Anoip bi jAc cí]\ 'ysn ■ootiuvn pAoi 
pi'occÁm, ŵju]- -o'popgAil An pÁpA le neApc 
A cÁ Aije, inA]\ peApionAiü lllte "Oé, aiìiaiI 
c]>ciT)i'ó nA CACoilicije, loiiiiiii]- -i-^dioiiauaIua 
lìA li-eAj;lAtpe ■00 clAnin An imnie — ni 182ö, 
T50 linininp nA llóniie, — 1826 'oo C)\íoiTAit)iV) 
An •00111 Ain liióip. 

Cat) é An 111-0 An I05A ? CATiceAgAi-gAnn 
DiA-ÓAipi-óe iiA h-CA5lAi]-e CACoilici5e w'Á 
CAOib ? All iiiAiceAt) iiA b-]DeẃcAt) é? Ilí 
h-eAt). v\n ceAt) peACiXt) •oo'òéAndü é ? Hi 

ll-CAt). -(All lA]'5AtlA Aip piAlUnp pCACAIÓ é? 


Ill h-eoit). Cat) é ah ]iot3 mA\\ pn é Ì Ca 
iiiAiceAiiiiiA]' iiA peine Aim]'i]ie a ■olijceA]» 
t)o'n jDeACATD CAjy é^y a cÁin poj\uit)e a beic 
iiiAicce. CAicpt) -oume i ■o-cuf ]:Aoifi'oin a 
■òéAnAt), AjUf b)\ón nión a beic ai)\ yÁ jaeA- 
CAt) A ■óéAiiA-ò — CAicp-ó ^'e tiiAireAiiin Af 
■o'ýÁJAiL Agit]" CA]\ éif A.n mew I'ln CA5ATI11 
An " boJA " — no iionm -oe liiAC-fAOCAin 
Cuioi'c, nA iiiAij-ome llUnne a^u]- nA nAorii 
M]\ ■(.'AT), le i'Ái'i.iJA'ó A CAbAi)ic i:eÁ|\]v Ay 
bÁ)>]\, Ai|\ ^-on nA peine Ainipijie a bi piAc- 
CAtiAC T)' ýubAng my An c-pAojAÌ yo, no in]- 
All u-fAoJAl eile 1 b-i3ii]i5A-oói]\. Sm é aii 
logA — A511]- Le till All liiibile — bjionnrAH 
All lÁn-lojA po ■00 C)\io]XAi-òib All ■ooiiiAin 
tiiói)i. ■poi'gAbcA)! loniinii]' ppiO)lAt)ÁtCA nA 
li-GAjl-Aipe — Agup bponncAp cue pÁi]- Agiip 
bÁp Cpi'opc An pAi-ób)ieAp nop ]-iDiopA-oÁLcA 
po Aip nA ■OAOinib a cá pAoi cú|\Am CAglAij-e 

1]- ]'e 1"0 All loJA 1Ì1Ó]1 A CllgATJ 1 IH-bLlA-ÓAlll 
1826 111 JAC eA]']D05ACC AJtlj-ni I^AC pAHÁi]-t)e 

111 éi|iiiiii. 

■O'pOl-JAlb All C-eA-l'pOJ A11 loJA lllÓ]l ]-0 111 

A pApÁii"oe pém, AJll]- CAP el)- cuigipti'iiiicig 
ye 50 pAjiAii'Tie eile, aju]- iiia]! yo, ó pApÁipüe 
50 )jA]u\i)"oe ■o'lnicij ]-e cajic cpé pAipce 

Cltle-AlAlb Agll]- llA pAJAIjlC Aip }.\\T) 111 A0111- 

peAcc tei]'. üo bit)eAt)A)\ iiiA]! ]-o ó éijije ha 
5]iéine 50 mil 1 lui-óe bi, aj éi)-ceAcc pAoi]-- 
Tjiiie — A5 peAniiiópiiJAt) tio nA üAoinib. 
-iXjuj' 1 iiieA]-^ HA ii-GAjlAii-eAc a bi Ann, 
bi All poinn I]- mo-oe ii]\lAb]iA-ó A15 An eAj-pog; 
bi pe pelt) 1 j-coiiininje lei]- aii c]ieit)eAtii a 
poill]-iu JATD A51.1]' A liiinni JAü uo'tt jjobul. 

nuAi]\ üo bi ]-e ■out CA]ic iiiA]i ]-o, ■00 cÁ]iIa 
A011 lÁ AiiiÁiii 50 ]iAib pe c]iÁèiiónA lAe 

]'AlÌipA1'Ò A5 él]"CeACC pA01]'T)11le 111 lA]\]Ut]', 

Agii)- All cnÁcnónA ceiiuiiAbi ]-e Aii-ci.ii]\i'eAc. 
"Oo co]-ui5 ]'e Ag éi]i5e — niiAi]i, iiio)\ liiocuig 
]-e 50 ]iii5 peAji 1110)1, iiiei]'neAiiiAil lÁi-oi]i ai]i 
— A511]- 111 511c Á]TO jIaoi-ó ]-e A111AC, " x.\ 
Ci5eA]inA eA]-]3oi5, a]- ]-o ni ]iacaiù cu no 50 
n-éi]xpit) cu 111' pAoi]'i-oin-]-e. UÁ me Annpo 
A5 piii]\eAc Ai]i peAb c]ii lÁ, A5 •out a bAile 
Agup A5 ceAcc nAoi no -oeic mile jac ai]'- 

■oeA]!, Ajii]' me Am cpo]-5A-o ai]1 peAO ah 
A111A : iii C15 I10111 pAnACC nio]- pAitie." Cia 
An AOip peAp A bi Ann, no, cia An co]'aiìiIacc 
x>e ■óunie é a ■o'éi]ii5 iiia]i po, Ajtip a yv^ 50 
■OAinjeAn ai]i An eA]-]D05 ? ye-xy ]'iiii]Dlibe 
cuAice 111 Aoi]' 1 •o-cimcioll Tieic a']' c|ii piciti 
bliA-óAin, I'CAnj, c]iÁit)ce, 5A11 b]iÓ5, jAn 
bAipeut), gAn ]'cocA, jAn coca, aj niipibe 
■Oe, Aj éi]xeAcc le n-A bpiACAi]i, ajii]- aj 
peiceAb Ai]\ A AnAtii a f-lÁnuJAt), A5pui]\eAc, 
iiiA]i An peA]i A •Q-CAOib An cobAi)i-iii]'5e 110c 
■00 j-lÁnuij An üi5eA]inA — no 50 ■o-ciocpAib 
A iiAiii le pAoi]-i-oiii pÁJAil. <\nn]'in -onbAipc 
All r-eAi')305 lei]' — " Uaji a mÁ)iAC — 1 Iácai)i 
cÁ A lÁn ■DAOine Annpo cÁ]\c cinicioll, aj^u]" 
ni péit3i]\ eij'ceAcc a CAbAijic -ouic." " Oc ! 
A Úi5eA]\nA e-A]-]D0i5" A]ip An peA]\, " i]- 
cum A lioiii, t)Á m-beibeAti) aii ■ooh'iaii 111 on aj 
éi]'ceAcc liom. 1 m-bAile ni ]iACAni) me 110 50 
b-puijeAü me mAiceAiiitiA]' — Agu]- coyp 1110 
üijeApnA — -oi)! CÁ me Am' cpo]'5A-ó ó liiAi-om 

A11-t)Ul, AJlip Aip peAb IIA C]1ÁCA A CUAIU CA]\C. 

IIIÁ céi-óiiii 1 m-bAile beib ]'Liia5 ■oAOineAb 
eile Aiiii]-o A mÁ]u\c. <.\noi]-, iiii]di511ii o]\c, 111 
Ainm "Oe', aju]' 111 onói]i 1o]-a: é\yr I10111." 

"O' éi]-c All c-eA]']D05 A pAoi]-i-oiii, cuj ]'e 
itiAiceAiiiiiA)' no — Agu]" co]i)3 Á]i Ü-Ü1 jeApiiA ; 
— Aju]' CA]i éip]-eAlA, cuAib All peAjile luAc- 
jÁi]! Ajup IÁ11 Tie 511Á-Ó X)é 1 111-bAile. 

Sill ceA]'béAnA'ó ai]i An ceA]'j]iÁt) a bi in)- 
All Am ]'in 1 iiieA]"5 11A n-'OAOineAu le Ini aii 
niójt-loJA 1 m-bliAuAin 1S26. 

1)- Ó beul All e-Ai-]3oi5 SeÁJAin lilic lléil, 
■oe cuaIaiü An cé a ]'5]iiobA]'iiA b]\iACA|iA]'o 
An pjeul A CÁ A11111-0 iniii]'ce. 

1p mA]i po vo bi I'e Ag obAip Aip peAb tiA 
iii-bliAt)Ain ]'iii. 

1n]- An iii-bliAbAiii ccuüiia bi roJA 1 5- 
contiAe lilAi jeo, ai]1 ]f.'eAp-pei)"e. Oi cniiiAcc 
1 lAiiiAib An D]\iinAi j, CACA]i-tiA-mApc, ai]i 
peAb ■oeic aju]' pice bliA-ÒAin. i\noi]', 
]'AOileAT)A]\ nA •OAOine ju]! ü'piACAib ai]i jac 

peAp AI5 A ]lAlb pAOp-jUC lAt) A CU]1 AHIAC. 

-Ace CÁ b-puil A11 peAp lonAiiiAil le cu]i 111 
A n-Áic? Sin A11 ceij'c? tli'l peA]i pumcAC, 

pOJlAlllCA Ag tlA CAC0lllC15lb; AgU]- üÁ 


ni-bei-oeoku )róin, ni leigp-óe é A15 aii aiii ]'in 
A]-ceACT)0 ccAc IT A pei]-e. 111ah I'ni vé, ni'l 

TDe jlOJA ACA ACC All UljeAjlUA blllgllAlll A 

cun AixeAc. 1]- Aiji An r|\Ác )-o, iio rÁinic 

eA]')D05 Ó5 CtLle-AlAlTi), niA]l jiAOlWeATi) A1]1, 

Aju]' pijiie com|\Ái-óce puibLi-oe leij' iia 

T)ẃoinib in AJAi-ònAtn-'b)uìtiAc: buAileAW iat). 

"Oo bi All bbiAWAin ceut)nc\ i^o (1826) 'iia 

bLiAt)Ain beAiiiiAcrAij A15 tiA ■oAoinib o'n 

C0]1A-Ó 1Ìl10]lAbAlrAC tlO CUIH "OlA Al]l AH 
■DOlilAn. O Cll)- All r-l-Alil)\A1-D, 50 T3-C1 A 

neijie, bi zeA]- iiió)i A^uy aiiii]'ih Aii-bneÁj 
Ann. A^]\ yeA-ò pee bLiAüAui 'nA 'óéi 5 pn, 
bi nA •OAome niAcÁnuA aj c]1ácc m\\ An 
iii-bbuvOAin Aoibinn a bi aca ; ni-bliAWAni ah 
loJA, Ajuf ritj;A-OA]\ iiiolüA vo "ÓlA mA|\ 
jeAÌl uin]ie. 

"Oo cojnuj An c-eAj-poj 05 a cii)\ mó)!- 
cillepuAf m ónoin "Oé 1 -o-cAoib nA 111iiAi-óe 
1 111-beulÁcA-An-ŷeÁ-ÓA 1 m-bliA-ÓAin 1829. 
"Oo bi' A j-Aic oibpe ai]\ yeAX) ]'eAlA Aije ni]- An 
ceAniiDul món yo a t)'Á]\-oin j ye vo 5lói|\ An 

1]' mp An iii-btiAt)Ain ]'o 'oo ]'AO]u\t) nA 
CACOilicije o'n -OAoiij-Acr in a ik\bAT3A)i ai]i 
peATD nA g-OAncA. 

but) olc An bliATJAin 1830, Agiip cÁinic 
jAncAnAp mop le n-A lin. "Oo bi nAuAome 
jTAOi ocpuf wjuf CAitL II1 jne An c-eAfpoj 
A ■òicciott le ciiToeAX) t,eo ; cuAit) I'e 50 
SACfAinn Aju]- ciiin ye nnpiwe aiji pin'otii- 
ýeAiAAib nA ripe cinueA-o Ic üAOinib boccA 
nA li-éineAnn a bi A5 |.-iilAn5 jojica aju)- 
jAncAnAi]' c]\nAiu. üii5At)A)\ UiajaIcoiimw 
nA ri'iie Ann]-in cLtiAp bo-ÓA|i -oó. <\cc piiAiii 
ye conjnAiii ó nA ■ocAJ-'OAoinib. 

<.\n UnioiiiAt) CAibit)il ueiii;. 
" v\n Konii, 1110 ■ói'ncce, cacaii\ iii'AnAtiiA." 

ÜA)\ éi]- An iiieun a bi in a ciìiìiacc a 
■ùéAnAü tjo iiA -OAoinib a bi yAOi n-A pciui]i, 
TiocÁmtc An-tiiJAlAiii An GAj-poglTl AcÌléil a 
bcALAC A biiAiLeA-o 50 Cacai)! nA Koniie, le 

aiAljlC A CAbAlJlC Al)l IIAI5 llAOllil PeAt)Al]l 

Agii]- poll ; le AiiiA]ic i'ÁJAiL Ai]i An Caj- 
Iai]' ip bneÁsA Ajup ip lonjAncAije inp 
All -ooiiiAn ; A5UP 'nA ceAnn pm, le itjipAni 
A rAij-beAnAu "oo'n pÁpA a bi aii r-Aiii pin 
11 A piifóe Aip CArAoip pcAuAip, bl^'S^'l' 
XVI. (ah pe-weiij) -OA pug ah c-eA]-po5 
111v\c iléil póiiio]" AjU]- iiieAp CO inó|i iiia]i 
cóiiiA)\bA An celt) pÁpA Ajiip 111 Ap peApionAit) 
Ay SlÁnuijceopA Aip ah caIaiìi. "Oo bi 

pAliipAt) nA bllATJllA 183 I AJ^ll)- All jojir A bi 

le n-A liii Aiioip CApr. ÜÁiiiic Ann]"i]i An po j- 
liiAip, Ajup m AoinpeAcc lei]- cÁinic copAt» 
ceutiAc Ẃ15 HA t)Aoinib. bi pocÁCAit) I'lpA, 
ciuJA mópA A15 nAboccAib, AjibAji, cpnicneAc 
Ajup coi|\ce lioniiiA]! Á]3iini)e, A15 jac peAp- 
peiliiie, Agu)- pAoii-CAliiuMi ; — n' eiilmj An 
c-ociuip <s^uy All jAncAiiAi-, — Ajiip t)' 1111C15 
An ininiüe a bi aiji iia t)Aoiiiib Ajnp ai]i a 5- 

"PeicceAji iiiA)! pm t)é, 50 pAib aii üijeApnA 
Ga]')D05 pAop le iiiiceAcc Ap bAile, aju]" 
Ai)'tieA]i A t)éAnAt) Aip pen I'oJA, no ]'ócaiìi- 
Iacca. Leip An nuAn a bi Aim a iiirinn a 
cii|\ in 51110111, t)0 cpiAll pe Ó éi]\tnn, Ajnp 
t)0 cÁmic 50 Lonjüon, "Oo bi i^e inp An 

g-CACAip tilljl]! pill Aljl All OCClilAT) lÁ t)e lili 
liieATJOin All pÓjlÌlAip Ag AlilApC Al)! An 5- 

copóin 'jA cup Ai)! ceAnn An y^■^ tiilliAiii An 
ceACAip. \\y Lonjüoii vo JAb pe ŵplije 50 
pÁi]iip nA 'PpAince. -wgu)' ^yiy eile, but) 
ponnjiAC An niti, gup cÁpUnj pe a ceAcc Ann, 
50 tiipcAC All lÁ ceut)nA tio cuaIaüap Aip aii 
ruicini Aju]- leup-plAt) t)o pmneAt) Aip 
CACAip 11a)i)vmìi. "Oo pijne pe jpinn-bpeAC- 
nu JAt) Aip pobul coicceAnn nA "PiiAince — a 
bi cpÁc pAoi luAcjÁip, — pAoi cpom-b]ión 
r|\Ác eile — a n-incmn Aip luApcÁn it)i]i jÁi)!- 
■oeACA]- Aj^u]' jeup-bpón; peAl Aip mipe le 
jÁip — ]-eAl eile Aip lAije le buAiupoAt) 
Ajup bpipeAt) cpoi-óe. "OúbAipc pe guji 
t)AOine iiieipeACA, riieAniiinACA, nióp-ppiopA- 
üaitiIa, iiieApAiiilA, ill eij-ne Alii Ia — nA ITpAn- 

I]- Aii-iiiAic tio üAicin bAile-iiio)! pÁipip 
leip ; 'ye ah cACAip ij- bjieAJA 'j-aii eopoip 

é. bl lOllgllAt) Aip, AJ AtilApC Aip HA piOg- 



L<MitiAib ■A5'J)- Ai)i iiA ceAÌLAib inó]iA, 
eÁ-óon cill Notre Dni/ie, aju)' <.\n " lIUvj- 
■OAÍén," Aju]' riA ceAÍtA eile p'o]i-AOibne a 
CÁ CO iottouaI Ann. "Oo connAi]\c \-e An 


b-irint jiijce aju]' aito-uacua- 

jiAm nAP)\Anicc cuuca, — CillnAOiiii tJonACA. 

Inj- An Aiii ]-in, 1 tii-btiA-OAin 1831, ni 
)iAbAr)A)\ nA I'liAitje niAp cÁiü 1 1,ácai]i; có 
-ùi)ieAc Agu^' CO yAuA, Agu]" ni' ]iAib n jce nA 
iii-bnuAC-bAilce gleuycA le ^'lincib iiiAH 
rÁix) Anoi]', Acc le cuije. O pÁi^ii]' ti'micij 
]-e lei]- 50 1i-<\it.'ve]\]ie, A511)' c]iA]-nA nA 
]-Léibce 50 bAile Je^iebA: -00 bi nA li-Ánt)- 
cnoic, nA h-Ailp liiojiA m a beAtbAC. "Oo 
rHiALL \e c]iAi"nA nA i'Léibce a d' ájtouij a 
í^-cmn ]-uA]- m\- nA i-)3eu]\Aib — i'léibce a rÁ 
M\\ yeAt) iiA bltAWnA 50 l,éi]i ]:aoi j-neACCA, 
Aju]' iTAoi l,eAC-oit)i\e, A ni-bÁi]\]i jcaI, -oeAl- 
]iAC,]ieoi'òceie ccAnn ^-ioca Ajuj^tnAnyuACCA. 

Cah nA cnocAtb ajii]" nA I'leibcib — ym é 
Ag r>ul A]-ceAc 50 bAiLe llliLAn, bAile 
nAonii -dmbiioi)-, bAiLe in a]\' bAij'üeAt) 
IIaoẃ -Âjui]'cín, bAile ni a b-yuiL An Cill 
iiió]\ 1]- meA]-AiiilA 'fAn Go]\ói)3. A\- iniLŵn, 
■00 cniAÌl^'e lei]- 50 pAbiA, aju)' bológnA, 
50 pe)-ole, Agu]- SiennA; aju]- -çi. •óeii\e, 1 
mi' nA SAiimA, yeuc é li'oncA le liiAcjAni 
c)ioi-óe Agu]- ujijÁiiTOeA]- aj loiib AjxeAC 50 
CACAi]! iiiói)\ nAllóiiiie. 

nuAip A cijeA]- feA]! Ó5 1 111-bAile ó 

Al]-OeAl\ yAÜA 1 ■O-Cl'n COI5CIIÍC 50 CI5 A ACA]!, 

b]>eAcnuijeAnn ]'e cahc ai]\ jac ni-ò -o'Á 
b-|.-eiceAnn ]-e ; AiiiAjicAnn ^-e ai)1 nA cijcib, 

A5UI' Aip nA 50HCAlb, Al)! nA bóCA]U\lb AJUl- 

nA beAÌAijib a rÁ 'nA cniiciolL; céi-óeAnn 
j-e ]-UA]- Ai]ibÁ]\|\ nA 5-cnoc, ẃgii]' p'neAnn 
fe A AiiiAjic AniAc A1H An ci'n, ó'n Áic ai)ia 
b-puil ]-e 'nAfeAj-A-ò 50 bun nA ]-péii\e m]\ 
JAC A1|\T) t)e c]annne An ■ooiíiAni. 1p iik\i\ 
]-o iiijne An c-eAi'poj lllAclleil Aip ccacc 
50 CACAin nA llóniie; -oo b]ieAcniii5 pe 
A-|-ceAc Aip jAC 05, Ai]i jAc nume, aii\ jac 
Á1C, Ai]! jAC ceAniiDul A bí Ann ó Ami]'!]! 
Á)\pAi-ó, no ceAiiijDul nuA-ó; m\\ jac cnoc no 
Ajro-beAnn, ai]i An z\]\ ai]i pAti. 

Lá Ain n-AiiiÁ]\ACCAH éi)- reAcc -oó, cuAib 

)'e f UA]- Aip tinilLAC cnoic pAÌACin, An Áic m 
A]\' cóigeA-ò puiotii-pp nA llóiiiie, Ixoniulu]' 
Ajup lléniu]'. "O'aiìiahc ]"e &\\\ An meun a 
bí óp A cóiiiAin ; ní li-é AniÁm ].-aoi n-A 
fúiiib Acc pAoi leu]\5up A mcinne Ajup a 
n'leAnniAn. "Oo pcjiiob ]-e nA pinuAince a 
cÁinic óp A cóniAi]\ An c-Am út), A5 
nieAiii)\U5At) Ai]i An llóiiii a bi pínre pAOi. 

'0'éi]\i5 óp A cóiiiAi)! An c-Aiii, nuAi); ■00 
bí, -oe ]iéi|i pgeutcA Inicr ]'cÁi]ie, TloiTiulu)- 
Agup lléinu]- Ann, ntiAqi t)o bí a inACAiji 
KlieA SibbiA m -cMbAin-ỳAüA Agup a ^-eAn- 
ACAi]> numicop 'nA jíij óp cionn ciiaca aju)- 
niunicine nA h-AlbAn, nuAin -oo bí An 
CACAi]\ Ái\]-A \-m inA]\ bAin-cijeAjíiiA ó]- 
cionn 'oeic 111-bAile piceAt) eibe 1 ■o-ci'p 
LACium. Di ó]- A cóiiiAi]\ An caoi, nu\n 'oein 
An ]'eAn-'p5eiib, -oo róigeA-ò iia leAiibA 
Ó5A, Ajup mA]; ■00 cuiiieA-ó a iiiÁcÁi]i cum 
bÁip, Ajuf inA|i -00 ]-eolA-ó ia-o }'éni 1 5- 
cliAbÁn iiiAp tÌlAoip, Ai]\ uifje nA b-AbAnn 
>.\|mó, Agup An CAOi ■00 f nÁtii An jteup pin 
50 pocAi]i Ai]\ bÁ]\)\ An c-i-pocA no 50 -o- 
cÁniic ]-e AjxeAC ai]i bnn nA üíb]ie, aju]- 
guji cuAit) A 5-cbiAbÁn 50 CAol-iiomn nA h- 
AbAnn pA0i cnoc pAlACÍn 1 b-yojup uo'n 
Áic 'nA nAib An c-eA]-]D05 'nA peA]%\-ó ; 
LeAjA-ü nA leAnbA ai|i au caIaiìi ci]uni, Ajup 
cÁmic nuvoA-ó aLIüa bAniionn aj^u]- cug yi 
cíoc -òóib. Sm é An fjeul a mnii-CAp pili-ò 
nA Ixóniie. "Oo cóit^ pA]-cubup An c-A0-ÓAiiie 
nA niAljiAij, Agup t)'pÁ)'A-OAn puAp 'nA b- 
peAHAib Ó5A, ci\eunn'iA]\A, cojcA. Puaha-oaji 
]\oinn CAliiiAn te CAoib An cnoic, Ajup 
cln]\eA-OA]\ puAp bAile bcAj. Sm é rúp nA 
Koniie ; no, niAji t>01|i pgeuL eile, bi bAile 
pÁ leir Ai]\ jAC cnoc -oe nA peAcc cnocAib 
leip iiA 5-ciAncA, ACC TDo CU1H Uonuilu]- iaü 
yAOi Aon cuin5i]i-)UA5lA AiiiÁni. 

■peuc A)up op A cóniAin: Konii pAoi n-A 
]Di\iorii-]\ijcib A puAi]\ cútiiACc Ó]' cionn nA 
SAibineAc ajuj- nA peAn-^All a bi nip An 
ri'n pni le mile bliAbAiii jioin'ie pin. ÜÁ 
AgAinn pAoi n-Áji jniilib foy nA li-oibneACA 
mó]iA noc jujneA-OA]; ha jujce — An clAip- 
uip5e -oéAnrA -oe CAii\)\5ibmó]iA, nAC péi-oi)i 


te cihiiAcc tiiiine m]\ hit 1 lAcAiji a leicit) 
■no cii]\ l'i'<-^]". "Oo "bi CArAiji ha lloniie aj; 
nieiiT)ii JA-ôó)" A colli Ai]\^'Aoi'n "Saoii-hiajaiI" 
A rÁinic 1 n-t)étj5 aiiia iia 1xi j ; aj;iij- a]\Í]' 

}-A01 llA 1l-1nipl)\lt) 111Ó]1A. 

ÜAgAnn iieiil ó]' cionn iia UótiiiepAgÁiiCA 
Aiioif, Aji)]' yoUiijceA]! í 50 bjiÁr, no, ^-e i]- 

COIJie A llATi), tAjTA]! I'llA]' All CCO 110 All lleui 

pAjÁnrA fin le lonnjiA-o aii ỳíoi\-j-oliii]' a 
rÁiiiic Ó iieAtii 'iiÁ]\ iiieA]'j; le leii]- ah ■po]i- 

C|\eiT)llil A pCApA-Ò rjllO All nOlilAll 1110)1. 

Anoip éiiiijeAnn GajIai)- Cjiioj-r, noc x>o 
cut)! 111ac "Oé yéiii aii\ bun ; rAjAnn p iiia]! 


Lag tuiAiX) ó'ti ai]to foi]i aj^ 

pjeiceA-ô gAc foilbi-eAc Aip An ■ooiiiAn. Ill 
Ijeit) qii'oc 50 -oeo teif An )ii jeAcc nuA-ô yo. 
ÜÁ qunnne nuAt), ppéip nuAt) aju]- TiotiiAn 
nuA-ò AgAinn Anoip:. •o'eiiUiij ieip peAn- 
•ooiiiAn nA pAjÁncACüA : bei-ò An nuAW- 
)\i jeAcr ]'o Aiji bun 50 bnÁú. 1p i m-bAibe 
iiAlîóiiiie ÜO CUlJl llAOtil peA-oAji, pÌAic nA 
n-Ap)-roL, A CACAOl]! AJU]' A eAj-pojAcc. 

inA]i pin Tie, T)o bi ineA]" ai)i ah llóiiii, 1 
iiieA]-^ iiA C0T)A 1]' 111Ó -oe'n -ooiiiAii Cpioi'C- 
AiiiAit, o'n lÁ pin AiiiAc iiiA]\ ceApclÁ]! llA 
P'op-eAjlAipe. VeiceAim Á)1 ii-eAi'jDoj iia 
rio]\cA Agu]' iiA cmiüeACA ca]ic ciiiicio'Lt ha 
cpumne aj uiìiLuja-ô -ói ; — ah JjieujAC Ajup 
An c-&Ab]iAC ; iinnncip iia cipe tAi-one; luce 
iiA li-lo-QÁile Aju]- UA SpÁme; iiniinnp ha 
PpAiiice Agu]- iiA 5e]iiiiAniA ; cmnJeACA ha 
1i-<A]-iA Aju]- nA 1i-dp]ucA; pi'ol iia li- 
eijieAim, iiA li-\MbAnn, aju]- ha Sacivmhi : — 
liijeACCA 11 A li-Aip-oe 111 oi)\ A5U]'iniAn;ó 
cuAic Ajup Ó -óeA]' : iiiuiiici]\ iia ii-oileÁn ú]i 
111 iXiiiepiCA Aju]- m v\]ThaIia. Sin iatd 
■OAome An •ooiiiAin aj reAcc, iiiAp cÁinic pe 
pern Ap éi]\inn le CAbAjicA]' pio]i-cpeit)iiii 

AJUp le JpÁ-Ó 50 CACAOip peATiAip. 

ÜA]i éip Aippionn A )\Á-ó -òü ó]- cionn 
pui^eAll llAoiiii pcA-OAip Agu]' IIaohìi poll, 
Agup bpeAcnuJAu cApc Aip An eAjlAip 

IOII5AIICAI5 ]'lll, Clll peADAip, OAjlAlp A 

b-puil mnco At)bAp lonj^UAit) üo'n -ooiiiAn, — 
Ay;ui- i'CaI 5eÁ|i]\ a CAiceAiJ ']\\n Konii, puAip 
An c-CAppog lllAClléll UAin cuAipc a 

CAbAijir THA]! 1]- -ouaI, Aip jjiejOl)! XVI. A bi 
'nA pui-óe 'j-Aii Aiii pin 1 g-CACAOip peAuAip. 
"Oo cui]i An pÁ]3A pÁilce itió]i jiouiie, jIac pe 
50 jeAiiAiiiAil é, Aju]' -DO lAbAi]! pelei)' 111 Ap 
■00 bei-ôeA-ò pe 'nA fiuine iiiuinrpeAC Aip a 
jiAib eolu)- iTiAic Aije 1 b-pAt> poitiie pm : oip 
bi piop AijejU)! CAppoj e, a bi niA]i é pém, 
Aj •oéAiiA-ò oibpe "Oé. "Oo bi-oeAuA]! 1 inéin 
Agu]' m inrinii, An-copAiiiAil le céile, aii r- 
GAppoj 11lAc1léil Ajup An pÁpA 5]\e5Ói]i 
XVI. • DnJeAuAii ApAon Á]TO-iiiüinneAc, 
uui5]'ineAc, neAiiieAglAc, lÁn ve óúil rpoiti 
A -òeAnA-ò 50 ineipneAiiiAil ai)\ pon GAjlAij-e 
"Oé. t3i-óeAT)Ap le céile UApAl 1 niéin ; 
Ajup níop liiiAii leo jéilleAT) -oo neAC Aip 
bic pAoi'n njjiéin jau eolup iiiAic t^o 
pAbATDAp 'pAii g-ceAjir. "Do cAicm A 5- 
cóiii]iAt> 111 Ap I'm le céile; Ajup •o'pÁ]- 
CApcAnAppuApit)!]! All beipc — An c-eAj-pog 
Agup An pÁpA. Cpí bliAünA 'nA TDéij pm, 
■00 cAipbeÁn An pÁpA 50 ]iAib CAjicAnAp 
Aije •00 SeÁJAn lllAchéil. 

Iloitii pilleATÍ) A bAile -oo, -oo bi aii c- 
6Appo5 Aip cuAipc A111 eile A15 ah b-pÁiDA. 
"Oo jIac ACAip iiA b-pi]\eim 50 ponniiiAp 
^^5"1' 50 seAUAiiiAil Apip é, Ajup x>o C115 
bponncAiiAip niópA uo; cuIaix) ^ippiiin 
■oéAncATDe ppól Ajup -o'óp ; pÁmne óip 5I- 
eujTA le peon ceA]\c luACiiiAp, d'á njotpceAp 
<\iiieci)x; Ajuj- cpo]' pó-iniiieA]'CA 111 a pAtb 
5]iéini ü'piop-cpoip Á]\ SlÁiiuijceopA. Uijn- 
cATDAp cóiii]\Á-ô le céile 1 LAimn aiji peAi'i 
peAlA Aip éijimn boicc a bi' mp aii aiii ]-in 
Aj éipje ó'n ■DAOH'i'Acc ; Ajup ai]i ah g-cAOi m 
A jiAib UAcrAjiAiii peij-e SAcpAnn Aj'iAppAiù 
cuing Aipgm A cup Aiji An 5-cléip, AJCAbAipC 

CU A]\A]'CAll TJOlb, TIÁ njlACpAlT)!]' é A]' lOniÍlU]' 

nA pigeAcrA. "OiibAijic An c-eA]'po5 iiAc 
leigpiTu'p All cléip iiÁ nA h-eAppoij a Iáiíia 

Aip: "Oo liiol All PÁ]3A A ]-piOpAt), AJUp CUg ]'e 

AbeAiiiiAcr A5U)-beAniiAcc "Oé -oo pAj^AprAib 
A5«i- ■o'eAi-pogAib, Aju]- -00 iiunnci|i ikv li- 
é-ipeAim ^o li-uile. 



-t\n Ceŵr]u\nK\-ó CAibi-oii •oeug. 

" LÁ V'Á. IIaIdA]' <M|l llKMTlin AII1' A011>N]\, 

^n]- AH KO11Ì1 <M]i ó|i-cnoc CévvpAi^- 

Since win leic aj ^'iIcaw üeo]iA, 

lÁii ■oe jniuMiii Ai)\ 11A15 HA nJ-Ae-ôeAt- 

f-eẃn •• 

\\ti SíogAi-óe llómÁiiAc- 11. 2. 
nío]i b' ^-eiuiii lei]- All eA]-)D05 beir nil' ah 

Uoilil JJAll ClK\1|\r A CAbAipC Al]\ UAlj Hi 

llciLl, lA]ilAÜine CogAin, Ajiq'Hí "ÓótiiiiAill 
IajiIa üi'ne CoiiAill, ceAiinAi]\c Ajiq- cacai-ò 
iiA 1i-éi|\eAiiii ìny ait ]-ei]-eATÌ) aoi]' ■oeuj, 
Agiif iii]-An ]-eAcriiiAti aoij- "oev^. ÜÁ yioj- 
Aij jac ■oiitiie in éi)\inii miAi)! -00 j-AjiiiijeA-o 
Ai]! iiA ci\eun-|-eAi\Aib ]:lAiceAẂlA ]-o buAii- 

lilAlCeA]' Al]\ blC A 'ÓéATlA'Ó "o'Á '0-CÌ]\, JU]! 
C11AT)A]1 üo'n UÓllÌl, An ÁIC ■00 fllA^lATlA)! 

ITÁibce, AOi-òeAcc Agit]' uiTDeAn ; acc -oo bi a 
j-ciioi-òce b|ii]'ce. 'J.-iiA]iAt)A]\ bÁ|', Aguf t)o 
cmneA-ò lAT) my An uaij ceuünA 1 5-C1II 
peAT)Ai]i A1)\ bÁ]!]! 1l1onro|\io (]'e ^m, 0)1- 

CllOC) 1 5-CACAl]\ llA Uoiliie, Al]! All g-CllOC 

ceiiTJnA 111 A ciiijieA-o cum bv\i]- yÌAic iiA 
n-<\pfrot Aju]' llAoiii pól yém. 

Co yAOA a'i' ■oo bi All C-e-A]-lD05 111]' All 

UÓ11Ì1 ]ii jne I'e i'eAninóiiiró •oo'n iiiuino)i A15 a 
]UMb eolii]' Ai]i An -o-ceAiigAin SACfbeu]ilA. 
"Oo h-AifüjnjeA-ó nA cóiii]\ÁnDce yo 50 I1- 
loüAileAc, fAoi lÁiiii An ^bbAce "Oi Lucca. 
ÜA bAitft in iA]\ ó'n lîóiiii j'ui-òce ai]1 beui 
n A 1i-AbAnn, aju]' ai]i ah AwbAii pn, joinceAji 
0]-ciA Ai)i, iiiA]i cÁ ]'e Ajitiuijce ai]\ betib (o]-) 
11 A Uibne. "Do CI15 An r-eAi'poj IIIac 1léií 
cuAi]ic Aiji An 111-bAile ]-o, iiiA]i •Qob'Ann 
].-iiAi]\1lÄ0tii inoiiicA, iiiÁcAiiinAOiiii ■djn]xin, 
bÁ]'. nuAi]i -00 bi tiAoiii -Ájuii'cin Ajii]- a 
1Ì1ÁCA1J1 ■out A bAiLe •o'á t)-cÍ)i yém Ajtif x)á 
n-Áic nuccAi]- 111 Ap](icA, cAnjA-OAH ■oo'n 
bŵile ]-o, le -01111 c]\K\ll leo aiji bó]\-o 
lomge : acc bi ye 1 n-'oÁii ■oo IIaoiìi 
HlonicA hÁy w'ỳÁJAiL Annpn "Oo biueA-OAji 
C]u\.cnónA AiiiÁm 'pAn b-yojiiiAn A5 cAinc le 
céile Ai)i "ÓiA Ajiij- Ai]i nA nAoiiiAib : bi aii 
geAlAc lonnjiAc Aii\-ô>.\r Ai]\-^m jil aj piÁiii 

111]' All ]"l3éi]i 50iinii A bi í"UA]' ó]- a 5-cionn. 
X)o bi jAc uile ni-ò ciiiin, ]'Áiii, ]'iAn]'AiiiAib, 
l\i-iiieii-OAC. 11 A jieubcA |'éin, bi-òeAT)A]i ó 
iieAiii A5 bjieAtnuJA-ò ]'io]' ai]a aii CAbAiii, 
Aju]' A5 pbeAt) gAeceA-ó jeAn, jjaá-óiìia]! 
on]iA, Ag CAbAi]\c ciii];^ •ôóib a ]'úile a 
Á]TOii5Aü ]'UA]' Ai]i injeAcc nA jlóijie. Leif 
)-in, x>o cujA-OAii céiiii liión aju]- lénn fUA]- 
]niA]- 111]' nA li-Áicib Á]i'0A 1 nieAj'gnA nAOiii 
111 gloiji : -00 b]\eArmii5eA-0A]\ ojijia, aju]' 
Ai]\ IÌIac "Oé, iiiA]\ -00 b]ieACiiiii5 Haoiìi 
ScejjÁii iUK\i]i but) léi]i vó IIIac "Oé 'nA 
]'eA]'A-ô Ai]\ ■óeA]'-bÁiiii An iAca]! Sio]\iii'ôe. 
"Oo leAn 11A nAoiiii ü'Á 5-cóiii]iÁ'ó ]'eA]iciiiA]i 
Ai]i All njlóinbeAnniiij^cecÁceApuijceATiiAC 
A15 "OiA ■o'Á ýó JAncAijib. X)o bi-óeAT)Ä]i, An 
111 AC Agn]' A liiÁcAiji, lÁn ■o'u]i5Ái]A'oeA]', iiia]\ 
]'o Aj iiieAiiijiu JATÍ) te céibe, ajii]' 111 a n- 
mcinn aj iiiAcriiAT!) ai]1 beACA buAin, 
beAninnjce ha iiAOiii. <\nn]'in ■oúbAi]ic 
llloiiiCA ;^"1llAi]-eA-ó, A line, CAU é An lÍlAIC 
■0Ain-]'A beic Ann]'o nio]' y^ve ; rÁ iii'obAi]i 
■oéAiicA. Da-o b]ieÁj I10111 beic 1 111 eA]'^ iia 
n-AiiAiii beAnnui jce a cá 1 b-].'lAièeA]' "Oé." 
IIaoi lAecei n-ueij ]-iti, ].'iiAt]i]'i bÁ]'; aju]' 

AJ ].'Á5Alb bÁi]' -oi, -oo Clll]\ ]'1 1111]D1-Òe ai]i a 

mAC 5AI1 ueAiiiiiAX) A-òéAiiA-ó i.ii]\)\e, niK\i]i -oo 
bemeA-o ]'e aj coi]\biiir ]-iiA]-1lAoiii-1obAi]ice 
An AJkipinnn. 

11 i Aon iiAi]i AiiiÁm iujne An r-eAi']305 
11lAc1léil rjiÁcc Ai]\ ]'o, óin -00 bi nu\CAi]i 
Aije yéiii, Aju]' T)o bi ^y.i-ó Aije iii]i]ie, aju]' 
iii ]\Aib A111 Ann, -00 coinbiji ]'e An c-ái].-)iioiin, 
nÁ']i •oiibAi]ic ]'e, A5 cit]i iiii]Di-óe aiji "Óia, 
"beAiiiiAcc le h-AiiAni 1110 liiÁcAji ■oiL]-e." 
A^»y iniAi]i ■o'ýill ]'e a bAile ó'ti Uóiiii -oo 
0111)1 ]'e leAC ó]' A cionii, Agii]' in]' aii ójiáit) 
Ai]i ]'on A 1i-AnAiiiA, ciii]i ]'e in iuib -oo'ii cé 
béijeA]' é, b]iiAC]\A llAonii lÍloiiicA 1 -o-cAoib 

A IIIIC, JAll ■OeA]\lllA-0 A ■ÓéAllAt) iiin]\e, iniAiji 

■00 beibeA-o ]'e aj cóiíijiá-ó be "Oia. 

ÜÁ bAile eibe Ann, -o'Á iijlAoi-óceAH 
-álbAnó; cÁ fe ai]i bini ó Aiin]'in ]D]iioiii- 
iiiipi]ieÄ-ó nA Ixóniie, A511]' cÁ ]-e i'inüre ja]! 
•00 bAile eibe a bi Aim ]ioiiiie ]'in, <,\lbA, a 
1 rÁ có ]'eAn leij- iia 5-ciAnrA. TDo jiei]! 



■[■jeulcA Ajii)" I'llniieACCA i]' ó'n b^ile Albŵ 

l'O "00 CAll^A-OA]! <\1)\ •0-CÚ]' IIUIHICIH llA 

Uóiiiie. bu-ù lltimico]!, ]\ì^ -cMbẃii, ye^n- 
ACAiji nA Iaoc llonnilu)- Agiif lleimii', ajuj- 
bi Á]\-o-ceAnnA)' Aije aih iia cArjiACAib cin'-o 
All ci]i ]'in. Ixoiiii bAile Uoitiie eijije ai^i 
iìuiUac ha 5-cnoc, pAÌArín, -Abencin, Agu]- 
All CmiimAl, bi I'eAn-qieAb <\lbAn 'iia n- 
DAOiiiib AcpinniieACA, roiceAiiibA, a;:^!!]" ion- 
tdiiaI 50 inoji, 

)y 111]- All 111-bAile ]-o, <\bbAnó, ituaiji ah 
r-^i]-T)eAi-po5, OilibéAji Ha CeAblAij bÁ]' 
■óÁ bLiŵ-ÓAiii 1 ivoéij i'o ; üÁ ja^a •oo'n Áiü 
buo jnÁCÄC leif iia pÁjjAibib cóiiininje a 
xSéAiiA-ó 50 iiiinicm aiiii-|-i]1 ceA]'A r.o iiiei]\bi-[\ 

(Le heit Ai)i leAiiAtiiAiii.) 




& is the second vowel in the modern, and 
the fourth in the Beith-luis-nion Irish 
alphabet. In all the Grseco-Roman alpha- 
bets it is the fifth letter, except Russian, in 
which it is at present the sixth. In all 
the western European languages it repre- 
sents, when long, the sound of e in t/iere or 
of a in maU', and when short, of e in mei. 
In none, except English, is it pronounced 
as e in meU. The ancient English sound 
corresponded with that of other languages. 
In the original Phoenician alphabet, from 
which the Roman was derived, the //i was 
not a vowel but a guttural breathing, there 
being no true vowels in that alphabet. 
However, the Indo-European peoples who 
adopted that alphabet, with various modifi- 
cations, used certain of the Phoenician 
consonants with the force of vowels. Then 
the Phoenician J-fe became the Greek f, the 
Roman e, &c. In English this letter is 
often quite silent ; in French and Irish, 
sometimes nearly so. However in these 
two languages it in every case constitutes a 
distinct syllable. Its name in the Beith- 

luis-nion alphabet is eA-ÓA-ò, which signifies 
an aspen, and the pronunciation of which 
word gives the sound of the letter, corres- 
ponding to the open sound of the a in/are. 
This is not the sound of a in inate or of ay 
in ùaj, nor of / in the French parlé, or the 
Italian detto. On the contrary, it approaches 
to that of the French open or grave sound 
of <?. The short Irish sound exactly corres- 
ponds with the long one, both being open, 
and in this the orthography and pronuncia- 
tion of the language are thoroughly 
consistent. There is no consistency in the 
long and short sounds of the English 
e, for the vowel sound in the short word 
tent is not the short sound of that in vie, 
but rather of the a in the word bare ; such 
words as 'where, there, ere, form of course 
exceptions. Strictly speaking, the true 
sound of the Irish long e is intermediate 
between the English e in where and the a 
m brake, or between the French grave and 
acute sounds of the vowel, but inclining 
rather to the grave. 

The vowel e has, like other vowels, three 
sounds, a long, a short, and an obscure. 
The first, already described, occurs in such 
words as pé, he ; nié, I ; gé, a goose ; cjie, 
clay, and is distinguished by an acute accent 
written or printed over it when the e is the 
only vowel 
in the di 

of eis, in modern Irish, never heard except 
when the vowel forms portion of a 
diphthong, so we shall pass over it for the 
present, till we come to treat of the 
diphthongs. The obscure sound is heard 
at the end of a word when the e is 
unaccented and approaches to that of ti in 
the English word but, but with a tendency 
towards the e in met, pronounced very short. 
It is heard in such words as cinnce, certain ; 
nume, a man ; cuiple, a vein ; tijce or 
leice, stirabout. At the end of words after 
•Ó and 5 this obscure sounding e becomes 
almost, if not altogether, quiescent, as in 
flije, a way ; ceAnnuibe, a merchant ; iia 
CAiblije, of the hag ; riA bAinciicAbAije, of 
the widow ; riA hAijinitie, the sloes. The e 
final in this last situation has always the 
effect of lengthening the vowel before the 
■Ó or 5 preceding it, so that is not necessary 

or printed over it when the e is the 

wel in the syllable, or when it occurs J 

dipthongs éA, éi. The short sound I 

in modern Irish, never heard except I 


to write an accent over it, as is sometimes 
done with such words as I'li'je instead of 

Except in such cases as we have indicated 
above, the vowel e is never found without 
otlier vowels in a syllable in modern Irish. 
But in the ancient Irish manuscripts it is 
frequently so found, where in the modern 
orthography adiphthongoccurs. The stricter 
observance in modern Irish orthography 
of the rule requiring a broad vowel to be 
always joined on to a broad consonant, 
and a slender vowel to a slender consonant, 
known as co,oL le cc\ol wJU]' leACAn le 
IcACAii, so that the same kind of vowel 
should precede and follow each consonant, 
is the cause of the absence of single e's 
from the body of words. The use of the 
diphthongs compounded with e has 
occasioned many disputes among Irish 
grammarians and writers ; Duald MacFirbis 
and Peter O'Connell having frequently 
deviated from the practice of their time, and 
other writers having attempted to intro- 
duce the é instead of the diphthongs éa 
and eu. We think it, however, better 
in every way to conform to the general 
modern practice in this respect. 

The Scotch Gaels reckon four sounds of 
e: 1st, long, as in i, sc, generally marked 
with a grave accent ; 2nd, short, as in le, 
ktli ; 3rd, long, as in ;r, cc, andt\ generally 
marked with an acute accent ; 4th, short 
and obscure, as in duine, ceannuiclitc. In 
Irish the e in the corresponding words shows 
a slight difference of sound, so that it would 
not be wrong to adopt for our language in 
respect to this letter the Scotch classifica- 
tion. Thus the e in the word ẃmjé, 
yesterday, has certainly a slightly more 
acute sound than that in 111 é, especially in 
Ulster. In Kerry there is a tendency 
towards a more open and grave sound of 
this letter. 

In ancient Irish, as in all the Indo- 
European family of languages, e is a 
secondary vowel, the root or original vowels 
being a, i, and ii. As we approach modern 
times the e comes more and more into use, 
and the ii less. In order to complete our 
notice of this vowel, though in anticipation of 
our remarks on the diphthongs, we may call 

attention to an e sound occurring in some of 
these latter equivalent to an English y in 
yam. It is heard in such words as -oeoc, 
a drink ; ai|i yeAb^vi', first-rate ; 130 
liicAiiiAiiA-o, to recollect. But this cannot be 
classed as a separate sound of the vowel 
itself, as in such cases it is merged in the 

In their pronunciation of English, the 
peasantry' of Ireland have not followed so 
much the sound of the e as it exists in their 
own language as that imported into the 
country by the first English settlers ; the 
sole modification being a slight change to 
a simple vowel sound from a diphthongal 
one. Thus the ancient English pronuncia- 
tion of the English word vieat was may-at, 
the a in at being very slightly heard. The 
Irish now pronounce it mate, which is very 
close to its ancient sound. On the other 
hand, they never pronounce ee or ie in this 
way, but always with the modern English 
ee sound. An Irish peasant will never 
pronounce priest, praste, or keep, kipe ; 
though some writers, in their attempts at 
reproducing the brogue, often put such 
words into their mouths. In fact, the Irish 
peasantry in speaking English, though of 
course influenced by the pronunciation of 
their own language, have kept closer to the 
old English enunciation than the English 
themselves. As for the vowel e, they have 
in their own language retained its primi- 
tive Latin sound, common to other Euro- 
pean nations. 

In the Cymric dialects the long e has 
the Irish sound. Spurrell, in his Welsh 
grammar, remarks : " E is a pure vowel 
identical with the French ê : iner, marrow, 
is pronounced like the French iner, sea. 
It has not the diphthongal sound of the 
English long a in mate, which is a 
compound of a in in mare and ee in meet, 
and is pronounced as if written ai or 

In Irish, as far as the quantity of e is 
concerned, it may be generally taken as 
long at the end of monosyllables, and 
obscure at the end of dissyllables and 
polysyllables not compounded of two 
or more words. The acute accent written 
over it in most cases when long has no 



direct effect on the stress or accentuation of 
the syllable, but is a mere sign of quantity. 
The vowel e with its obscure sound is the 
"small increase," as it is termed, which, 
following " attenuation," a term to be after- 
wards explained, distinguishes the genitive 
of the second declension of Irish nouns. 
In this situation it is all but silent. In fact 
e is used in Irish for grammatical reasons 
as well as those of orthoepy, and in this 
respect it and the letters -ó, 5, and {• are the 
only characters the use of which departs to 
any extent from the phoneticism of Irish 
orthography. But when the Irish ortho- 
graphical system, with its equal regard for 
derivation and sound, is once understood, 
and its adaptability to the language is 
considered, its beauty and ingeniousness 
cannot but excite both astonishment and 

1 is the third vowel of the modern, and 
the last vowel and eighteenth letter of the 
Bcith-luis-nion Irish alphabet. I is the 
ninth letter of the alphabets of western 
Europe, and, except in English, represents 
in all of them the vowel sound of the e in 
vie, or of / in machine. The sound heard 
in the words bite, hire, is peculiar to English, 
and is not really a vowel at all, but a 
diphthong compounded of the sounds of a 
in father and e in lue, closely and rapidly 
pronounced. The English short /, as in bit, 
is the short sound corresponding to the long 
one represented by the e in me. In the 
Roman alphabet there was no distinction 
between i and/, the latter being pronounced 
like a y. In like manner there is no J in 
Irish, the 1 serving, as in Latin, for both, 
whether before a vowel or consonant. The 
i of the Greek and Roman alphabets is 
derived from the Phcenician and Hebrew Yôd, 
which was written like a comma, and was 
the smallest of all the letters. Hence the 
terms "iota" and "jot" have become 
synonymous for anything trifling. " Yod " 
meant a hand. The character for i in 
Semitic languages represented a very slight 
guttural breathing, but when transferred to 
the Indo-European it was used as a vowel. 
From that time it never changed its funda- 

mental sound, except in the cases of long 
i in English and of ij in Dutch, in which 
it became diphthongal. The Irish retained 
the Roman sound of the letter. 1 is one of 
the two slender vowels (50c ah a caoIa), and 
is the one generally used for attenuating 
broad diphthongs, that is, changing them 
into slender ones, as far as the following 
consonant is concerned. Like all the other 
vowels, it has a long, a short, and an 
obscure sound. The long sound is the 
same as that of the English long e, as in 
me, free. It is heard in such words as nii'n, 
smooth, fine ; 1, her, it ; ni, not ; ^i, a king ; 
hi, be thou ; the last syllable of beAnnujiu, 
bless ye; bi-óeAniAii, we were. In most 
cases it is distinguished by an acute accent 
written or printed over it. The short sound 
of 1 is that heard in the English words, bit, 
fill, without the dipthongal change made in 
the latter word by many Englishmen. It 
is heard in mm, meal ; itii, butter; if, it is ; 
finn, we; cmn, ill ; cill, a church ; bile, an 
old tree ; cmn, heads ; mcmn, the mind ; 
null, destroy. The obscure sound is heard 
in the final unaccented syllables of words of 
more than one syllable, as in tdiiic]-i, to or 
for yourself. This however seldom 
occurs, e being generally substituted for 1 
in such situations, the obscure sounds of e 
and 1 being the same. In Scotch Gaelic 
several words pronounced with the short 
sound in Irish get the obscure sound, as the 
verb is. 

In addition to the above three sounds, 
long, short, and obscure, there is a diph- 
thongal sound of 1 in certain situations, 
prevalent in the province of Munster, but 
unknown in the rest of Ireland. This 
sound, which is more slender than the 
English i in bite, is compounded of the a in 
mate and the e in me. It is not uniform 
throughout the whole of Munster, nor even 
in all the forms of the words in which it is 
actually used. 

The diphthongal sound above referred to 
prevails in East Munster and the County 
Kilkenny, where the short 1 of the other 
parts of Ireland precedes II and If in root 
words. Dr. O'Donovan gives as examples 
of this sound the 1 in niilfe, sweeter; null, 
spoil ; fill, return ; cill, a church. It may 



be added that the 1 gets the same sound in 
East Munster in 1111, butter, and in words of 
one syllable ending in nn, as nnn, sick ; 
bmn, melodious ; cmn, resolve or surpass ; 
5)nnn, elegant. However the 1 takes its 
analogical short sound in such derivatives 
as iiiilleAT), pllcA-o, and cinneẃü, the 
infinitives of the above imperatives, but 
takes the diphthongal sound in the past 
participles, yillre, nnllce, and cinnce. In 
West Munster, especially in Kerry, where- 
ever, in cases Hke the above, the 1 has the 
diphthongal sound referred to, in the east 
of the province, it takes the sound of í long, 
so that mill, nnn, are pronounced respec- 
tively mill, cinn. There are portions of 
central Munster where both sounds obtain 
in the same words. In different parts of 
the County Clare the practice varies still 
more as the diphthongal, the long, and the 
correct short sound may frequently be 
heard from the same speaker. This diph- 
thongal sound in East Munster is one 
intermediate between i in fine and ay in 
fay. Of course the analogical short sound 
is the one that should be used in such 

The following is the description given by 
Spurrell of the pronunciation of the Welsh 
i. " I has the sound of i in pin and ce in 
meet. I when followed by a, e, 0, 11, or y, in 
the same syllable has the force of English 
y in ya)-n, yet ; as ia, ice / iecliyd, health ; 
lonawr, January ; Iitddew, Jew ; iyrchyn, a 
roebuck. Before w it is less regular, being 
sometimes equal to eiu in neio, at others to 
you ; as nkvl, a mist ; l/iinizLyd, was formed. 
In íë, yes, / forms a separate syllable." / 
being one of the three primitive vowels of 
the Celtic languages, it either remains 
unchanged or changes into a diphthong 
containing itself or into e. On the other 
hand, in old Irish the primitive a is often 
changed into i before 7id, nn, vib, mvi, ng, 
ns. Thus imb, butter, from Sa^nskrlt a7ija7ia, 

1 being the most slender o{ all the vowels, 
is the best adapted for the acute key, as Á is 
for the grave. There seems to be a tend- 
ency in most languages spoken by civilized 
nations to attenuate or make slender the 
vowels. Thus the Anglo-Saxon a has 

changed in many English words into the a in 
fate ; and in modern Greek the number of 
sounds resembling ee in meet has become 
out of proportion to the rest of the vowel 
sounds. This tendency is perceivable in 
the Irish dialect of Ulster, and in the 
Gaelic of the Highlands of Scotland. This 
is probably the reason of the old Irish 
proverb : ÜÁ ceA|ic jau blẃi' A15 ẃn UIIcac, 
" The Ulsterman has the propriety without 
the accent." 

As we have already said uniformity in 
the pronunciation of the 1, as in that of all 
the other vowels, should be aimed at by 
every Irish speaker of any education, and 
for this purpose all diphthongal sounds of 
this letter should be carefully avoided, 
as also the practice of pronouncing it long 
when according to rule it should be short. 
In this, as in most other respects, the dialect 
spoken in Connaught sets the example of 
correctness and regularity. 

CU\nn Concob<Mii. 
{To be continued}) 

le 1. 1. UokCokllAnAm : hujaui 1795 ; ytiAin 
bÁf 1 1829. 

A\\\ n-A cun m Jac-oiIij le "OoiimAl lid 
tompj ; "Oimliii. 

ÜÁ jlAi'-oileAn 5HK\niÍK\i\ 1 loo SújÁin 


HIah a lACAun ẃu Laoi je^l a flije cum 

1 n-"OeA]-iiiúmAin nA n--ooiiinn-5leAnn cÁ 

üeACC AnuA]' 50 -o-ci'n loc ún ó cnoc 50 

cnocÁn ; 
<\nni'út)i:Ái'Ann An ỳumi-eoj; 'fAn c--i-lnicii]\- 

HAC yAnn, 
peucAnn -piof le jjiuAuii UAijneAc ai^ 

luAcjÁip TiA -o-conn : 
'S UA conncA cÁ jléijeAl 50 leqi aj jÁini-óe 
Paoi jnuij" CAicce ỳAnin IA15 au cpAmn 




■gu]- iiA C1101C ■oiibA iiion-n-rimceAll tdá b- 

1.-eic]:eÁ 'iia lAf<M|i, 
llleAfs coiimeAc a']- i-plẃnncAC 50 ceAim 

■oé An Alii b^iAnAin, 
'5iif HA 1i-Aibne le -oiojiuvi' aj nínccA-ó cinii 


111a]\ lAocAib iiA ri]ip 50 ciocnAc cum 


'S ii'gléijeAb 5AC ronn -oiob 'j- 111 aji ó]\ bui-òe 

•00 ÌA]"ATO 

A')' riA yiolAin Ó IÌIaoIac if qieun-iiiAic ■oo 

O cÁb-yutl All bAll TieAi' in glcAnncAib no 

in ÁivoAib, 
111 A]! All oibeÁinín aoiia)! yo -oeAnA-o vo 

bÁjróAib ? 

but) liunic 1110 iiuvn a']- au jjiiAii ywve m]\ 

'gur A5 ÍA]'ATÍ) 50 1i-A0|iAc •oub-ŷ)iAOic cnoc 

A-^ ■out CU5AÜ A bAill -óeif Ó111' C15 coi]- nA 

'S Aj I'mbAb ■oAiii le bÁnt)-ci>oi-óe jac Áic 

■0Í0C -oob' Áiite, 
'S uo cuuiineA]' Aiji -óibiiic Á]i b-}:ileA-ó 'y Aji 


'S IllA]» fUApATDAjl ]'UAllillieA]- At)' CUAl'Alb 

ycAt) cnéitiii'e 
-A5 euluJA-ó bnuit) SACj-on '\- aj ceApAt) 

111eA]'5 5UC ceoil t)0 coiiiai)\, coi]- miill t)0 


<X fÁii-pn iiA n-t)Án bmn iiÁ']i b'-Álumii 1110 

'S me CA]-At) le b-Á]\t)-c)ioiT)e bu]\ lÁn-lAoi-ò 

Y bu)! g-cAomce, 
Cit) A15 liu]' pÁil bi bAijit) 5]iÁt)iiiA]i' t)'Á 

"Oo t)úifi5eAp bu]! 5-clÁi]i]-eAC bi' f Áiii ]-io]- 

'nA COt)lAt) 

'S t)0 liieAfgA]" Ajii']' le ceol binn nA 

All c-Ab)iÁn null)- 5<''S'óil5e bi c|iéic-lA5 
Ai]! vÁn, 

'S üo bAilijeA]' 5AC pgeul bi le pAtiA ai)! 

111ai\ a i-nAiiiAun oh]\a bAij-ceAc ó'n pÁille 

'5"r ceo. 

v\ pie 1]" lúJA, t)Á m-bAt) liomj-A t)0 iieun-p e, 
'guj- ceol-c]roit)et)o clAin^-ije, üob' Ájro í nio 

Lei]" An eujcói]! t)o coAngAil iiiAji ci'i üoiii' 

ci'n iréin me, 
'S t)o b]u\c ceoil Am' liieAbAiuujeAcc iiiaji 

boipsin jeAl 5i>éine, 
Jaii prAonAt) tio iiiAi]iyeA-ò All c-SAOini'e 

'11 A)! t)-ceAnncA 
S t)o cuinyeAt) A 5Ái]i t)o ■ò]unm Á)TO-cnoc 

a'-)- jleAnncA, 
<\'y b'féitìiji 50 lA]"i:At) •òúinn ]ieulüAn ha 

'S 50 pcuAbpAit)e 50 veo UAinn üobiión 

Aju]- t)Aoin]-e. 

-dju]' bei-ueAu-pA pAoi'n m-bÁn mAji nA 

bÁjTOAib út) i-inre, 
-c\cc belt) m'Ainiii puAit) Gi)\eAnn aj ivno]!- 

ýi]\ ü'Á cAoine', 
"S^y ciocpAit) 50 b-uAijneAc ai]i m-UAij 

ueAllAt) lAoice', 
■pilit) c]ioit)e-ceoliiiA)i it)i]\ coiiibjiAC lAe ']' 

<\]' juiTJpt) Ai]\ m'AiiAm " A]\ ii-<.\cAii\" 50 

111a]i a ]-nÁiiiAiin An v\bAinii iDunJe ai]! a 

plije cum UA t)-ronncA 
Ho cuinpit) c'nóm blÁcA ó bÁ.ncAib ha 1i- 

AbAim úv 
Óy cionn cnoi-òe aju]- cIai]ii-i je beiù lÁn- 

lAg i'An ngleAiin út). 

[Note. — The foregoing translation of Callanan's well- 
known poem, " Gougane-B:\rra," by Mr. Daniel Lj-nch, 
has been in our hands for some time, but was held over 
owing to pressure on our space. We have also a pretty 
long letter from Mr. Lynch, which, as it reached us after 
this number had been fully arranged, we are obliged to 
hold over for our next issue, as well as several other con- 
tributions in Irish and English.— Ed. G. 7.] 



By Dr. John O'Donovan. 

(From the Book of Rights : Introd.p. xlviii.^ 

As the seasons of the year are frequently- 
mentioned in this book, it will be well here 
to add a few words on the divisions of the 
year among the ancient Irish. Dr. O'Conor 
has attempted to show, in his Reyiiiii 
Hibt-niicannn Scriptures, Epistola Nuhcil- 
patoria, Ixxi. ct scq., and in the Stowe 
Catalogue, vol. i. p. 32 : — i. That the year 
of the Pagan Irish was luni-solar, consisting, 
like that of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, 
of 365 days and six hours. 2. That it was 
divided by them, as it is at present, into four 
ratlia or quarters, known by the names of 
Samli-ratha, Foghuihar-ratlia, Gciiiih-ratka, 
and lar-ratha, now corruptly Earrach, or 
Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring ; the 
first of these quarters commencing at the 
vernal equinox, the second at the summer 
solstice, the third at the autumnal equinox, 
and the fourth at the winter solstice. 3. 
That at the beginning of each of these ratha 
a religious festival was celebrated, but that 
the periods when they were celebrated were 
changed by the early Christians, to agree 
with the Christian festivals, and to obliterate 
the recollection of the origin of the Pagan 
rites which they were not able utterly to 
abolish. That such a change was made he 
infers from a passage occurring in all the 
old Lives of St. Patrick, which states that 
Patrick lighted the Paschal fire at Slane in 
433, at the same time that King Laeghaire 
was celebrating the festival of Bealltaine at 
Teamhair ; which would be fair enough if 
the fire were called Bealltaine by any of 
Patrick's ancient biographers ; but it is not, 
and therefore Dr. O'Conor's inference wants 
the vis conscqiientií^. In the oldest Life of 
St. Patrick extant, nameh', that by Mocu- 
tenius, preserved in the Book of Armagh, 
the fire lighted by the king of Teamhair, 
and Patrick's Paschal fire, are mentioned 
as follows : 

" Contigit verò in illo anno, idolatriae 
soUempnitatem quam gentiles incantationi- 

bus multis, ct magicis invcntionibus, non- 
nullis aliis idolatriae superstitionibus,congre- 
gatis ctiam regibus, satrapis, ducibus, 
principibus, et optimatibus populi, insuper 
et magis, incantatoribus, auruspicibus, et 
omnis artis omnisque doli inventoribus 
doctoribusquc vocatis ad Loigaireum, velut 
quondam ad Nabcodonossor regem, in 
Temorià, istorum Babylone, exercere con- 
suêrant, eâdem nocte qua Sanctus Patricius 
Pasca, illi illam adorarent exercentque 
festivitatem gentilem. 

" Erat quoque quidam mos apud illos per 
edictum omnibus intimatus ut quicumque 
in cunctis regionibus sive procul, sive juxtà, 
in ilia nocte incendissent ignem, antequam 
in domu regiâ, id est, in palatio Temorice, 
succenderetur, periret anima ejus de populo 

" Sanctus ergo Patricius Sanctum Pasca 
celebrans, incendit divinum ignem valde 
lucidum et benedictum, qui in nocte 
refulgens, a cunctis penè plani campi 
habitantibus vissus est." — Book of Armagh, 
fol. 3, b. 

It is also stated in the Leabhar Breac as 
follows : — 

"üé)c pÁC|u\ib u\]i \m cu "Cqx^-c^ yen 
Peicc. ^-ÓAnrAii ceniró occa ij- in nnit) pn 
yej-coii nA CÁi'c. pengAidien Loegŵine ó-o 
chí ni cenit), Á]\ bA h-ipn jeif Üeni]iAch oc 
goeẃeluib ; ocuf ni lÁriiAü nech cenro 
■o'i.-Acó-ô 1 n-ei)inTo i^- in-o Ion i-m, no cu n- 
AüAiiCA h-i UemiiAij a]i cúf \\- ni ]-oUAiiiAin." 
— Fol. 14, a I. 

" Patrick goes afterwards to Fearta Fear 
Feicc. A fire is kindled by him at that 
place on Easter eve. Laeghaire is enraged 
as he sees the fire, for that was the^t'ẃ 
[prohibition] of Teamhair among the 
Gaedhil ; and no one dared to kindle a 
fire in Ireland on that day until it should 
be first kindled at Teamhair at the solemn- 

Now, however these two passages may 
seem to support Dr. O'Conor's inference, it 
is plain that the fire lighted at Teamhair is 
not called Bealltaine in either of them. It 
should be also added that it is not so called 
in any of the Lives of Patrick. According 
to a vellum MS. in the Library of Trinity 


College, Dublin, H. 3. 17, p. 732, the fire 
from which all the hearths in Ireland was 
supplied was lighted at Tlachtgha [at 
Athboy], in the Munster portion of Meath, 
and not on the first of May, but on the first 
of November ; while, according to Keating, 
the author of the Dinnseanchus and others, 
the fire called Bealltaiue was lighted at 
Uisneach, in the Connacht portion of Meath, 
on the first of May, which for that reason 
is called La Bealltaiue to the present day. 
The probability then is, that the fire lighted 
at Teamhair, on Easter eve, A. D. 433, was 
not the Bealltaiue, but some other fire; and 
it is stated in the second life of St. Patrick, 
published by Colgan, that it was the Feis 
Teamhrach, or Feast of Teamhair, that 
Laeghaire and his satraps were celebrating 
on this occasion ; while the author of the 
Life of St. Patrick in the Book of Lismore, 
asserts that Laegha